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— H 






1. ENGLISH {Third Edttum) 

2. CLASSICAL {Sicifftd Edition) 

- P. II. Dalbiac. 

- T. B. Harbottle. 

3. FRENCH AND ITALIAN {Second (T, B, UsLrhoiWe, 

Edition) (P. H. Dalbiaa 

4. GERMAN Lilian Dalbiac 

5. SPANISH T. B. Harbottle. 




QUOTATIONS - - - - H. Swan. 


AUTHORS E. Latham. 


ALLUSIONS T. B. HarbotUe. 


T. B. Harbottle. 


From the Earliest Date to the Present Time 




High Stkeet, Bloomsbury, W.C. 


TOIL 2-4'^^ 


The sad death of Mr. Harbottle, just as this work was 
going to press, has thrown upon me the onus of correcting 
the proofs and preparing the Index. The necessity for 
hurrying the work through the press has precluded com- 
parison of the references in every instance with the original 
sources from which the Author had taken them ; if there- 
fore some few printer's errors or varieties of spelling may 
stiU remain, they may, I hope, be attributed to the im- 
perfections of one, who had to step suddenly into the 
breach caused by the loss of a valued friend and collabora- 
tor, whose patience in research, depth of knowledge and 
accuracy in compilation, he could never hope to equal. 

October, 1904. 

P. H. Dalbiac. 



Abensberg (Campaign of Wag- 
Fought April 20, 1809, be- 
tween the French and Bavarians 
under Napoleon, about 90,000 
strong, and the Austrians, 80,000 
in number, under the Archduke 
Charles. On the French left, 
Lanne's corps drove back the 
Austrians, after a feeble resist- 
ance. In the centre the. Ba- 
varians were hard pressed, but 
eventually Napoleon succeeded 
in turning the Austrian flank, 
left exposed by the defeat of 
their right, and Charles was 
forced to retreat. The Aus- 
trians lost 7,000, the French 
and Bavarians about 3,000 
Idlied and wounded. 

Aberdeen (Civil War). 

Fought September 13, 1644. 
between the Covenanters, 3.000 
strong, under Lord Burleigh, 
and the Royalists, about 1,500 
strong, under Montrose. The 
Covenanters were put to flight, 
and no quarter being given, 
they lost neavily before reach- 
ing Aberdeen. The Royalist 
losses were insignificant. 

Aboukir (French Invasion of 
Fought Jnly 5, 1799. Napo- 
leon attaclong the position held 
by Mustapha Pasha, who had 
recently landed in Egypt at the 

head of 18,000 Turks. The 
French were completely success- 
ful, two-thirds of the Turkish 
troops being killed or driven 
into the sea, while 6,000. with 
the Pasha, surrendered. 

Aboukir (British Invasion of 
Fought March 8, 1801. when 
5,000 British under Sir Ralph 
Abercromby disembarked on 
the beach at Aboukir, in the face 
of a force of 2,000 French under 
General Friant. The landing 
was effected under a heavy 
musketry and artillery fire, 
which cost the assailants 1,100 
IdHed and wounded, and the 
French were driven fxpm their 
positions with a loss of 500 men. 

See Nile. 

Abu Hamed (Soudan Campaigns). 
Fought August 7, 1897, when 
the Dervish entrenchments out- 
side Abu Hamed were stormed 
by a Soudanese Brigade, with 
2 guns Royal Artillery, under 
Major - General Hunter. The 
Mahdist garrison was driven 
throueh the town, losing heavily, 
and their commander, Moham- 
med Zain, captured. The Egyp- 
tian loss was 80 killed and 
wounded, including 4 British 

Abu Klea (Soudan Campaigns). 
Fought January 17, 1885, 


between a British force, 1.500 
strong, under Sir Herbert Stew- 
art, and 12,000 Mahdists, of 
whom about 5,000 actually 
attacked. The British square 
was broken at one comer, owing 
to the jamming of a Gardner 
gun, and the Mahdists forcing 
their way inside, a desperate 
hand-to-hand conflict followed. 
Eventually the assailants were 
driven off, and the square re- 
formed. The British loss was 
18 officers, among them Colonel 
Fred. Bumaby, and 150 men. 
In the immediate vicinity of 
the square. 1,100 Arab dead 
were counted. 

Abu Kru (Soudan Campaigns). 
Fought January 19, 1885, 
between 1,200 British troops 
under Sir Herbert Stewart, and 
a large force of Mahdists. The 
Mahmsts attacked a short dis- 
tance from the Nile, and the 
British square moved towards 
the river, repelling all assaults 
successfully till they reached 
the Nile. The British losses 
were 121, including Sir Herbert 
Stewart, mortally wounded. 
This action is also known as the 
battle of Gubat. 

Acapulco (Mexican Liberal Ris- 
Fought August 9, 1855, be- 
tween the Mexican Government 
troops under Santa Anna, and 
the Liberals under Juarez. 
Santa Anna was totally routed 
and fled from the country. 

Accra (First Ashanti War). 

Fought 1824, between 10,000 
Ashantis and a force of 1,000 
British under Sir Charles Mc- 
Carthy. The British were sur- 
rounded and routed by the 
natives, McCarthy being killed. 

Accra (First Ashanti War). 

Fought 1825, between 15,000 
Ashantis and 400 British troops, 
with 4,600 native auxiliaries. 
The Ashantis were completely 
defeated, and the king com- 
pelled to abandon his designs 
on Cape Coast Castle. 

Acragas (Second Carthaginian 
Invasion of Sicily). 
This fortress was besieged 
B.C. 406 by the Carthaginians 
under Hannibal, the garrison 
being commanded by Dexippus 
the Spartan. Early in the siege 
a pestilence in the Carthaginian 
camp carried off Hannibal, who 
was succeeded by his cousin, 
Himilco. A relieving army of 
35,000 Syracusans, under Daph- 
naeus fought a pitched battle 
with the Carthaginians under 
the walls of the city, and suc- 
ceeded in seizing and holding 
one of their camps, but shortly 
afterwards dissensions broke out 
in the garrison, and many of the 
foreign mercenaries deserting, 
the citizens, after a siege of 
eight months, left the place en 
masse. The Carthaginians at 
once occupied the fortress. 

Acre (Third Crusade). 

Siege was laid to this city by 
the Christians in August, 1 1 89. 
and it was obstinately defend^ 
by the Saracens for two years, 
during which the Crusaders are 
said to have lost 120,000 men. 
In June, 1191, the besiegers 
were reinforced by an English 
army under Richard Coeur de 
lion, and in the following 
month the garrison surrendered. 


The city remained in the 
hands of the Christians till 
1 29 1, when it was captured by 


the Moslems under Malek al 
Aschraf, Sultan of £gyp^< The 
last stronghold in the Holy 
Land thus passed out of the 
keeping of the Christians. 

Acre (French Inyasion of Egypt). 
The city was besieged March 
17. 1799* by the French under 
Napoleon, and defended by the 
Turks under Djezzar, and a 
email force of British seamen 
under Sir Sidney Smith. An 
assault on the 28th was repulsed 
with loss, and then a threatened 
attack by a Syrian army forced 
Napoleon to withdraw a large 
portion of his troops. On the 
resumption of the siege, no less 
than seven more assaults were 
delivered, while the French 
had to meet eleven sallies of the 
beseiged, but they were unable 
to effect a lodgment, and on 
May 21 Napoleon reluctantly 
raised the siege. The fall of 
Acre would l^ve placed the 
whole of Syria, and possibly of 
the Turkish Empire, in the 
hands of the French. 

Acre (Mehemet Ali's Second 
Mehemet Aii having refused 
to accept the conditions im- 
posed upon him by the Quadri- 
Uteral Alliance, Acre was bom- 
barded, November 3, 1840. by a 
combined British and Turkish 
fleet under Sir R. Stopford, 
and the town laid in ruins. 

Acs (Hungarian Rising). 

Fought July 2. 1849, between 
25,000 Hungarians, under 
Gdrgey, and the Russo-Austrian 
army, greatly superior in num- 
bers, under Prince Windisch- 
gratJE. The allies attacked 
the entrenched camp of the , 
Hnngariaos, oataide Komcnrn, ' 

while the Hungarians made an 
attempt to turn the allied left. 
Both attacks were repulsed, 
and the battle was undecided. 

Actium (Bfark Antony's Second 
Fought September 2, B.C. 31, 
between the fleet of Antony, 
460 galleys, and that of Octa- 
vius, about 250 sail, but much 
lighter and less well manned 
than those of Antony. The 
battle was fiercely contested, 
with varying fortune ; but at a 
critical moment Cleopatra or- 
dered the Egyptian admiral to 
make sail, and with 60 galleys 
withdrew from the fight. She 
was followed by Antonv, and 
his fleet, discouraged by his 
flight, surrendered after ten 
hours' fighting. The Octavians 
captured 300 galleys, and 5,000 
Antonians fell in the action. A 
few days later Antony's land 
army of 120,000 men laid down 
their arms. 

Acultzingo (Franco-Mexican 
Fought April 28, 1862, be- 
tween the French, 7,500 strong, 
under General Lorencez, and 
the main Mexican army, about 
10,000 in number, under Gen- 
eral Zarag09a. The Mexicans 
held a strong position in the 
Cumbres Pass, from which they 
were driven by the French, 
and forced to retire upon La 

Admagetobriga (Gallic Tribal 
Fought B.C. 61 between the 
Sequani under Ariovistus, and 
the Haedui under Eporedorix. 
The Haedui were defeated, with 
the loss of the flower of their 
chivalry, and were compelled 


to give hostages and pay tribute 
to Ariovistus. 

Adnatuca (Gallic Wars). 

Fought B.C. S3, when a Ro- 
man force of 9. coo men under 
Titurius Sabinus was attacked 
in its camps by the Eburones 
under Ambiorix. The assault 
failed, but an offer by Ambiorix 
of a safe passage to the nearest 
Roman station was accepted. 
On the march the Romans were 
treacherously attacked by the 
Eburones and cut to pieces, 
Sabinius being among the slain. 

Adowa (Italian Inyasion of 
Fought March i, 1896, when 
the Italian force under General 
Baratieri attacked the Shoan 
army, strongly posted in a diffi- 
cult country, and was routed 
with enormous loss. 

Adrianople (Bulgarian Rising). 
Fought April 15, 1205, be- 
tween the Imperial troops under 
the Latin Emperor, Baldwin I, 
and the revolted Bulgarians 
under their . chief, Calo-John. 
The Bulgarian cavalry fled, and 
lured the Latin horse in pursuit. 
Then turning upon them, they 
routed them with the loss of their 
leader, the Comte de Blois, and 
in the end the Imperialists were 
completely defeated and the 
Emperor captured. 

Adwalton Moor (Civil War). 

Fought January 30, 1643, 
when the ParUamentarians, 
numbering 4,000, with a levy of 
armed peasants, were defeated 
by 10,000 RoyaUsts under New- 
castle. Fairfax, who com- 
manded the Parliament force, 
•ucceeded in reaching HulL 

The battle is also known as that 
of Atherton Moor. 

^Egina (Third Messenian War). 
Fought B.C. 458, between the 
Athenian fleet, and that of 
^gina, aided by the Pelopon- 
nesian States. The Athenians 
were victorious, capturing 70 
ships, and landing they invested 
JEginsL, which fell into their 
hands after a siege of a little 
less than two years. 

^Egospotami (Peloponnesian 
Fought B.C. 405, between 180 
Athenian triremes, under Conon, 
and 180 Peloponnesian ships un- 
der Lysander. The Athenian fleet 
was lying at iEgospotami, oppo- 
site Lampsacus, where Lysander 
was stationed. For four days 
in succession the Athenian ad- 
miral crossed the straits, and 
endeavoured, but in vain, to 
bring on a general action. On 
the fifth day Lysander waited 
till the Athenians had returned 
to their anchorage, and then, 
making a sudden dash across 
the straits, caught them un- 
prepared, and seized all but 
twenty ships, putting to death 
all the Athenians who were cap- 
tured. This disaster destroyed 
the naval power of Athens, and 
was soon followed by the end of 
the Peloponnesian War. 

JEgassL (First Punic War). . 

Fought March 10, B.C. 241, 
between the Roman fleet of 200 
ouinqueremes under C. Lutatius 
&itulus, and a Carthaginian 
fleet under Hanno despatched 
to relieve the town. The action 
was fought in heavy weather, 
and the Roman sailors, being 
far better trained than their 
opponents, Catulus gained a 


agnal victory, capturing 70 and 
sinking 50 of the enemy's ships. 
The victory ended the First 
Punic War. 

Agedincum (Gallic War). 

Fought B.C. $2, between the 
Romans under Labienus, and 
the Celts under Camalogenus. 
Labienus was endeavouring to 
effect a junction with Caesar, 
which the Celts were opposing, 
and Labienus, crossing the 
Mame in face of their army, 
inflicted upon tHem a severe 
defeat, in which Camalogenus 

AghrimfWars of the Revolution). 
Fought July 12, 1691, be- 
tween William Ill's troops, 
under Ginkel, and the French 
and Irish under St. Ruth. The 
English struggled in vain to 
carry St. Ruth's entrenchments, 
which were protected by a bog, 
but his flank was at last tum^ 
by the cavalry, which found a 
passage through the morass, and 
St. Ruth was killed. The Irish 
then broke and fled, and are 
Si.'^ to have lost between 6,000 
and 7,000 in the pursuit. 

Agincourt (Hundred Years' War) 
Fought October 25, 141 5, be- 
tween the French, numbering 
50,000, under the Constable 
d'Albret, and about 15.000 Eng- 
lish, mostly archers, under 
Henry V. The archers pro- 
tected their front with a palisade 
of stakes, which broke the 
charge of the French men-at- 
arms, and the French army was 
routed with a loss of 10.000 slain, 
including the Constable and the 
Dukes of Alen9on, Brabant and 
Bar, and 15,000 prisoners, in- 
cluding the Duke of Orleans 
and Marshal Boucicaut. The 

English lost only 1,600, among 
whom were the Duke of York 
and the Earl of Oxford. 

Agnadello (War of the League 
of Cambrai). 
Fought May 14, 1 509, between 
30,000 French under Louis XII 
and Marshal Trioulzio, and 
35,000 Venetians under General 
Alviani. The Venetians were 
defeated with a loss of 6,000 
men and 20 guns, Alviani being 
taken, and in consequence of 
his victory. Louis XII occupied 
all the territory assigned to him 
by the League, up to the Mincio. 

Agordat (Soudan Campaigns). 

Fought December 21, 1893, 
between 2,200 Italians, and 
native troops, under General 
Arimondi, and 11,500 Mahdists 
under Ahmed Ali, who had in- 
vaded Italian territory. The 
Mahdists were routed with a loss 
of about 3.000 men. The Ital- 
ians lost 13, and 225 natives 
killed and wounded. 

Agra (Farokshln's Rebellion). 

Fought 17 1 3, between the 
Great Mogul, Jehandar Shah, 
with 70.000 troops, under Zulfl- 
kar Khan, and the rebel Mo- 
guls under Jehandar's nephew, 
Farokshin. After a stubborn 
fight, the rebels overpowered 
the Imperial troops, and Je- 
handar Shah was captured and 
put to death by Farokshin, who 
ascended the throne. 

Agra (Second Mahratta War). 

The fortress was besieged 
October 4, 1803, by the British 
under General Lake, and was 
defended by a garrison of Sind- 
hia's troops, 6,000 strong, who 
held the citadel, while seven 
additional battalions were en- 


camped in the town. The latter 
force was attacked on the loth 
and routed, losing 26 guns» 
while the survivors, 2,6(X> in 
nnmber, surrendered on the 
following day. On the 17 th 
the batteries opened fire on the 
citadel, and on the i8th the 
garrison surrendered 

Agra (Indian Mutiny). 

On August 2, 1857, the British 
garrison holding Agra sallied 
out to attack a body of 10,000 
rebels encamped within four 
miles of the city. The Kotah 
contingent, which formed a 
portion of the British force, 
deserted to the mutineers, and 
the British troops, hard pressed 
and short of ammunition, were 
driven back into Agra, and 
forced to take refuge in the fort. 
In October of the same year 
Colonel Greathed's column of 
four battalions and two cavalry 
regiments encountered close to 
Agra a force of 7,000 mutineers. 
The rebels at first held their 
own, but were eventually put 
to flight, and pursued with great 
slaughter for ten miles. 

Ahmedahad (First Bilahratta 
This strong fortress, garri- 
soned by 8,000 Arabs and 
Scinde Infantry, and 2.000 
Mahrattas, was taken by assault, 
after a short bombardment, by 
a British force under General 
Goddard, February 15, 1780. 
The British lost 106 killed and 
wounded, including 12 officers. 

Ahmed Khel (Second Afghan 
Fought 1880, when a British 
force under General Stewart on 
the march to Ghuzni was at- 
tack^ by about 15,000 Ghil- 

zais. A rush of 3,000 Ghazis 
was successfully repulsed, and 
the enemy defeated and driven 
off, leaving dead on the 
field. The British lost 17 only. 

Ahmednugger (Mogul Invasion 
of the Deccan). 
This place was besieged in 
1599 by the Moguls under 
Mirza Khan, one of Akbar's 
generals, and defended by a 
garrison of Deccanis under 
Chand Bibi, ex-Queen of Bi- 
japur. A practicable breach 
having been effected, the garri- 
son was disposed to Surrender, 
but Chand Bibi. heading the 
defenders, superintended the 
repair of the breach, and suc- 
ceeding in holding out until a 
peace was signed by which the 
Great Mogul agreed to leave 
Ahmednugger unmolested. 

Aiguillon (Hundred Years* War). 
This fortress was besieged by 
the French under John, Duke 
of Normandy, in May, 1347. 
and was defended by a small 
English garrison under Sir 
Wsdter Manny, who held out 
bravely till the end of August, 
repelling numerous assaults. 
The defeat of Cressy then forced 
the Duke of Normandy to lead 
his army northward, and he 
was compelled to raise the siege. 

Aix, He d' (Seven Years' War). 
Fought March 4, 1758, when 
a British squadron of seven sail, 
under Sir Edward Hawke, at- 
tacked a French squadron of 
five ships of the line and six 
frigates, convoying forty trans- 
ports, and drove them ashore 
on the He d'Aix. This delayed 
the French expedition to North 
America, ancl facilitated the 
capture of Cape Breton. 


Aix-la-Chapelle (Wars of the 
French Revolution j. 
Fought March 3, 1795, be- 
tween the French under Miranda 
and the Austrians under the 
Prince of Saxe-Coburg. The 
French were totally defeated, 
and fled in disorder, with a loss 
of 3,500 killed and wounded 
and 1.500 prisoners. 

Aiznadin (Moslem Invasion of 
Fought July 13, 633, between 
45,000 Moslems under Khaled 
and 70,000 Imperial troops 
under Werdan. The Imperial- 
ists were routed with great 
slaughter, leaving Khaled to 
prosecute the siege of Damascus. 
The Moslems only admit a loss 
of 470. 

Aladja Dagh (Russo-Turkish 
Fought 1877, between the 
Russians under General Loris 
MelikofiF. and the Turks under 
Mukhtar Pasha. The Russians 
were victorious, and Mukhtar 
was compelled to take refuge 
under the walls of Erzeroum. 

Alamo, Storming of the (Texan 
On February 22, 1836, General 
Santa Anna, with the advance 
guard of the Mexican army, 
appeared before the walls of 
the Alamo, a fortified mission 
station held by 145 Texans 
under Colonel Travis, who re- 
plied to a summons to surrender 
by a cannon shot. On March i 
the garrison was reinforced by 
30 men, Santa Anna's force at 
this date being 4,000. On the 
6th 2,500 Mexicans assaulted 
the fort, and at the third attempt 
effected an entrance. The 
building was defended room by 

room, the church within the 
enclosure being the last building 
captured, when all the sur- 
vivors were put to the sword. 
The victory cost the Mexicans 
400 killed and many wounded. 
" Remember the Alamo " be- 
came the watchword of the 

Aland (Russo-Swedish Wars). 

Fought July, 17 14, between 
the Russian fleet of 30 ships of 
the line and 180 galleys under 
Admiral Apraxine, and the 
Swedish, about one-third of that 
strength, under Admiral Erin- 
schild. The Swedes sought to 
prevent the landing of a Russian 
force on the island of Aland, 
and fought an unequal combat 
for three hours, when they were 
overpowered and forced to retire. 
The Czar, Peter the Great, who 
was serving under Apraxine as 
Rear-Admiral, captured Erin- 
schild's flagship. 

Alarcos (Moorish Empire in 
Fought July 19, 1 195. be- 
tween the Moors under Yakub 
el Maasur, and the Spaniards 
under Alfonso VIII of Castile. 
The Spaniards were utterly 
routed, and very few escaped 
to Calatrava. The Moors 
claimed to have taken 30,000 

Albuera (Peninsular War). 

Fought May 16, 181 1, be- 
tween the allied British, Portu- 
guese and Spanish forces, num- 
bering 46,000, of whom 7,000 
only were British infantry, the 
whole army being under the 
command of Marsbal Beresford, 
and 33,000 French under Mar- 
shal Soul t. The French attacked 
Beresford's position, and the 



Spaniards offering but a poor 
resistance, defeat was only 
averted by the extraordinary 
valour of the British troops, 
especially of the Fusilier Bri- 
gade, which came into action 
when the day seemed lost, and 
drove the French from the field. 
Of the 7,000 British, but 1,800 
were left standing. The French 
lost over 8,000, including five 

Alcantara (War of the Spanish 
Fought 1706, when a force of 
British and Portuguese under 
Lord Gal way attacked and 
drove out of Alcantara the 
garrison, consisting of a portion 
of Marshal Berwick's army. 
Ten French battalions laid down 
their arms, and 60 guns were 

Aleppo (Moslem Invasion of 
This place was besieged by 
the Moslems under Abu Obeidah 
and Khaled in 638, and the city 
almost immediately surrendered, 
but the garrison retired to the 
citadel, where under Youkinna 
it maintained a stubborn de- 
fence for five months, and caused 
heavy loss to the besiegers. At 
last the citadel was taken by 
surprise, and Youkinna became 
a convert to Mohammedanism. 
This was the last serious resist- 
ance offered in Syria to the 
invading Moslems. 

Aleppo (Tartar Invasion of 
Fought November 11, 1400, 
between the Tartars under 
Tamerlane, and the Turks under 
the Syrian Emirs. Instead of 
standing a siege, the Emirs 

sallied out to meet Tamerlane 
in the open field, and suffered a 
disastrous defeat. They were 
driven back into Aleppo with 
the loss of many thousands, and 
a few days later the Tartars 
sacked the city and captured 
the citadel. 

Aleppo (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought 1 516, between the 
Turks under Selim I, and the 
Eg3rptians under the Mameluke 
Sultan. Tooman Beg. After a 
sanguinary engagement, the 
Egyptians were utterly routed, 
and Selim added the whole of 
Syria to the Ottoman domin« 

Alesia (Gallic War). 

Siege was laid to the town by 
the Romans under Cssar, 
B.C. 52, and it was defended by 
the Gauls, numbering 80,000 in- 
fantry and 15,000 cavalry under 
Vercingetorix, the Romans be- 
ing about 50,000 strong. An 
attempt was made by the Belgi, 
with an army of 260,000 warriors, 
to relieve the town, but they 
were met and routed by Labi- 
enus with terrific slaughter. 
This disaster so discouraged 
the garrison that the town im- 
mediately surrendered, Vercin- 
getorix being sent a prisoner to 
Rome, where five years later 
he was beheaded as a rebellious 
subject of Rome. 

Alessandria (Wars of the French 
Fought June 18, 1799, be- 
tween the French, 14.000 strong 
under Moreau, and the Imperia- 
lists under Bellegarde. The 
French gained a signal victory, 
the loss of the Imperialists being 
1,500 men and 5 guns. 


AlezandriA (Moslem Invasion 
of Egypt). 
This city, the capital of Egypt, 
was besieged by the Moslems, 
under Amrou, in 638, and after 
a defence of fourteen months, in 
the course of which the besiegers 
lost 23.000 men, surrendered, 
leaving the victors undisput^ 
masters of Egypt. 

Alexandria (British Invasion of 
Fought March 21, 1801, be- 
tween the French under General 
Menou, and the British expedi- 
tionary force under Sir Ralph 
Abercromby. The French 
cavalry charged the British 
right, but were repulsed, and 
after hard fighting the French 
were defeated and driven under 
the walls of Alexandria. 
Among those who fell was Sir 
Ralph Abercromby, mortally 

Alexandria (Arabi's Rebellion). 
Arabi Pasha having refused 
to cease work upon the forts of 
Alexandria, the Admiral, Sir 
Beauchamp Seymour, who had 
under his command a fleet of 
8 battleships and 5 gun- 
boats, decided to shell them. 
He opened fire on the morning 
of July II, 1882, and the bom- 
bardment continued till the 
evening of the 12th, when the 
forts were totally destroyed, 
and the garrison abandoned 
the city. The gunboat Condor, 
under Lord cfairles Beresford, 
particularly distinguished her- 
self, running close in under the 
forts, and doing considerable 

Alford (CivU War). 

Fought July 2, 1645, between 
the RoyaUsts under Montrose, 

and the Covenanters under 
General Baillie. Baillie crossed 
the Don to attack Montrose, 
whom he imagined to be in 
retreat, but who was really 
waiting for him in a well-chosen 
position. The attack was re- 
pulsed, the Covenanters being 
routed with heavy loss. 

Algeciras Bay (Napoleonic Wars). 
Fought July 8, 1801, between 
a British squadron of 7 ships 
of the line, i frigate and i brig, 
under Sir James Saumarez, and 
a French squadron of 3 line-of- 
battle ships and i frigate, under 
Admiral Unois. The French 
were aided by the Spanish gun- 
boats and the shore batteries, 
and Saumarez lost the Hannibal, 
which ran ashore, and was cap- 
tured by the French. The 
British lost 121 killed and 240 
wounded. The French lost 306 
killed. On July 12, the French 
squadron, which had been re- 
inforced meanwhile by 5 Spanish 
ships of the line, was again 
attacked by Sir James Saumarez, 
who succeeded in capturing the 
St. A ntoine and blowing up the 
Hermenegilda. The British lost 
only 17 killed and 100 wounded ; 
the allies, 2,000, chiefly in the 


Fought 1353, between the 
Aragonese under Pedro IV (the 
Great) and the Genoese. Pedro 
won a complete victory, driving 
the Genoese out of Sardinia, the 
whole of which island became 
an appanage of the crown of 


This town was attacked July 
8, 177s, bv a Spanish force of 
51 ships of war and 26,000 men 



under Don Pedro de Castijon 
and Count O'Reilly. After a 
severe conflict, the Spaniards 
failed to dislodge their opponents, 
and retired, with a loss of over 
3,000 killed and wounded. The 
Algerines lost about 5,000. 

Algiers, Bombardment of. 

In 1 8 16 Lord Exmouth, in 
command of 19 British war 
ships, and accompanied by 6 
Dutch ships under Van Capel- 
Ian, bombarded the forts of 
Algiers, mounting 500 guns. 
The bombardment lasted for 
about eight hours, and resulted 
in the destruction of the forts 
and a large part of the city. 
The Dey then gave way, and 
agreed to the total abolition of 
Christian slavery in his do- 
minions. The loss of the allies 
amounted to 885 killed and 
wounded ; that of the Algerines 
to over 6,000. 

Alhama (War of Granada). 

This fortress, one of the ring 
of strong places protecting the 
Moorish capital, Granada, was 
surprised by a small party of 
Spaniards, under Juan de Or- 
tiga, in the early morning of 
February 28, 1482. They 
scaled the ramparts unper- 
ceived, and opened the gates 
to the Spanish army. The 
garrison continued to defend 
the streets most obstinately, and 
it was only after hard fighting 
that the Spaniards mastered 
the town. An attempt was 
made to recapture the place 
by Abul Hasan, King of Granada, 
who set down before it, with 
50,000 Moors. March 5, 1482. 
The garrison, under the Marquis 
of Cadiz, made a gallant defence, 
and on the 29th, Abul Hasan, 

alarmed by the approach of a 
strong relieving army under 
Ferdinand, raised the siege. 

Alhandega (Moorish Empire in 
Fought 939, between the 
Moors under Abd al Rahman, 
and the Christians under Ra« 
miro II of Leon. The Moors, 
100,000 strong, were besieging 
Zamora, when they were at- 
tacked by Ramiro, who, aided 
by a sortie of the garrison, 
utterly routed them. In the 
battle 20,000 Moors fell, and 
40,000 are said to have been 
drowned in the moat surround- 
ing the city. 

Alicante (War of the Spanish 
On June 29, 1706, Alicante 
was taken by a British squadron 
of 5 ships under Sir George Byng. 
The fleet attacked the city walls, 
while the suburbs were occupied 
by a landing party of marines 
under Sir John Jennings. The 
place was captured with a loss 
to the British of only 30 killed 
and 80 wounded. 

Aligurh (First Mahratta War). 

This fortress, the arsenal of 
Sindhia of Gwalior, was cap- 
tured August 29, 1803, by the 
76th Highlanders under Colonel 
Monson, forming part of General 
Lake's army. The place was 
strongly fortified and surrounded 
by a ditch 100 feet wide, con- 
taining 10 feet of water. The 
Highlanders carried the fortress 
by storm, blowing in the main 
gate, and fighting their way 
^om room to room till the place 
was captured. Two hundred 
and eighty-one guns were taken. 
The British loss amounted to 
223 killed and wounded. 



A]iwal (First Sikh War). 

Fought January 28, 1846, 
between the British, 10,000 
strong, under Sir Harry Smith, 
and 20,000 Sikhs under Runjur 
Singh. The troops of the 
Khalsa withstood three charges 
of the British cavaby with 
splendid bravery, but at last 
broke and fled, losing many 
drowned in the Sutlej, besides 
those left on the field. The 
British captured 67 guns. 


Fought August, 1385, be- 
tween the Castilians, under 
John I, in support of the claim 
of Beatrix of Castile to the 
throne of Portugal, and the 
Portuguese under the Regent 
John. The Portuguese in- 
flicted a crushing defeat upon 
the Spaniards, and John I was 
compelled to withdraw his 
troops, and renounce his sister's 

Alkmaar (Netherlands War of 
Siege was laid to this place 
August 21, 1573, by 16,000 
Spaniards under Don Frederico 
de Toledo. It was defended by 
a garrison of 800 soldiers and 
1,300 armed burghers. On Sep- 
tember 18, an assault was 
delivered, which was repulsed, 
with a loss to the besiegers of 
1. 000 men, while only 37 of the 
garrison fell. The opening of 
the dykes at last rendered the 
position of the Spaniards most 
precarious, and on October 8 
the siege was raised. 

Alkmaar (Wars of the French 
Fought October 2, 1799, be- 
tween 30,000 British and Rus- 
sians under the Duke of York, 

and the French, in about equal 
strength, under Brune. The 
action began by the Russians 
driving in the French advanced 
posts. Meanwhile the Duke of 
York had outflanked them, and 
as soon as he was in position a 
simultaneous attack on the 
French left and centre forced 
Brune to abandon the key of his 
position, Alkmaar. which was 
at once occupied by the allies. 

Allia, The (First Invasion of 
the Gauls). 
Fought July 16, 389 B.C., be- 
tween the Romans, 40,000 strong, 
under Quintus Sulpicius, and 
the Gauls, about equal in num- 
bers, under Brennus. The 
Romans took post on the Allia 
to check the advance of the 
Gauls on Rome. Here they 
were attacked by Brennus, who 
routed the right wing, where 
the younger soldiers were posted, 
and then broke the Roman 
centre and left, putting them to 
flight with enormous loss. 

Alma (Crimean War). 

Fought September 20, 1854, 
between the Russians, 40,000 
strong, under Prince Mentschi- 
kofl. and the allied British and 
French armies, 26,000 strong, 
under Lord Raglan and Marshal 
St. Amaud. The bulk of the 
fighting fell upon the British 
Second and Light Divisions and 
the Guards, who carried the 
heights held by the Russians at 
the point of the bayonet, and 
utterly routed them. The Rus- 
sians lost 1,200 killed, and left 
4,700 prisoners, many of them 
wounded, in the hands of the 
allies. The British loss amount- 
ed to 3,000 killed and wounded ; 
that of the French to 



Almansa (War of the Spanish 
Fought AprU 25, 1707, be- 
tween the French under Marshal 
Berwick, and the British and 
Portuguese under Lord Galway 
and the Marques das Minas. 
Galway, though inferior in 
cavalry, attacked at first with 
success, but the Portuguese on 
the right broke and fled, and 
the British centre, attacked in 
front and flank simultaneously, 
was routed and forced to sur- 
render. As a consequence of 
this defeat, the whole of Spain 
was lost to Charles with the 
exception of Catalonia. 

Almenara (War of the Spanish 
Fought July 10, 17 10, when 
the British contingent of the 
Archduke Charles' army, under 
General Stanhope, attacked and 
defeated the Spaniards under 
Philip V, after severe fighting. 
So complete was the rout that 
Philip's army was only saved 
by the fall of night from com- 
plete destruction. 

Almorah (Gurkha War). 

Fought April 25, 181 5, when 
2,000 British regulars under 
Colonel Nicolls and a force of 
irregular troops under Colonel 
Gardiner assaulted and captured 
the heights of the town of Al- 
morah. The result of this vic- 
tory was the surrender of the 
province of Kumaon and all its 

Alne (Scottish Wars). 

Fought November 13, 1093, 
between the Scots under Mal- 
colm Canmore and the English. 
The Scots were totally defeated, 
and Malcolm and his eldest son 
Edward slain in the battle. 

Alresford (Civil War). 

Fought March 29, 1644, be- 
tween the Royalists under the 
Earl of Brentford and Sir Ralph 
Hopton, and the Parliament- 
arians under Sir William Waller. 
The Parliament forces were 
victorious, but their losses were 
so severe that Waller was unable 
to follow up his advantage, and 
the Royalists made an orderly 
retreat. • 

Alsen (Schleswig-Holstein War). 
This island, in which the 
Danish garrison of Duppel had 
taken refuge, was captured by 
the Prussians, who crossed from 
the mainland in boats on the 
night of June 29, 1864, and 
under a heavy fire carried the 
Danish entrenchments, and com- 
pelled them to surrender. This 
was the last engagement of the 

Altendorf (Thirty Years' War). 
Fought August 24, 1632, be- 
tween Gustavus Adolphus, with 
40,000 Swedes and Germans, 
and the Imperialists, of about 
equal numbers, under Wallen- 
stein. Wallenstein was very 
strongly posted on the hill and 
in the ruined castle of the Alten- 
wald, and after a day spent in 
fruitless assaults, the King was 
forced to retire, having lost 
about 2,300 in killed and wound- 
ed. The defenders admitted a 
loss of 70 officers and 2,000 men 
killed, besides wounded and 

Alto Pasdo (Guelfs and Ghibel- 
Fought 1325, between the 
Ghibe&nes under Castruccio 
Castracane of Lucca, and the 
Florentine Guelfs. The Floren- 
tines were defeated with heavy 



loss, among the trophies taken 
by Castracane being the car- 
roccio of Florence. 

Amakusa (Rerolt of the Chris- 
In 1638, the castle of Ama- 
knsa. held by 30,000 rebels under 
Masada Shiro, was captured 
after very hard fighting by the 
troops of the Shdgun, under 
Matsudaira Nobutsuna. The 
(defenders set fire to the castle, 
and perished to the last man, 
either in the flames or by the 

Amalinde (Kafifir Wars). 

Fought I Si 8 between the 
Gaikas and the forces of Ndla- 
mbi, in which the former were 
utterly routed. 

Amatola Mountain (Kaffir Wars). 
Fought 1846, between the 
Kafi&rs under Sandilli, and the 
British and Cape troops under 
Colonels Campbell and Somerset. 
SandilU was totally defeated, 
but, rallying his forces, he made 
a successful attack on the Brit- 
ish baggage train, the loss of 
which forced them to retire. 

Amhate (Conquest of Peru). 

Fought 1532, between the 
two Peruvian chiefs Atahualpa 
and Huascar. in which the latter 
suffered a complete defeat. 

Ambradan Gulf. 

Fought B.C. 435, when a 
Corinthian fleet of 75 ships 
attempted the relief of Epidam- 
nus, which was besieged by 
the Corcyreans, and was defeated 
with heavy loss by 80 Corcy- 
' rean triremes. 


Fought 1749, between the 
army of Anwar-ud-din, Nawab 

of Arcot, 20,000 strong, and the 
combined forces of Muzuffer 
Jung and Chunda Sahib, aided 
by a French contingent under 
M. d'Auteil. Anwar-ud-din 
was defeated and slain, and 
Muzuffer Jung assumed the 
title of Subahdar of the Deccan, 
Chunda Sahib that of Nawab 
of Arcot. 


This strong fortress was held 
by a garrison of 500 Sepoys, 
under Captain Calvert, and a 
detachment of Mysore troops 
under Mukhlis Khan. This man 
had assumed the status of an 
independent chief, but being 
suspected of intriguing with 
Hyder Ali, was arrested by 
Calvert. Hyder laid siege to 
the place November 10, 1767 ; 
but Calvert, now secure from 
treachery within, held out with 
his small garrison till December 
6, when the approach of a re- 
lieving force obliged Hyder to 
raise the siege. 

Amida (Persian Wars). 

This fortress, defended by a 
Roman garrison, was besieged, 
and after a vigorous defence 
taken by storm by the Persians 
under Sapor II in 359. The 
garrison and inhabitants were 
put to the sword. The siege, 
which lasted 73 days, cost the 
Persians 30,000 men, and so 
weakened Sapor that he was 
compelled to relinquish his de- 
signs upon the Eastern Empire. 

The fortress was again be- 
sieged by the Persians under 
Kobad in 503, being defended 
as before by a Roman garrison. 
After a defence of three months, 
which cost the besiegers 50.000 
men, a weakly defended tower 



was surprised at night, and on 
the following day the Persians, 
headed by their King, scaled the 
walls, and massacred 80.000 of 
the garrison and inhabitants. 

Amiens (Franco-German War). 
Fought November 27, 1870, 
between the French under 
General Faure. and the Germans 
under Manteuffel. The French 
were compelled to abandon the 
city, but the Germans failed to 
secure a decisive victory. The 
French lost 1.383 killed and 
wounded, and i ,000 missing ; 
the Germans, 76 officers and 
1,216 men. 

Amoaful (Second Ashanti War). 
Fought January 31, 1874, 
when the British expeditionary 
force under Sir Garnet Wolseley 
defeated the Ashantis after a 
desperate resistance, which cost 
the assailants 16 officers and 
174 men killed and wounded. 
The 42nd Regiment, which led 
the attack, lost 9 officers and 
105 men. 

Amorium (Moslem Invasion of 
Asia Minor). 
Fought 838, between the 
Moslems under the Caliph Mo- 
tassem, and the Greeks under 
Theophilus. Thirty thousand 
Persian horsemen, serving under 
the Emperor, succeeded in 
breaking the Moslem Une, but 
the Greeks themselves were 
overthrown by the Moslems, 
and the dav ended in a com- 

Slete rout of the Imperial army, 
[otassem then laid siege to 
Amorium. and after a defence 
of 55 days, which cost the be- 
siegers 70.000 men, the gates 
were opened by treachery, and 
30,000 Christians were massa- 


Amphipolis (Peloponnesian War). 
Fought March 422 B.C. be- 
tween 1,500 Athenians, with a 
contingent of allies under Cleon, 
and the Spartans, 2,000 hop- 
htes, besides Ught armed troops, 
under Brasidas. Cleon ad- 
vanced to attack Amphipolis, 
but finding the garrison prepar- 
ing for a sortie, wheeled about 
and commenced to retreat. 
He was at once assailed by 
Brasidas, and his left fled with- 
out striking a blow. The Athe- 
nian right and centre offered 
some resistance, but in the end 
were routed with heavy loss. 
Both Brasidas and Cleon fell, 
the latter while fleeing from the 

Amstetten (Campaign of the 
Fought November 5, 1805. 
when the Russians retiring on 
Vienna fought a rear-guard 
action against Murat's cavalry 
and a portion of Lannes' corps, 
in which they were defeated 
with a loss of 1,000 killed, 
wounded, and prisoners. 

Anaquito (Conquest of Peru). 

Fought January 8, 1546, be- 
tween the troops of the Viceroy, 
Blasco Nufiez, and those of 
Gonzalo Pizarro. Pizarro gain- 
ed a signal victory, the Viceroy 
being among the slain, and in 
consequence the Government of 
Peru fell into Pizarro's hands. 

Ancona (Unification of Italy). 
This place was attacked, 
September, i860, by the Pied- 
montese fleet of 13 warships 
under Admiral Persano, and the 
army of General Cialdini. It 
was defended by a small Papal 
garrison under La Morici&e, 
and after a resistance of over a 




week, at the end of which time 
Persano forced the boom guard- 
ing the harbour, La Morid^re 

Ancnim Moor (Scottish Wars). 
Fought February 17. 1545, 
between the English under Sir 
Ralph Evans, and the Scots 
under the Earl of Angus. The 
Borderers who had joined the 
English deserted during the 
action, with the result tli^t the 
Scots were completely victo- 


Fought B.C. 242. between the 
Syrians under Seleucus Callin- 
icus, and the rebels under his 
brother Hierax. aided by a large 
contingent of Gauls. After a 
desperate struggle, in which 
Hierax nearly lost his life at the 
hands of his barbarian auxil- 
iaries. Seleucus was utterly 

Angora (Tartar Invasion of Asia 
Fought June 30. 1402, be- 
tween the Tartars under Tamer- 
lane, and the Turks under 
Bajazet I. The numbers en- 
gaged are variously estimated 
at from one to two millions. 
Tamerlane, it is said, having at 
least 800,000 men in the field. 
The Turks were totally defeated. 
Bajazet and one of his sons 
being captured, while another 
son was killed. 

Angostura (Americo-Mezican 
Fought February 21. 1847, 
between the Mexicans under 
Santa Anna and the Americans 
under General Scott, when the 
Mexicans were totally defeated. 

Angostura (Parasuajran War). 

Fought December 22 to 27. 
1868. between the Paragua3rans 
under Lopez, and the allied 
armies of the Argentine Repub- 
lic. Brazil, and Uruguay. Lopez 
held his position for six days 
against the greatly superior 
forces of the allies, but was then 
compelled to retire, leaving in 
the hands of the enemy 1,000 
prisoners and 6 guns. 

Antietam (American Civil War). 
Fought September 17, 1862, 
between the main Confederate 
army under General Lee. and 
the Federals under General 
M'Clellan. On the morning of 
the 17th Lee had only 35.000 
men on the ground against 
M'Clellan's 95,000. The Feder- 
als strongly attacked Lee's left, 
and after a stubborn fight drove 
it back, but reinforcements 
arriving. Lee resumed the offen- 
sive, and recovered his lost 
positions. On the following day 
neither side was disposed to 
resume the struggle, and the 
battle was therefore indecisive. 
The Federals lost 12.460 men ; 
the Confederates about 9,000. 


Fought B.C. 244, between the 
S)rrians under Seleucus Callin- 
icus and the Egyptians under 
Ptolemy Energetes. Seleucus 
was routed and compelled to 
take refuge within the walls of 

Antioch (Aurelian's Expedition 
to Palmyra). 
Fought B.C. 272. between the 
Palmyrenians under Zenobia. 
and the Romans under the 
Emperor Aurelian. Zenobia's 
heavy cavalry defeated and 
drove from the field the Roman 



horse, but her infantry was 
unable to withstand the charge 
of the legionaries, and she was 
totally defeated. 

Antioch (First Crusade). 

The city was besieged, Octo- 
ber 21, 1097, by the Crusaders 
under Godefroi de Bouillon, 
and defended by a Saracen 
garrison under Baghasian. The 
siege was unskilfully conducted, 
and provisions and munitions 
ran short in the Christian camp, 
with the result that the place 
held out till June 3, 1098. when 
it was taken by stratagem. 
An indiscriminate massacre 
followed, in which 10,000 of the 
defenders perished. On the 
28th of the same month the 
Crusading army was attacked 
outside Antioch by a force of 
Saracens under Kirhoga. Kir- 
boga concentrated his attack 
against one wing of the Chris- 
tians, and outflanked it, but 
was then assailed by the main 
body, and driven off with heavy 

Antiiun (War of Chlozza). 

Fought May 30, 1378, when 
Vittorio Pisani, with 14 Venetian 
galleys, defeated the Genoese 
fleet under Fieschi. The Geno- 
ese lost 6 ships, and Fieschi 
was taken prisoner. 

Antwerp (Netherlands War of 
This city was sacked by the 
Spaniards, November 4, 1576. 
It was defended by 6.000 troops, 
mostly Walloons, who offered 
little resistance to the 5,600 
Spaniards under Sancho d' Avila, 
who formed the attacking force. 
Having effected an entrance, 
the Spaniards proceeded to 
massacre the inhabitants, of 

whom 8,000 are said to have 
perished. This event is known 
as the Spanish Fury. 

Antwerp (Liberation of Bel- 
When Holland refused to 
recognize the London Protocol 
creating Belgium into an inde- 
pendent State, the French laid 
siege to Antwerp, November, 
1832. The city, which was 
defended by Chass^, held out 
till December 23, when, the 
citadel being demolished by the 
French fire, it was forced to 

Aong (Indian Mutiny). 

Fought July IS, 1857. be- 
tween the British relieving force 
under Havelock and the muti- 
neers who were opposing their 
advance on Cawnpore. The 
rebels were defeated and driven 
from their entrenchments. 

Aquae Seztiae (Cimbric War). 

Fought B.C. 102, when the 
Teutones under the king.Teuto- 
bod, were totally routed by the 
Romans under Marius. 

Aquidaban (Paraguayan War). 

The last stand of the Para- 
guayans against the allied 
armies of the Argentine Repub- 
lic, Brazil, and Uruguay, May i, 
1 870. Lopez, with a small force 
of Paraguayans and 5,000 In- * 
dians, met the attack of the 
allies under General Camera on 
the banks of the Aquidaban, 
and after a sanguinary engage- 
ment, in which he and the Vice- 
President Sanchez fell, his army 
was cut to pieces, and the war 
ended. During the war the popu- 
lation of Paraguay was reduced 
from 1,500,000 to 221,000, of 
whom (mly 29,000 were males 
over fifteen years of age. 



Aquileia (Eugenius* Usurpa- 
Fought September 6 and 7, 
394, between Theodosius, Em- 
peror of the East, and Eugenius, 
the usurping Emperor of the 
West, whose army was com- 
manded by Arbogastes. The 
first day's fighting went against 
Theodosius, who was only saved 
by darkness from a severe 
reverse, but during the night a 
force sent by Arbogastes to 
secure the passes in Theodosius' 
rear, deserted to his standard, 
and thus reinforced and aided 
by a dust storm which blew in 
the faces of his antagonists and 
disordered their ranks, he on 
the following day gained a 
signal victory. 

Aras (First Bilahratta War). 

Fought May 18, 1775, between 
Raghunath Rao, the claimant 
to the Peshwaship, with 20,000 
Mahrattas, and 2,500 British 
troops under Colonel Keating, 
and the army of the Mahratta 
chieftains, 25,000 strong under 
Hari Pant Phunhay. Rag- 
hunath's undisciplined levies 
fled, and threw the British line 
into contusion ; but they rallied, 
and after hard fighting repulsed 
the Mahrattas with heavy loss. 
The British lost 222, including 
II officers. 

Arausio (Fourth Gallic Inva- 
Fought B.C. 105. when the 
Gauls under Boiorix totally 
routed two consular armies 
under Caepio and Cn. Mallius 
Biaximus. It is said that 
80,000 Romans fell. 

Arbela (Alexander's Asiatic 
Fought October 31, 331 b.c. 

between 47,000 Macedonians 
under Alexander the Great, and 
the Persian army, three or four 
times as numerous, under 
Darius Codomannus. Alex- 
ander, who led the Macedonian 
right wing, forced a passage 
between the Persian left and 
centre, and attacked the centre 
on the flank. After a stubborn 
resistance, and though mean- 
while the Macedonian left had 
been hard pressed, the Persians 
gave way, and Darius taking 
to flight, the whole army fled 
in confusion, and was routed 
with enormous loss, especially 
at the passage of the Lycas, 
which barred their retreat. This 
victory made Alexander master 
of Asia. 

Arcis-sur-Aube (Allied Invasion 
of France). 
Fought March 21, 1814. be- 
tween 23,000 French under 
Napoleon, and 60.000 allies 
under Schwartzenberg. The 
French made a gallant stand 
against superior numbers, and 
in the end effected an orderly 
retreat, with a loss of about 
2,000. The allies' losses were 
considerably heavier. 

Areola (Napoleon's Italian Cam- 
Fought November 15, 16, and 
17, 1796, between the main 
Austrian army under Alvinzi, 
and the French under Napoleon. 
Napoleon's object was to drive 
back Alvinzi before he could 
effect a junction with Davido- 
wich, who was descending from 
the Tyrol. The village of Areola 
was occupied on the 15 th. after 
severe fighting, in which Napo- 
leon was in great personal 
danger on the bridge, but it 



was evacuated during the night. 
On the 1 6th Napoleon again 
attacked the village, but the 
Austrians held their ground. 
On the 17 th he turned the posi- 
tion, and Davidowich still re- 
maining inactive, Alvinzi was 
driven back, with losses vari- 
ously estimated at from 8,000 
to 18,000. The French also lost 


This fortress was captured by 
CUve, with a force of 200 Euro- 
peans and 300 Sepoys, in August, 
175 1. The garrison. i.ioo 
strong, offered no resistance, but 
marched out on Clive's approach. 
In the course of the autumn 
Arcot was beleaguered by an 
army of 10.000 natives, and 
150 Frenchmen under Chunda 
Sahib, the French nominee 
for the Nawabship of Arcot. 
Against this overwhelming force, 
CUve, whose garrison had been 
reduced by sickness to 120 
Europeans, and less than 200 
Sepoys, held out for seven 
weeks, till the approach of a 
Mahratta army forced Chunda 
Sahib to raise the siege. The 
garrison had 45 Europeans and 
30 Sepoys killed. 

Argaum (Second Mahratta War). 
Fought November 28, 1803, 
between the British under 
Wellesley (the Duke of Welling- 
ton) and the forces of the Rajah 
of Berar, under Sindhia of 
Gwalior. Three of Wellesley 's 
battalions, which had previously 
fought well, on this occasion 
broke and fled, and the situation 
was at one time very serious. 
WeDesley, however, succeeded 
in rallying them, and in the end 
4efeated the Mahrattas, wit)i 

the loss of all their guns and 
baggage. The British lost ^46 
killed and wounded. This 
victory ended the Second Mah 
ratta War. 

Argentaria (Invasion of the 
Fought May, 378, between 
the Romans under Gratianus 
and the Alemanni under Friarius. 
The Alemanni were overwhelmed 
by the Roman legionaries, 
though they stood their ground 
bravely, and only 5.000 escaped 
from the field. Priarius was 


Fought August. 357, between 
13,000 Romans under Julian, 
and a vastly superior army of 
Alemanni under Chnodomar. 
The Romans attacked the Ger- 
man lines shortly before night- 
fall, after a long march, and 
though the right wing, under 
Julian, was at first driven in, they 
were rallied by their general, 
and the left and centre pressing 
on, the Alemanni were totally 
routed, with a loss of 6,000. in 
addition to those who fell in the 
flight. The Romans lost 4 tri- 
bunes and 243 soldiers only. 
Chnodomar was taken prisoner. 

Arginusse (Peloponnesian War). 
Fought B.C. 406, between 150 
Athenian triremes under Thra- 
syllus and other generals, and 
120 Peloponnesian ships under 
Callicratidas. The Pelopon- 
nesians were routed, with a loss 
of 70 vessels, sunk or taken, 
and Callicratidas slain. The 
Athenians lost 25 ships with 
their crews, and the generals 
were brought to trial for not 
having taken proper steps to 
rescue the mep of the disabled 



ships. They were convicted, 
and six of them, including 
Thrasyllus, executed. This 
victory temporarily restored to 
Athens the command of the 

Argos (Roman Invasion of 
Fought B.C. 195, between 
Nabis of Sparta, with 15,000 
men, and Romans and 
Macedonians under Flaminius. 
Nabis was totally defeated, 
and though allow^ to retain 
Sparta, was compelled to restore 
to the Achaean league all his 
foreign possessions. 

Arikera (Second Mysore War). 

Fought May 13, 1791, be- 
tween the Biitish under Lord 
Comwallis, and the forces of 
Tippu Sahib. The latter was 
encamped between Arikera and 
Seringapatam, and was attacked 
by Cornwallis, who attempted 
to surprise him by a night 
march, but was foiled by heavy 
rain. A frontal attack on 
Tippu's position was, however, 
successful, and, aided by a 
flank movement under Maxwell, 
resulted in the total defeat of 
the Mysore troops, with a loss 
of over 2,000. The British 
loss amounted to 500. This is 
also known as the battle of 

Alius, The. 

Fought B.C. 214, between the 
Syrians under Antiochus the 
Great, and the Parthians and 
Bactrians under Arsaces III, 
and Euthydemus. Antiochus 
was severely wounded, but 
remained at the head of his 
troops, and completely routed 
the enemy with enormous loss. 

Arkenholm (Douglas Rebellion). 
Fought May 12, 1455, be- 
tween the troops of James II of 
Scotland and the rebels under 
the Douglas brothers. The 
rebels were completely defeated. 
Archibald Douglas was killed, 
Hugh captured, and James, 
Earl of Douglas, forced to take 
refuge in England. 

Arklow (Irish Rebellion). 

Fought 1798, when General 
Needham, with about 1,400 
MiUtia and Volunteers, defended 
the town from the attack of 
27,000 rebels led by Father 
John Murphy. The rebels were 
beaten off with great slaughter, 
and their intended advance on 
Dublin prevented. 

Armada, The Invincible. 

The fight with the Spanish 
Armada in the Channel began 
on Sunday, July 21, 1588, and 
lasted with intervals until the 
30th. The Armada consisted 
of 130 ships, many of large size, 
under the command of the 
Duke of Medina Sidonia. The 
English fleet numbered 197 in 
all, but only 34 were Queen's 
ships, and of these i>ut 8 
were over 600 tons burden. 
LcH-d Howard of Effingham 
commanded, with Drake and 
Hawkins as his lieutenants. 
The English vessels hung on to 
the flanks of the Spanish ships 
as they sailed up channel, harass- 
ing them in every way, and 
doing considerable damage, 
until the Armada anchored in 
Calais roads. Here many of 
their finest vessels were cap- 
tured or destroyed by fire-ships, 
and finally on the 30th, Medina 
Sidonia decided to attempt to 
escape northwards. His fleet 



was scattered by storms, and 
many wrecked on the Scotch 
and Irish coasts, and in the 
end only about one-half of the 
Armada returned to Spain. 


Fought 1751, shortly after 
the relief of Arcot, between 
900 British troops, under 
Clive, with 600 Malu-atta horse 
under Basin Rao, and a French 
force of 4,800, including 300 
Europeans, who were in charge 
of a convoy of treasure. Clive 
took up a position in swampy 
ground, crossed by a causeway 
along which the convoy must 
pass. The French were thrown 
into disorder, and forced to 
retreat, but night saved them 
from complete destruction. The 
treasure was captured. 

Arnee (First Mysore War). 

An indecisive action fought 
June 7, 1782, between the Brit- 
ish under Sir £3rre Coote, and 
the Mysore troops under 
Hyder Ali. 

Arques (Eighth Civil War). 

Fought September 23, 1S89, 
between 5 ,000 Huguenots under 
Henri IV, and 30,000 Leaguers 
under the Due de Mayenne. 
Henri had taken up a strong 
position, defended by marshy 
ground, and of such a nature 
that Mayenne could only bring 
against the king 5,000 troops 
at a time, thus neutralizing the 
disparity of numbers. He 
repulsed attack after attack, 
with heavy loss to the assailants, 
and eventually Mayenne was 
forced to withdraw, with the 
loss of about half his army. 

Arrah (Indian Mutiny). 

A house in Arrah was, in 

1857, defended by Mr. Boyle, 
with 16 Englishmen and 60 
Sikh police, against the attacks 
of three revolted native regi- 
ments, led by a Zemindar named 
Kur Singh. This small garrison 
held out from July 25 till 
August 3, when they were 
relieved by a small field force 
under Major Vincent Eyre. 

Arras (Wars of Louis XIV). 

This place, held by a French 
garrison, was besieged August, 
1654, by the Spaniards under 
the Great Cond6. On the 24th 
a relieving army under Turenne 
attacked the Spanish lines, and 
totally routed them with a loss 
of 3,000 men. Cond6 succeeded 
in rallying the remainder of his 
army, and made a masterly 
retreat to Cambray. 

Arretium (Etruscan War). 

Fought B.C. 283, when the 
consular army of L. Cscilius 
Metellus, marching to the relief 
of Arretium, which the Etrus- 
cans were besieging, met with a 
disastrous defeat. Thirteen 
thousand, including Metellus, 
were slain, and the rest made 

Arroyo Grande (Uruguayan War 
of Independence). 
Fought 1842, between the 
Argentine troops under Oribe, 
and the Uruguayans under 
Ribera. Ribera was totally de- 
feated, and Oribe proceeded to 
lay siege to Montevideo. 

Arsouf (Third Crusade). 

Fought 1 192, between the 
English Crusaders under Richard 
Coeur de Lion, and the Saracens, 
300,000 strong under Saladin. 
The Saracens made a desperate 
onslaught on the English, and 



both their wings gave way, but 
the centre under the king stood 
firm and finally drove back the 
Moslems in great disorder, with 
a loss of 40,000 men. 

Ascalon (First Crusade). 

Fought August 19, 1099, 
between the Crusaders under 
Godefroi de Bouillon, and the 
Saracens under Kilidj Arslan. 
The Crusaders gained a signal 
victory, and for a time the 
Moslem resistance to the Chris- 
tian occupation of the Holy 
Land came to an end. 

Asculum (Pyrrhus* Invasion of 
Fought B.C. 279, between 
45,000 Romans under Sulpicius 
Saverrio and P. Decius Mus, 
and the Epirots, with their 
Italian allies, in about equal 
force. The Romans fought to 
raise the siege of Asculum, but 
were finally routed by the Epirot 
cavalry and elephants, and 
driven back to their camp with 
a loss of 6,000. The Epirots 
lost 3,000. 

Asculum (Social War). 

Fought B.C. 89, between 
75,000 Romans under Strabo, 
who was besieging the town, and 
60,000 Italians under Juda- 
cilius. who had march^ to 
its relief. The Romans were 
victorious, but Judacilius suc- 
ceeded in throwing a consider- 
able portion of his army into 
the beleagured city. 

Ashdown (Danish Invasion). 

Fought 871, between the West 
Saxons under iEthelred and the 
Danes under Bag Secg and 
Halfdene. Largely owing to 
the brilliant leading of Alfred 
(the Great), who commanded 

one of the wings, the Danes, 
after a desperate conflict, which 
lasted throughout the day, were 
finally put to flight, having lost 
one of their kings and five jarls. 

Ashtee (Third Mahratto War). 

Fought February 19, 18 18, 
between the army of the Pesh- 
w4, Baji Rao, under Gokla, and 
the British under General Smith. 
The Peshwd fled before the 
action began, and Gokla, charg- 
ing at the head of his cavalry, 
was killed, whereupon the Man- 
rat tas broke and fled in con- 

Asirghur (Third Mahratta War). 
This fortress, held by Jes- 
wunt Rao, with a strong Mah- 
ratta garrison, was besieged by 
a British force under Sir John 
Malcolm and General Doveton, 
March 18. 18 19. On the 21st 
the garrison was driven into the 
upper fort, and after a con- 
tinuous bombardment, Jeswunt 
Rao surrendered April 7. The 
British loss during the siege was 
313 killed and wounded ; that 
of the garrison somewhat less. 

Askultsik (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought 1828, between 30,000 
Turks and the Russians, 17,000 
strong, under General Paskie- 
witch. The Turks were routed, 
and their camp, with all artil- 
lery and baggage, captured. 
Paskiewitch then laid siege to 
the town, which was defended 
by a garrison of 50,000 men, 
and after a siege of three weeks, 
carried it by storm, August 28. 


Fought B.C. 191, between the 
Syrian fleet of Antiochus the 
Great, under Hannibal, and a 
Rhodian squadron under Euda- 



mus. Though Hannibal was in 
superior force, he suffered a 
severe defeat. 

Aspem (Campaign of Wagram). 
Fought May 21 and 22, 1809, 
between 36,000 French under 
Napoleon, and 70,000 Austrians 
under the Archduke Charles. 
The battle commenced about 
four p.m. on the 21st by an 
attack on the French position 
at Aspem, and at nightfall the 
Austnans had established a 
lodgment in the village. On 
the 22nd, both armies having 
been reinforced during the night, 
the combat was renewed round 
Aspem, which was taken and 
retaken ten times, while Essling 
was the scene of an equally 
desperate conflict. Towards 
evening the bridge by which 
Napoleon had crossed the 
Danube was swept away, and 
Napoleon was compelled to 
retire. Each side lost about 
20,000 men, and both claimed 
the victory. Among the French 
who fell were Marshal Lannes 
and General St. Hilaire. 

Aspromonte (Garibaldi's Rising). 
Fought August 29, 1862, 
between a smalU force of " Red 
Shirts" under Garibaldi, and 
the royal troops under General 
Pallavidni. After a short en- 
gagement, in which Garibaldi 
was wounded, the " Red Shirts," 
largely outnumbered and sur- 
rounded, laid down their arms. 

Assandun (Danish Invasion). 

The last of the five battles 
fought in 1 01 6 between the 
English under Edmund Iron- 
side and the Danish invaders 
under Knut. Owing to the 
treachery of iEdric, who crossed 
over with the Hereford men in 

the course of the battle, the 
English were defeated, and 
shortly afterwards Knut was 
proclaimed King of England. 

Assaye (First Bfahratta War). 

Fought September 23, 1803, 
when General Wellesley (the 
Duke of Wellington) with 4,500 
British and native troops routed 
the army of Sindhia of Gwalior, 
over 30.000 strong. All the 
camp equipment and 100 guns 
were taken. The Duke always 
considered this the bloodiest 
action, for the numbers en- 
gaged, that he ever witnessed. 
The British loss amounted to 
i,S66, or more than one-third of 
Wellesley's entire force. 


Siege was laid to this town, 
1569, by the Turks under 
SeUm II, who required it as a 
baJe for his projected invasion 
of Persia. It was held by a 
small Russian garrison, which 
made an obstinate defence, and 
was finally relieved by an army 
despatched to its assistance by 
Ivan the Terrible, which attack- 
ed the Turkish lines, and utterly 
routed them. 

Atahualpa (Conquest of Peru). 

Fought 1 53 1, between 160 
Spaniards under Pizarro, and 
30,000 Peruvians, forming the 
escort of the Inca, Manco- 
Capac. The battle was nothing 
but a butchery, Pizarro, who 
had invited the Inca to visit 
him, falling upon the unsuspect- 
ing Peruvians, seizing Manco- 
Capac, and slaughtering 4,000 
men, without the loss of a single 

Atbara (Soudan Campaigns). 
Fought April 8, 1898, between 



the British and Egyptian army, 
14,000 strong, under Sir Herbert 
Kitchener, and 18,000 Mahdists 
under Mahmad. The Mahdists 
occupied an entrenched zareeba 
on the Atbara, where they were 
attacked and utterly routed, 
with a loss in the zareeba of killed and i ,000 prisoners, 
while many more fell in the 
pursuit. Mahmad was cap- 
tured. The Anglo-Egyptian 
losses were 570 kill^ and 
wounded, including 29 British 

Athenry (Conquest of Ireland). 
Fought 1 316 between the 
English under William de 
Burgh and Richard de Berming- 
ham, and the O'Connors under 
their chieftain, Feidlim. The 
O'Connors were defeated, 1 1 ,000 
of the sept falling in the battle. 
This is the last appearance of 
the O'Connors as a clan in Irish 

Atherton Moor. 

See AdwaJton Moor. 

See Jena. 


Fought 900, between the 
Germans and the invading 
Hungarians. The Christians 
fought gallantly, but were over- 
whelmed by the numbers of the 
barbarian cavalry, and in the 
end suffered a signal defeat. 

Auldearn (CivU War). 

Fought May 9, 1645, when 
Montrose and his Highlanders 
defeated a largely superior force 
of Covenanters under Sir John 
Hurry, who was marching north- 
ward to raid the lands of the 


Fought September 27, 1364, 
between the partisans of John 
de Montfort, and those of 
Charles of Blois, the rival 
claimants to the Dukedom of 
Brittany. The English party, 
under Sir John Chandos, were 
besieging Auray, when they 
were attacked by the French, 
who were led by Bertrand du 
Guesclin. Chandos' position, 
however, was very strong, and 
the French were unable to make 
any impression upon it. Mean- 
while they were thrown into 
utter confusion by an attack 
on their flank, and were ulti 
mately routed, with heavy loss, 
Charles of Blois being among 
the slain. Bertrand du Guesclin 
was captured. De Montfort 
was shortly afterwards acknow- 
ledged by Charles V of France 
as Duke of Brittany. 

Aussig (Hussite War). 

Fought 1426, between the 
Germans under the Emperor 
Sigismund, and the Taborites, 
the extreme section of the 
Hussites, under John Zisca. 
The Germans were signally 

Austerlitz (Campaign of the 
Danube ). 
Fought December 2, 1805, 
between 50,000 Russians and 
25,000 Austrians under Kutu- 
soff, and' 75,000 French under 
Napoleon. An attempt to turn 
the French flank failed, and led 
to the left of the allies being 
entirely cut off from their centre. 
Their left and centre were thus 
beaten in detail, and the right, 
which had at first held its own, 
was surrounded, and driven in 
disorder across a partially frozen 



lake.^where many perished. 
The allies lost 2o,cxx) killed, 
wounded, and prisoners, and a 
large number of guns. The 
French lost about 5.000. The 
battle is called the Battle of the 
Tliree Emperors, those of Russia, 
Austria, and France being all 
present with their respective 

Avaricum (Gallic War). 

This place was made the head- 
quarters of the revolted Gauls 
under Vercingetorix, B.C. 53, 
and was besieged by Caesar, 
with 50,000 Romans. The 

place was strongly defended, 
but supplies ran short, and 
Vercingetorix attempted to 
withdraw his troops. In this 
he was unsuccessful, and the 
Romans, delivering a vigorous 
assault, took possession of the 
town, and massacred the garrison 
and inhabitants. 

Atus (Second Macedonian War). 
Fought B.C. 198, between 
20,000 Macedonians under 
Philip, and two Roman legions 
under T. Quinctius Flamininus. 
A force of 4,000 legionaries 
penetrated to the rear of Philip's 
camp, and when Flamininus 
attacked in front, they fell upon 
the Macedonian rear, and com- 
pletely routed them, with a loss 
of 2,000. 

Azarquia (War of Granada). 

Fought March 20, 1483, be- 
tween a Spanish force of 3,000 
knights, and about 2,000 in- 
fantry, under the Marquis of 
Cadiz, and a strong Moor- 
ish force under Abul Hasan. 
The Spaniards were marching 
through the defile of Axarquia, 
on their way to attack Malaga, 
when they were assailed in front 

and flank, and totally routed, 
losing 800 killed and 1,600 
prisoners. Among the killed 
were 400 men of rank. 

Ayacucho (South American War 
of Independence). 
Fought December 9, 1824, 
between the South American 
patriots, 5,780 strong, under 
Sucre, and the Spaniards, 9,310 
in number, under Lasema. The 
latter were routed with a loss of 
2,100 killed and wounded, and 
over 3.500 prisoners, including 
Lasema, in addition to 15 guns. 
The Patriots lost 979. This 
engagement, which is also know 
as the Battle of Candorcanqui, 
practically decided the question 
of South American indepen- 

Aylesford (Jutish Invasion). 

Fought 456,between the Jutes 
under Hengist and Horsa, and 
the Britons under Vortigern. 
Horsa was slain in the battle, but 
the Jutes were victorious. 

Azimghur (Indian Mutiny). 

Fought April 15, 1858, be- 
tween a British column, com- 
posed of three regiments of 
infantry and three of Sikh 
cavalry, under Sir Edward 
Layard, and the Dinapur muti- 
neers, about 5,000 strong, under 
Kur Singh. The rebels were 
routed and dispersed, Kur Singh 
falling mortally wounded. 


In 1 591, a fleet of 7 ships 
under Lord Thomas Howard 
was driven from Floris by the 
Spanish fleet under Don Alfonso 
Bassano. The action was chief- 
ly remarkable for the gallant 
fight made by Sir Richard Gren- 
vUle in the Revenge, which 



maintained an unequal struggle 
for nine hours, when her gal- 
lant commander was mortally 
wounded, and she surrendered 
at daybreak. 


Badajos (Peninsular War). 

On March 17, 181 2, this for- 
tress, held by a garrison of 
French, Hessians and Spaniards, 
5,000 strong, under Phillipon, 
was invested by Wellington. 
The breaches were declared to 
be practicable on April 5, and 
an assault was ordered. After 
terrible slaughter, the town was 
taken, with a loss to the assail- 
ants of 3,500, the total British 
losses during the siege exceeding 
5,000. Fearful excesses were 
committed after the assault, 
and for two days the troops 
were completely out of hand. 

Badull-ki-Serai (Indian Mutiny). 
Fought June 8. 1857, when a 
British force, under Sir Henry 
Barnard, defeated a large body 
of mutineers, who were opposing 
their march to Delhi. All the 
rebels' guns were captured. 

Bagdad (Tartar Invasion of 
This city was captured by 
the Tartars under Tamerlane, 
July 23, 1401. 

Bagradas (Civil War of Caesar 
and Pompey.) 
Fought B.C. 49, between the 
Cesareans under Curio and the 
Numidians under Juba and 
Saburra, who adhered to the 
fortunes of Pompey. The Ro- 
man cavalry was cut to pieces, 
before the legionaries could 
come to its assistance, and even- 
tually the Romans were sur- 
rounded, and cut down to a 

man. Curio being amongst the 
slain. This victory left the 
Pompeians masters of Africa. 

Bahur (Seven Years' War). 

Fought August, 1752, be- 
tween the French, numbering 
2,500, including natives, under 
M. Kirkjean, and 2.000 British 
troops, with 4,000 of Mohammed 
Ali's levies, under Major Law- 
rence. The French were totally 
defeated, losing heavily in men, 
guns and stores. This victory 
determined the Mahrattas, who 
were wavering, to throw in their 
lot with the British. 

Balaclava (Crimean War). 

Fought October 25, 1854, 
between 30,000 Russians under 
Prince Mentschikoff, and the 
British under Lord Raglan. 
The Russians, having driven 
the Turks from their redoubts 
at Kadikoi, entered the valley 
of Balaclava, where they were 
encountered and driven back 
by the Heavy Cavalry Brigade 
under GeneraJ Scarlett. Later 
in the day. acting under a 
mistaken order. Lord Cardigan 
at the head of the Light Brigade, 
charged the Russian guns at 
the head of the valley, and 
captured their batteries. Being, 
however, shelled from all sides, 
he was compelled to retire with 
heavy loss. Of this famous 
feat of arms. General PeUssier 
is reported to have said, " C'est 
magnifique, mais ce n'est pas la 
guerre." Another feature of 
this singular battle was the 
repulse by the Highland Bri- 
gade, in Une, of a charge of the 
Russian cavalry. The British 
losses were small, except in the 
case of the Light Brigade, whose 
casualties amounted to 272 out 



of 673 who took part in the 

Balls Bluff (American Civil War). 
Fought October 21, 1861, 
between the Federals under 
General Stone, and the Con- 
federates under General Evans. 
The Federals crossed the Poto- 
mac to attack the Southern 
position, but were repulsed, 
and driven back over the river 
in confusion losing 1,100 killed 
and wounded, 700 prisoners and 
the only three guns which they 
had succeeded in taking across. 
The Confederates lost 155 only. 

Ballymore (Irish Rebellion). 

Fought tune 3, 1798, when 
Colonel Walpole, with 500 Royal 
troops, on the march to Ennis- 
corthy, was surprised and over- 
powered by a body of rebels 
under Father Murphy. Walpole 
and the majority of his force 
were cut to pieces. 

Baltimore (Second American 
This city was attacked Sep- 
tember II, 1 8 14, by a British 
fleet of ten sail, under Admiral 
Sir Alexander Cochrane, and a 
land force of 3,270 under General 
Ross, who fell during the action. 
The Americans, 17,000 strong, 
under General Winder, were 
defeated, but the British retired 
on the evening of the 13 th. 
The British lost 46 killed and 
300 wounded, the Americans, 
20 killed. 90 wounded, and 200 

Bamian (Tartar Invasion of 
This city was invested by 
the Mongols under Genghiz 
Khan in 1221, and after an 
obstinate defence, lasting 

several months, was taken by 
storm. Genghiz, who had seen 
a favourite grandson killed 
during the progress of the siege, 
gave orders that neither woman 
nor child was to be spared, and 
the whole city with its inhabi- 
tants was wiped out. 

Banda (Indian Mutiny). 

Fought April 19, 1858, be- 
tween a force of rather over 
1,000 British troops under 
General Whitlock, and 7,000 
mutineers under the Nawab of 
Banda. After an obstinate 
conflict the rebels were totally 

Banda Islands (Wars of the 
French Revolution). 
These islands, forming part of 
the Dutch East Indian posses- 
sions, were captured March 8, 
1796, by a British squadron 
under Admiral Peter Rainier. 

Bands, The (Danish Invasion). 

Fought 961, between the 
Scots under their king. Indulph, 
and the Danish pirates. The 
Danes were defeated, but In- 
dulph fell in the battle. 

Bangalore (Second Mysore War). 
This place was besieged by 
the British under Lord Com- 
wallis, March 5, 1791, and not- 
withstanding numerous efforts 
to relieve it on the part of Tippu 
Sahib, it was taken by storm on 
the night of the 21st, Tippu 's 
final attempt being beaten off 
by the reserve with heavy loss. 
The British casualties were few. 

Bannockbum (Scottish Wars). 

Fought June 24, 13 14, be- 
tween the Scots under Robert 
Bruce, and the English inva- 
ders under Edward II. Bruce's 
position was partly covered by 



a marsh, and further strength- 
ened by pitfalls, in which the 
English cavalry were entrapped, 
and defeated with great loss. 
The king escaped with diffi- 
culty and the invasion was 

Bapaume (Franco-German War). 
Fought January 3, 1871, be- 
tween the French under General 
Faidherbe, and the Germans 
under Von Goeben. The result 
was indecisive, and though the 
French gained some tactical 
successes, the result strategi- 
cally was an advantage to the 
Germans, as General Faidherbe 
was compelled to deaist from 
his attempt to raise the siege of 
P6ronne. The Germans lost 52 
of&cers and 698 men ; the French 
53 officers and 15 16 men killed 
and wounded, and 550 prisoners. 

Barbosthenian Mountains (Wars 
of the AchJBan League). 
Fought 192 B.C. between the 
Spartans under Narbis, and the 
Achaean Leasue under Philo- 
poemen. Nsmis was totally 
routed, with the loss of three- 
fourths of his troops. 

Barcelona (War of the Spanish 
This city, which was held for 
Philip V of Spain by a Spanish 
garrison, was besieged Sep- 
tember 14, 1705, by the British 
under the Eail of Peterborough. 
After a short bombardment, 
the place surrendered, October 9. 

Bamet (Wars of the Roses). 

Fought April 14, 1471, be- 
tween the Yorkists under Ed- 
ward IV, and the Lancastrians 
under the Earl of Warwick. 
Warwick prepared to attack 
the king as he issued from Bar- 

net, but Edward came out dur- 
ing the night and took up a 
position opposite Warwick un- 
seen. The left of the Yorkists 
was outflanked and beaten, 
but their right outflanked and 
defeated the Lancastrian left, 
and then fell upon and routed 
the centre. Warwick was slain. 
The losses on the two sides are 
said to have amounted in all to 
1. 000 killed. 

Barosa (Peninsular War). 

In the course of the opera- 
tions for the relief of Cadiz, 
General Graham, with 4,000 
British troops, defeated Marshal 
Victor with 9,000 French, 
March 5, 181 1. The French 
lost 2,000 killed and wounded, 
including two generals, 6 guns, 
2 eagles, and 400 prisoners. 
The British losses amounted to 
50 officers and 1,160 rank and 
file. A large Spanish force 
under La Pefla stood idly by, 
and took no part in the action. 

Barquisimeto (South American 
War of Independence). 
Fought 1 81 3, between the 
Colombian pa trots under Simon 
Bolivar, and the Spanish 
Royalists, Bolivar gaining a 
complete victory. 

Basing (Danish Invasion). 

A victory of the Danish in- 
vaders in 871 over the West 

Bassano (Napoleon's Italian 
Fought September 8, 1796, 
when Napoleon, who had on the 
previous day destroyed the 
Austrian vanguard at Primo- 
lano, fell upon the main body 
of Wurmser's army. The assault 
on the town of Bassano was 



delivered by Augereau's divi- 
sion on the right, and Mass^na's 
on the left, and the French 
utterly routed the Austrians, 
Wurmser narrowly escaping 
capture. Six thousand men 
laid down their arms, and when 
Wurmser collected his scat- 
tered forces, he had but 16,000 
left out of the 60,000 with which 
he had commenced the cam- 

Bassein (First Mahratta War). 

This place, held by a Mah- 
ratta garrison, was besieged by 
a British force under Genersd 
Goddard, November 13, 1780. 
A serious attempt was made to 
relieve the garrison, but the 
defeat of the relieving force by 
Colond Hartley at Dugaar, on 
December 10, completely dis- 
couraged the defenders, and 
they surrendered on the follow- 
ing day. 

Bassorah (Arab Revolt). 

Fought in 665 between the 
Caliph Ali. at the head of 29,000 
Moslems, and the rebel Arabs 
in superior force, under Telha 
and Zobin. The rebels were 
defeated with heavy loss, Telha 
and Zobin being slain, and 
Ayesha, the widow of the pro- 
phet, who had espoused their 
cause, captured. This victory 
is known to Moslems as the Day 
of the Camel, 70 men, who in 
succession held the bridle of the 
camel on which Ayesha was 
mounted, being killed in the 
fight which raged round her. 

Batavia (Napoleonic Wars). 

This town was captured by 
the British under Sir Samuel 
Auchmuty, with 10,000 troops, 
August 26, 181 1. The French 
and Dutch garrison had aban- 

doned the town, and occupied a 
strong position at Fort Cornelius, 
in the immediate neighbour- 
hood. The British stormed the 
entrenchments, with a loss of 
872 killed and wounded, where- 
upon the survivors of the garrison 
laid down their arms. 

Batoche (Kiel's Second Re- 
Fought May 9 to 12, 1885. 
when 750 Canadians under 
General Middleton gradually 
drove back and finally defeated 
Kiel's force of half-breeds and 
Indians, with a loss of 224. The 
Canadians lost only 54 killed 
and wounded. Kiel surrendered 
on the 15 th. 


Fought 1653 between 40.000 
Poles under John II, and the 
Wallachians under Bogdan. The 
Poles, who were waiting to 
intercept the passage of the 
Wallachians, were thrown into 
disorder by a furious charge 
headed by Bogdan in person, 
and almost completely annihi- 

Bautzen (Campaign of Leipzic). 
Fought May 20 and 21, 181 3, 
between 150,000 French under 
Napoleon, and the Prussians and 
Russians, 100,000 strong, under 
Blucher and Count Wittgenstein. 
The allies were strongly posted 
in and around Bautzen, while 
their front was protected by 
the Spree. On the 20th Napo- 
leon forced the passage of the 
Spree, and seized Bautzen after 
severe fighting, driving the 
allies from their first hne of 
defence. On the 22nd he at- 
tacked the second line, while a 
flank march of Ney's corps 
drove in their right flank, and 



captured all their positions. 
The allies retired in good order, 
lack of cavalry preventing 
Napoleon from pushing his 
advantage. The allies lost 
15,000 killed and wounded in 
the two days ; the French, 


Bavay (Gallic War). 

Fought B.C. 57 between the 
Romans, 50.000 strong, under 
Caesar, and a large force of Gauls, 
drawn from the Nervii, Virom- 
andui, Atrebates and other 
tribes. The Gauls attacked as 
the Romans were pitching their 
camp on the banks of the 
Sambre, but, although surprised, 
the legionaries stood their 
ground, and utterly routed their 
assailants. The Nervii, in par- 
ticular, were practically annihi- 

Baylen (Peninsular War). 

Fought July 19, 1808, be- 
tween 15,000 Spaniards under 
Castafios. and 20,000 French 
under Dupont. The French 
were totally defeated with a loss 
of over 2.000 men, and Dupont 
surrendered with his whole 

Baza (War of Granada). 

This fortress, one of the out- 
posts of Granada, was besieged 
oy Ferdinand, with 95,000 
Spaniards, in June 1489, and 
was defended by a strong 
Moorish garrison under Sidi 
Yahye. The town was very 
strong, and was gallantly de- 
fended, and the siege lasted until 
December, when the place was 
surrendered on honourable terms. 

Beachy Head (War of the 
A naval action fought June 30, 

1690, between a combined Eng- 
lish and Dutch fleet of 73 ssul 
under Torrington, and a French 
fleet of 78 ships under de 
Tourville, which had been 
despatched to create a diversion 
in favour of James II in Ireland. 
The allies were defeated, the 
Dutch losing six and the British 
one ship. 

Beaug6 (Hundred Years* War). 
Fought March 22, 142 1, be- 
tween the English under the 
Duke of Clarence, and the 
Armagnacs, aided by the Scottish 
mercenaries, resulting in one of 
the few defeats sustained by the 
English during the French wars. 
The Duke and his immediate 
following, charging ahead of 
his troops, vigorously attacked 
the Scottish outposts, and, be- 
coming separated from the main 
body, was surrounded and slain, 
all his gentlemen being either 
killed or captured. The bodies 
were afterwards recovered by 
the English archers, but the 
defeat was complete. 

Beaumont (Franco - Gernian 
Fought August 30, 1870, be- 
tween the Fifth French Corps 
d'Arm6e under General de 
Failly, and the Fourth and 
Twelfth German Army Corps 
under the Crown Prince of 
Saxony. The French were sur- 
prised in their cantonments, 
and were driven back upon 
Monzon, with a loss of 4,800 men 
and 42 guns. The Germans lost 
about 3,500. 

Beaune-la-Rolande (Franco- 
German War). 
Fought November 28, 1870, 
between 9,000 Germans under 
the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg, 

■.^' ... -. - 

'- ^- 

mattm ^ ■ V-* 



and 60,000 French under General 
Croozat. The French assailed 
the German position, but, not- 
withstanding the disparity of 
numbers, the Germans suc- 
ceeded in maintaining their 
ground, after a desperate en- 
counter, driving off their assail- 
ants with a loss of 8.000 men. 
The Germans lost 37 officers and 
817 men only. 

Beaus6jour (Seven Years' War). 
This fort in Nova Scotia, held 
by a garrison of 460 men under 
Duchambon de Vergor, was 
invested June 4, 1755, ^y 2,000 
Massachusetts volunteers and 
a small force of regulars under 
Colonel Monckton. On the 14th 
the besiegers opened fire, and on 
the 1 6th the garrison surren- 

Beaver's Dam Creek. See Seven 
Days' Battle. 

Bedr (Mohammed's War with 
the Koreish). 
Fought in 623, and notable as 
the first military exploit of 
Mohammed, who, with only 3 1 3 
followers, routed a force of 950 
Koreish, who had been sent out 
to meet and protect a caravan 
of 1 ,000 camels, with which was 
their chief, Abu Sophian. After 
his victory, Mohammed pur- 
sued and captured the caravan. 

Bedriacum (Revolt of Vitellius). 
Fought April 14, 69, betw^een 
the legions of the Emperor Otho 
and the Vitellians under Valens. 
The Imperial troops were utterly 
routed, and driven back to 
their camp, which they sur- 
rendered to the Vitellians on 
the following day. 

Bega (Ottoman Wars). 
Fought 1696, between the 

Turks, under Mustapha II, and 
the Imperialists, when the Turks 
gained a complete victory. 

Belgrade (Ottoman Wars). 

Siege was laid to this city 
by a large Turkish army under 
Mohammed II. the defence being 
in the hands of John Hunyady. 
After a gallant resistance of 40 
days, the Turks were compelled 
to raise the siege, September 4, 
1456. This was Hunyady's last 
exploit, and he died a month 
later. Mohammed was wounded 
in the course of the siege. 

Belgrade (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought August 16, 17 17, be- 
tween 40,000 Austrians under 
Prince Eugene, and 180,000 
Turks under the Grand Vizier, 
Ibrahim Pasha. The Turks 
were entrenched in and around 
Belgrade, and were attacked by 
Eugene at night. His right 
wing lost touch and were in 
danger of being overwhelmed, 
but was rescued by the Prince. 
The main attack was completely 
successful, and the Turks were 
driven out of their positions 
with a loss of 20,000 killed and 
wounded, and 166 guns. The 
Austrians lost almost as heavily, 
among those who fell being 
Marshal Hauben. 

Belgrade (Ottoman Wars). 

On October 8, 1789, the city 
was surrendered by the Turks, 
after a brief siege, to an Austrian 
army under General Laudon. 

Belle Isle (Seven Years' War). 

Fought November 20, 1759, 
between a British fleet of 27 
ships of the Une and 6 frigates 
under Sir Edward Hawke, and 
a French fleet of 20 ships of the 
line and 6 frigates under Ad- 



miral de Conflans. The French 
were completely defeated, losing 
6 ships and a large number of 
men. The British lost 2 ships 
ashore, and 58 killed and 251 

Belle Isle (Seven Years* War). 

On June 7, 1761, the island 
was captured by 8,000 British 
troops under General Hodgson, 
convoyed by the fleet under 
Admiral Keppel. After a first 
repulse, the troops made good 
their landing, and the garrison 
of Palais, the principal town, at 
once capitulated. 

Belle Isle (Wars of the French 
Fought June 23, 1795, be- 
tween a British fleet of 17 battle- 
ships under Lord Bridport, and 
a French squadron. The French 
endeavoured to escape, but the 
British gave chase, and captured 
three ships, with a loss of 3 killed 
and 1 1 3 wounded. The French 
lost about 700. 

Bellevue (Franco-Gernian War). 
Fought October 7. 1870, when 
Marshal Bazaine attempted to 
break through the lines of the 
Germans investing Metz. He 
was unsuccessful, and was 
driven back into the city with a 
loss of 64 officers and 1,193 men. 
The Germans lost 75 officers and 
1,703 men. 

Belmont (Second Boer War). 

Fought November 23, 1899, 
between a Boer commando, 
about 3.000 strong, occupying 
a strong position on the hills 
near Belmont. and Lord 
Methuen's division of 7) bat- 
taUons of infantry and a regi- 
ment of cavalry. The Boer 
position was carried by a frontal 

attack, which cost the assailants 
28 officers and 270 men. The 
Boers lost about 300 killed and 
wounded, and 50 prisoners. 

Benburb (Great Irish Rebellion). 
Fought June 5, 1646, when 
5,500 Irish rebels under O'Neill, 
totally routed the Scottish army 
under Monro. The Scots left 
3,000 dead upon the field, and 
the fugitives were ruthlessly 
butchered by the Irish in their 

Bender (Ottoman Wars). 

This place, held by a Turkish 
garrison, was besieged by the 
Russians under Count Panin, 
August, 1768. After a defence of 
two months, the place was taken 
by storm, and the garrison put 
to the sword. 

Benevento (Italian Wars). 

Fought February 26, 1266, 
between the Neapolitans, under 
Mainfroy, the usurper of the 
crown of the Two Sicilies, and 
the French under Charles of 
Anjou. After a sanguinary en- 
gagement, in which Mainfroy 
was slain, the Neapolitans were 
utterly routed, and Charles of 
Anjou remained in undisputed 
possession of the throne. 

Beneventum (Pyrrhus* Invasion 
of Italy). 
Fought B.C. 275, when Pyr- 
rhus with a strong force of 
Epirots and Italians made a 
night attack upon the consular 
army of M. Carius Dentatus, 
encamped in a strong position 
near Beneventum. Pyrrhus was 
repulsed with considerable loss, 
including eight elephants. En- 
couraged by this success, the 
Romans shortly afterwards 
advanc^ to meet Pyrrhus in 




the open plain, and were at first 
driven back by the elephants, 
but rallying, they drove these 
back through Pyrrhus' lines, and 
disordered the Epirot phalanx, 
and a charge of the legionaries 
completed the rout. This was 
Pyrrhus' last serious attack 
against the Roman power, and 
he soon afterwards left Italy. 

Beneventum (Second Punic War) 
Fought B.C. 214, between 
18.000 Carthaginians under 
Hanno, and 20,000 Romans 
under Tiberius Gracchus. Han- 
no's troops were routed, his in- 
fantry being cut to pieces, and 
he himself escaping with diffi- 
culty, with a portion of his 

Beneyentum (Second Punic 
Fought B.C. 212, when a 
Roman consular army under 
Cn. Fulvius, stormed Hanno's 
camp, three miles from Bene- 
ventum, at daybreak, and sur- 
prising the Carthaginians, routed 
them with heavy loss and cap- 
tured all the corn and supplies 
intended for the revictualling of 

Bennington (American War of 
Fought August 10, 1777, be- 
tween a British force under 
Colonel Baum, and the New 
Hampshire troops under General 
Stark. Baum had been ordered 
to seize the American magazines 
at Bennington, but found the 
place too strong, and asked for 
reinforcements. Meanwhile they 
were surrounded and attacked 
by Stark. The British fought till 
their ammunition was exhausted 
and then surrendered, while 
Baum was killed trying to cut 

his way through the American 

Berea (Kaffir Wars). 

Fought December 20, 1852, 
between the British under 
General Cathcart, about 2,500 
strong, and the Basutos, many 
thousands in number, under 
Moshesh. The British, after hard 
fighting, succeeded in holding 
their ground, but wereobUged on 
the following day to retreat to 
the entrenched camp on the 
Caledon, having suffered a loss 
of 37 killed and 15 wounded. 

Beresina (Moscow Campaign). 

On November 28, 18 12, the 
French Grande Arm6e, in re- 
treat from Moscow, was attacked 
by the Russians under Tchit- 
chakofF and Wittgenstein. The 
former on the right bank, 
assailed Napoleon, who had 
already crossed the river, while 
Wittgenstein attacked Victor's 
corps, which formed the French 
rear-guard. The attack on 
Napoleon was repulsed, but on 
the other side of the river the 
Russian onslaught caused a 
panic among those who were 
waiting to cross, and though the 
rear-guard made a brave resist- 
ance, the losses among the 
stragglers and others were enor- 
mous. The official Russian re- 
port says that 36,000 bodies 
were recovered from the Bere- 
sina after the thaw. 


Fought 1653, between the 
Poles, 100,000 strong under 
John II, and a large army of 
Wsdlachians, Lithuanians, and 
Ukraine Tartars, 300.000 in all, 
under Bogdan of Wallachia. 
After a sanguinary battle, the 
Poles were completely vie- 



torious, defeating Bogdan with 
enormous loss. 

Bergen (Seyen Years' War). 

Fought April 13, 1759, ^^' 
tween the French under the 
Due de Broglie, and the Han- 
overians, about 40,000 strong, 
under Ferdinand of Brunswick. 
The French gained a signal 
victory, and retained possession 
of Bergen, the recapture of 
which was the object of Ferdi- 
nand's advance. 

Bergen-op-Zoom (War of the 
Austrian Succession). 
This fortress, held by a garri- 
son of Dutch and English under 
Cronstrun, was besieged July 15, 
1747, by 25,000 French under 
Count Lowendahl. The besieged 
made numerous vigorous sorties, 
inflicting heavy losses upon the 
French, but on September 17 
the besiegers, by an unexpected 
assault, effected a lodgment, and 
after severe fighting captured 
the place. The Frencn lost 
32,000 men during the siege ; 
the garrison 4,000. A Scottish 
brigaide in the Dutch service 
specially distinguished itself, 
losing 1,120 out of a strength 
of 1,450. 

Bergen-op-Zoom (Wars of the 
French ReTolution). 
On March 8, 1875, Bergen, 
which was held by a French 
garrison 6,000 strong, under 
General Bizouet, was attacked 
by a British force, 4,000 strong 
under General Cooke. The force 
was divided into four columns, 
one of which, approaching the 
town from the harbour side, at 
low water, effected an entrance, 
while two of the others gain^ the 
top of the battlements but 
could get no further. At dawn 

on the 9th, as there was no 
prospect of ultimate success, 
the assailants retired, having 
suffered a loss of 300 killed and 
1,800 prisoners, many of whom 
were wounded. 

Bergen-op-Zoom (Wars of the 
French Revolution). 
In the outskirts of the town 
a battle took place September 
19,1799, between 35,000 British 
and Russians under the Duke of 
York, and the French under 
Vandamme. The Russians on 
the right met with disaster, 
their commander, Hermann, with 
nearly all his division, being 
taken prisoners, but the British 
repulsed the French attack with 
heavy loss. The victory, how- 
ever, was not of much advantage 
to the allies, who were forced to 
continue their retreat to Zijp. 
The French lost about 3,000 
killed and wounded, and the 
British 500 only, but the Rus- 
sian casualties amounted to 
3,500, while they also lost 26 

Bergfried (Campaign of Fried- 
Fought February 3, 1807, 
when Leval's division of Soult's 
corps forced the bridge of 
Burgfried, and carried the vil- 
lage, driving out the Russians 
after a short and sharp encoun- 
ter, with a loss of about 1,200 
men. The French lost 700. 

B^thune (War of the Spanish 
This small fortress, held by a 
French garrison of 3.500 under 
M. du Puy Vauban, was in- 
vested July 14, 1707, by the 
Imperialists, with 30 battaUons 
under Count Schulemburg. 
Vauban made a most skilful and 





gallant defence, lasting 35 days, 
when, the garrison D^ng re- 
duced to 1 ,500 men, he was com- 
pelled to surrender. This little 
place cost the allies 3,500 in 
killed and wounded. 

Betioca (South American War of 
Fought 18 1 3, between the 
Colombian patriots under Simon 
Bolivar, and the Spanish 
royalists, Bolivar gaining a 
complete victory. 

Betwa, The (Indian Mutiny). 

Fought April i, 1858, be- 
tween 1,200 British under Sir 
Hugh Rose, forming part of the 
force besieging Jhansi, and 
20,000 rebete, chidly belonging 
to the Gwalior contingent, under 
Tantia Topi. The enemy was 
thrown into confusion by a 
charge of cavalry on the flank, 
and, being then attacked with 
the bayonet, broke and fled, 
leaving 1,000 dead on the field 
and all their guns. 

Beylan (Mehemet Ali's First 
Fought 183 1, between the 
Syrians and Egyptians under 
Ibrahim Pasha, and the Turks, 
the latter being completely de- 

Beymaroo (First Afghan War). 
Fought Novemb^ 23, 1841, 
when a detachment of General 
Elphinstone's force, under Brig- 
adier Shelton, attempted to dis- 
lodge a large body of Afghans, 
posted near Beymaroo village. 
The detachment had one gun 
only, which, being well served, 
did considerable execution, but 
it broke down, whereupon the 
Afghans attacked, and a charge 
of Ghazis caused a panic and a 

disorderly flight to the British 

Bezetha (Jewish War). 

Fought October, 66, when the 
Romans under Cestius Gallus 
were attacked by the populace 
of Jerusalem, and driven out of 
their camp, with a loss of 6,000 
men and all their baggage and 
siege train. 

Bhurtpur (Second Mahratta 
This city, garrisoned by about 
8,000 of the Rajah's troops, was 
besieged by General Lake, 
January 4, 180$. Finding that 
his siege train was inadequate to 
reduce the town by the ordinary 
methods. Lake determined to 
carry it by storm. Four succes- 
sive assaults were made, but 
without success, and on April 21 
Lake was obliged to withdraw, 
having lost 3,200 men during 
the siege. 

Bhurtpur, Second Siege of. 

The city was again besieged 
by the British under Lord 
Combermere in 1827. a dispute 
having taken place as to the 
succession, and the Rajah who 
was under British protection 
having been expelled. After a 
bombardment of two months, 
which had little efiect on the 
fortress, it was taken by assault. 

Biberac (Wars of the French 
Fought October, 1796, between 
the French under Moreau, and 
the Austrians under the Arch- 
duke Charles, who had previ- 
ously defeated Jourdan at Warz- 
burg, and now turned upon 
Moreau, who was retreating 
through the Black Forest. 
Moreau severely defeated the 



Austrians, and continaed his 
retreat unmolested. 

Bitoacte (GaUic War). 

Fought B.C. $8, between the 
Romans under Cssar and a 
largely superior force of Hel- 
vetii. The battle was a momen- 
tous one, for a defeat to Caesar 
meant destruction. He there- 
fore sent away all his officers' 
horses, giving them to under- 
stand that they must stand 
their ground to the last. In the 
event, the Helvetii were totally 
routed, and compelled to submit 
to the domination of Rome. 

Bilbao (First CarUst War). 

This fortress was besieged by 
the Carlists November 9, 1836, 
and was defended by a small 
Christino garrison. The be- 
siegers took possession of some 
of the suburos, which were re- 
captured by a sortie. Finally, 
after several unsuccessful at- 
tempts, Espartero. at the head 
of about 18.000 Christinos, 
drove ofi the besiegers, Decem- 
ber 25, and relieved the city, 
capturing the Carlist artillery 
of 25 pieces. In the action the 
Christmos lost 714 killed and 
wounded, while the losses of 
the garrison during the siege 
amounted to about 1,300. 

Bingen (Gallic Revolt). 

In the year 70. Petilius 
Cerialis, who, with four Roman 
legions, had crossed the Alps 
from Switzerland, surprised the 
revolted Gauls under Tutor, in 
their camp at Bingen. The 
Gallic legionaries in Tutor's army 
deserted to the Romans, and 
Tutor was totally defeated. 

Biruan (Tartar Invasion of 
Fought 1 22 1, between 80,000 

Tartars under Katuku, and the 
troops of Jellalladin, Sultan of 
Kharismia, 60,000 strong. The 
Tartars were routed and driven 
from the field in confusion. 

Bithur (Indian Mutiny). 

Fought August 16, 1857, 
when 4.000 mutineers, strongly 
posted, were attacked and routed 
by the relieving force under 
General Havelock. When driven 
from their position, the rebels 
had to cross a stream in their 
rear by a small bridge, and had 
Havelock possessed an adequate 
cavalry force, but few could 
have escaped. 

Bitonto (War of the Polish 
Fought May 25. 1734. be- 
tween the Imperialists, 10.000 
strong, and the Spaniards under 
Mortemar. The Imperialists 
were driven from a strong 
position, with heavy loss, and 
the victory resulted in the 
establishment of Spanish rule 
throughout the Neapolitan pro- 

Blackheath (Flammock's Re- 
Fought June 22, 1497, be- 
tween the royal troops under 
Henry VII, and the rebels under 
Flammock and Lord Audley. 
The rebels were defeated with a 
loss of 2,000 killed, and all their 
leaders were captured and exe- 

Black Rock (Second American 
Fought 1 8 14, between 1,400 
British troops under General 
Riall, and a force of 2,000 
American Indians, occupying a 
strong position at Black Rock. 
The British stormed the en- 



trenchments and dispersed the 
enemy, following up their suc- 
cess by the seizure of Buffalo. 

Blackwater (O'Neill's Rebellion). 

Fought 1598, between 5,000 
Irish rebels under Hugh O'Neill, 
and 5,000 English under Sir 
Henry Bagnall. the English 
Marshal. Bagnall was defeated 
with a loss of 1,500 and all his 
ammunition and baggage, while 
he himself was killed by O'Neill. 

Bladensburg (Second American 
Fought August 24. 1 8 14, 
between the British under 
General Ross, and the Americans 
under General Winder, who was 
opposing the British advance 
upon Washington, and had taken 
up a positon which commanded 
the only bridge over the Poto- 
mac. Ross attacked with a por- 
tion of his force, under Thorn- 
ton, and. having carried the 
bridge, a combined assault upon 
the main position resulted in a 
signal defeat of the American 
army, which broke and fled. 
Ross entered Washington the 
same evening. 

Blanquefort (Hundred Years' 
Fought November i, 1450, 
when the English made a sally 
from Bordeaux to repel a 
marauding band under Amanien. 
The English cavalry, advancing 
too rapidly, became separated 
from the main body, and was 
cut off. Amanien then fell upon 
the infantry, who, being un- 
supported, were overwhelmed 
and almost annihilated. So 
great was the slaughter that the 
day was long known in Bor- 
deaux as the " Male Joum^e." 

Blenheim (War of the Spanish 
Fought August 13, 1704, be- 
tween the British and Imperial- 
ists under Marlborough and 
Prince Eugene, and the French 
and Bavarians under Marshals 
Tallard and Marsin, and the 
Elector of Bavaria. The French 
numbered 60,000, the allies 
52,000. Tallard had massed his 
best troops in the village of 
Blenheim, and Marlborough, see- 
ing the weakness of his centre, 
hurled his cavalry against it, 
and cut the French line in two. 
Prince Eugene meanwhile had 
withstood the attack of Marsin 
and the Elector, and, after 
Marlborough's charge, he as- 
sumed the offensive, and the 
French right and centre were 
totally routed. The French lost 
40,000, including i ,600 prisoners, 
amongst whom was Marshal 
Tallard. The allies lost about 

Bloore Heath (Wars of the 
Fought September 23, 1459, 
between the Yorkists under the 
Earl of Salisbury, and the 
Lancastrians under Henry VI. 
The former, who were inferior 
in numbers, were attacked by 
Henry, who crossed a brook 
before the assault. As the Lan- 
castrians were reforming after 
the crossing, the Yorkists 
charged down upon them, and 
dispersed them with heavy loss. 

Blueberg (Napoleonic Wars). 

On January 8, 1806, a British 
force 6,600 strong, under 
General Baird, which had just 
landed at Saldanha Bay, was 
attacked by the Dutch and 
French under General Janssens, 



issuing from Cape Town. The 
British gained a signal victory, 
in which they lost 212 killed, 
wounded and missing, while 
their opponents' losses amounted 
to about 300. Baird at once 
occupied Cape Town. 

Boadicea, Defeat of (Roman 
Occupation of Britain). 
In the year 61, Suetonius, 
with 10.000 legionaries, totally 
routed an enormous host of 
Britons under Boadicea, Queen 
of the Iceni. who had sacked 
Camelodunum. and taken 
Londinium and Verulamium. 
The Britons lost 80.000 killed, 
and Boadicea took poison on 
the battlefield. 

Bois-le-Duc (Wars of the French 
Fought November 12, 1794. 
between the French and Aus- 
trians under the Duke of York, 
and the French under Moreau. 
Moreau's object was to enter 
Holland at a period when the 
dykes would be no obstacle to 
his advance, and for the purpose 
endeavoured to cross the Mcusc 
at Fort Crdvecoeur. near Bois-le- 
Duc. The alUes however, dis- 
puted his passage so vigorously 
that Moreau was forced to retire, 
and give up his project. 

Bokhara (Tartar Invasion of 
This city was besieged by 
the Tartar army under Genghis 
Khan in March, 1220, and was 
held by a Kharismian garrison. 
On the approach of the Tar- 
tars, however, the Kharismian 
general, with the whole garrison, 
20.000 strong, fled from the 
place, and the Bokhariots. 
having no means of defending 
themselves, opened the gates to 

Genghis. The Governor held out 
for a short time in the citadel, 
which was finally fired and 


Fought August 29. 1848, be- 
tween the British, 800 strong, 
with 250 Griquas, under Sir 
Harry Smith, and a force of 
1. 000 Transvaal Boers under 
Commandant Jan Kock. The 
British stormed the Boer posi- 
tion and drove out the defenders, 
at a cost of 22 killed and 38 
wounded. The Boers stated their 
losses at 5 killed and 9 wounded^ 

Borghetto (Napoleon's Italian 
Fought May 30. 1796, in the 
course of Napoleon's pursuit of 
Beaulieu. The French crossed 
the Mincio at Borghetto, haying 
previously repaired the bridge 
under a heavy fire, and forced 
the Austrians to evacuate 
Peschiera, with a loss of 500 
prisoners, besides killed and 

Bornholm (Dano-Swedish Wars). 
Fought 1676, between the 
fleet of Charles XI of Sweden, and 
a combined Dutch and Danish 
squadron. The Swedes were 
utterly routed, a disaster which 
was followed by the loss of 
Helsingborg, Landscroon, and 
other fortresses. 


Fought 1227, between the 
Danes under Valdemar II, and 
the insurgents of the province 
of Dithmarsh, who had risen 
against the Danish dominion. 
The royal troops were totally 
routed, and, as a consequence, 
the province was lost to the 
Danish crown. 





Borodino (Moscow Campaign). 

Fought September 5, 18 12, 
between 1 20,000 Russians under 
Kutusofif. and the French in 
equal force under Napoleon. 
The Russians, who were in- 
trenched in a very strong 
position, were attacked soon 
after daybreak, and their first 
line of reidoubts was carried and 
held by the French till the end 
of the day, but the victory was 
far from decisive, as at nightfall 
Napoleon retired to his original 
position, leaving the Russians in 
possession of the field. The 
French lost 10,000 killed, in- 
cluding 8 generals, and 20,000 
wounded, including 30 generals. 
The Russians lost about 45.000. 
This battle is also called the 
Battle of the Moskowa. 

Boroughhridge (Rebellion of the 
Fought 1322, between the 
Royalists under Edward II, and 
the rebels under Hereford and 
Lancaster. The rebels, falling 
back before the king, were sur- 
prised by a force under Sir 
Andrew Harclay while crossing 
the bridge at Boroughbridge, 
and were utterly routed. Here- 
ford was killed, and Lancaster, 
with several hundred barons 
and knights, surrendered. 

Borysthenesy The (Russo-Polish 
Fought 1 5 12, when the Poles 
under Sigismund I defeated an 
army of Muscovites, 80,000 
strong, with enormous slaughter. 

Bosra (Moslem Invasion of 
This strouR fortress was be- 
sieged, 632, Dy 4,000 Moslems 
under Serjabil. A sortie of the 
garrison nearly caused their 

destruction, but they were 
rescued by the arrival of 1,500 
horse under Khaled. After a 
brief interval, the whole of the 
garrison marched out of the 
city to give battle, but were de- 
feated by Khaled with a loss to 
his troops of 250 men only, and 
the city was shortly afterwards 
betrayed by Romanus, the 

Bosworth Field (Wars of the 

Fought August 21. 1485, be- 
tween Richard III and Henry 
Duke of Richmond (Henry VII). 
Richmond had received a pro- 
mise from Lord Stanley and his 
uncle that they would desert 
during the battle, and. after 
holding aloof for some time, they 
came over, with their followers, 
at a critical moment of the en- 
gagement, and Richard was 
routed and slain. He fought to 
the end, and among others who 
fell with him were the Duke of 
Norfolk and Lord Ferrers. 

Bothwell Bridge (Covenanters* 

Fought June 22, 1679, when 
the Royal troops, under the 
Duke of Monmouth, defeated 
the Covenanters with great 


Siege was laid to the town by 
the English under Henry VIII, 
September 14, 1544. It was de- 
fended with great gallantry, and, 
in the face of enormous diffi- 
culties, for two months, when it 
was forced to surrender, the 
inhabitants being allowed to 
march out with their arms and 



Bourbon (Napoleonic Wars). 

On July 8, 1810, this island 
was captured by a British 
squadron of five ships under 
Commodore Rowley, with a 
detachment of troops under 
Colonel Keatinge. The British 
lost 22 killed and 79 wounded. 

Bouvines (Wars of PhiUp 
Fought 1 2 14 between the 
French under Philip Augustus, 
and the Germans, Flemish and 
English under Otho IV, the 
numbers engaged on both sides 
being considerable. The French 
gained a signal victory, which 
broke up the coalition and ren- 
dered the position of Philip 
Augustus secure on the throne 
of France. 

Bovianum (Sceond Samnlte 
Fought B.C. 307 between the 
Romans under Titus Minucius, 
and the Samnites under Statins 
Gellius. Gellius attempted to 
relieve Bovianum. which the 
Romans were besieging, and was 
totally defeated, though Minucius 
fell in the battle. This defeat 
broke the Samnite power, and 
they sued for peace in the 
following year, leaving Rome 
without dispute the first power 
in Italy. 

Boyaca (South American War of 
Fought August 17, 1 8 19. be- 
tween the Colombian patriots 
under BoUvar, and the Spanish 
Royalists. 2,500 strong, under 
Colonel Barreiro. BoUvar crossed 
the Cordilleras, under incredible 
difficulties, and, eluding Bar- 
reiro, took up a position at 
Boyaca, cutting him off from his 
base at Bogota. The Spaniards 

attacked him, and were routed 
with heavy loss, Barreiro and 
1,600 men being captured. The 
patriots lost 66 only. 

Boyne, The (War of the Revolu- 
Fought July I, 1690. between 
the forces of William III, and 
the Irish under James II. 
William and the elder Schomberg 
attacked the front of James's 
position, while the younger 
Schomberg crossed the Boyne a 
few miles higher up, and at- 
tacked him in flank. William 
forced the passage of the river, 
and drove the Irish from their 
entrenchments at a cost of $00 
killed and wounded, including 
the elder Schomberg. The Irish 
lost 1,500. 

Braddock Down (Civil War). 

Fought January 19, 1643, 
between the Royalists under Sir 
Ralph Hopton, and the Parlia- 
mentary forces under Ruthven. 
The latter had crossed the 
Tamar and occupied Liskeard, 
without adequate support, and 
was defeated by the Royalists 
with heavy loss. 

Bramham Moor (Northumber- 
land's Rebellion). 
Fought February 20, i4o8» 
when Sir Thomas Rokeby, High 
Sheriff of Yorkshire, defeated 
the Earl of Northumberland, 
who had again raised the stan- 
dard of rebelUon in the North. 
The Earl was slain, and the re- 
bellion subsided. 

Brandywine (American War of 
Fought September 11. 1777 » 
between 18,000 British under 
General Howe, and 8,000 Ameri- 
cans under Washington. The 




British General made a flank 
movemient with a large portion 
of his force, whereupon Washing- 
ton attacked the British in the 
front, but, being ill supported by 
his lieutenant. Sullivan, he was 
driven back, and forced to 
retreat, with a loss of 900 killed 
and wounded and 300 prisoners. 
The British lost 590 killed and 

Brechin (Douglas Rebellion). 

Fought 1452, between the re- 
volted Douglasses under the 
Earl of Craufurd, and the 
Royal troops under the Earl of 
Huntly. The Douglasses were 

Bregenz (War of the League 
Above the Lake). 
Fought January 1408, be- 
tween the troops of the League 
Above the Lake and the bur- 

fhers of Constance, aided by the 
uabian nobles. The Leaguers 
were totally routed, with the 
result that the League was 
shortly afterwards dissolved. 

Breitenfeld, First Battle. See 

Breitenfeld, Second Battle (Thirty 
Years' War). 
Fought November 2, 1642, 
between the Imperialists under 
the Archduke Leopold and 
Piccolomini, and the Swedes 
under Torstenson. The latter, 
who were in retreat, were 
caught by the pursuing Austrians 
at Breitenfeld, but turning upon 
them, they offered a desperate 
resistance, and finally drove 
them from the field, totally 
routed,with a loss of 10,000 men. 


Fought August 20, 1 1 19, be- 
tween a smaU body of English 

cavalry under Henry I, and a 
similar French force under 
Louis VI. Though only about 
900 men were engaged, and very 
few killed, the fight was con- 
sidered a decisive victory for 
the English, and Louis shortly 
afterwards made peace, conced- 
ing Henry's terms. 

Brentford (CivU War). 

Fought November 12. 1642, 
between the Royalists under 
Prince Rupert, and a Parliamen- 
tary force under Denzil Holies. 
Three regiments stationed at 
Brentford were driven out of 
their entrenchments by the 
Royalists, losing 1,500 prisoners 
and II guns. 

Brescia (Italian Rising). 

This city, where the populace 
had risen and shut up the small 
Austrian garrison in the citadel, 
was carried by assault by Genera 
Haynau, with about 4,000 Aus- 
trians, March 3 1 , 1 849. Carrying 
the Porta Torrelunga, he fought 
his way from barricade to barri- 
cade, till, by the evening of 
April I, the resistance of the 
citizens was overcome. The 
Austrians lost 480 killed, in- 
cluding General Nugent, and 
many wounded. The wholesale 
executions ordered by Haynau 
after the capture earned for 
him the sobriquet of the Hyaena. 

Breslau (Seven Years' War). 

Fought November 22, 1757, 
between 90,000 Austrians under 
Prince Charles of Lorraine, and 
25,000 Prussians under the 
Piince of Bevem. The Prussians, 
who were encamped under the 
walls of Breslau, were driven 
into the dty with a loss of 5,000 
killed and wounded, 3.600 
prisoners, including the Prince of 



Bevem, and 80 guns. They 
evacuated the city at once, 
leaving a garrison of 6.000, 
which surrendered two days 
later. The Austrians lost 8,000 
killed and wounded. 

Brest (War of the Holy League). 
Fought August 10. 1 5 12, 
between the English fleet of 45 
sail under Lord Edward Howard, 
and the French fleet of 39 sail 
under Jean de Thenouenel. The 
French ships were driven into 
Brest, or along the coast, with 
heavy loss. The English lost 2 
ships and i .600 men. 

Bridge of Dee (Civil War). 

Fought June 18, 1639, be- 
tween the Covenanters. 2,300 
strong, and the Royal troops 
under Lord Aboyne. The bridge 
itself was barricaded and held 
by 100 sharpshooters, under 
Colonel Johnstone, and Mont- 
rose, who led the Covenanters, 
finding the defences too strong, 
succe^ed by a stratagem in 
drawing of! the main body of 
the defenders, whereupon he 
forced a paissage. The losses on 
both sides were very small. 

Brienne (Allied Invasion of 
Fought January 29, 18 14, be- 
tween 18,000 French under 
Napoleon, and about 30,000 
Russians and Prussians under 
Blucher. The allies were driven 
from their positions, and the 
ChAteau de Brienne taken. After 
nightfall a determined attempt 
to retake the chateau was made 
by the Russians under Sachen, 
but they failed to dislodge the 
French. The aUies lost about 
4,000 ; the French 3,000 killed 
and wounded. 

Brihuega (War of the Spanish 
Fought 17 10 between the 
British under Stanhope, and 
the French under the Due de 
Vendome. Stanhope, who was 
retreating from Madrid to Cata- 
lonia, was surprised and sur- 
rounded, and, though he made a 
gallant stand, fighting till all his 
powder was spent, and then 
leading a bayonet charge, his 
force was at last reduced to 500 
men, when he surrendered. 

BriU (Netherlands War of Inde- 
This fortress was captured 
from the Spaniards by the 
Beggars of the Sea, about 400 
strong, under De la Marck and 
Treslong, April i, 1572. It 
was the first success of the 
Netherlands patriots in their 
struggle against Spanish rule, 
and may be said to have laid the 
foundation of the Dutch re- 

Brittany, Action off (Gallic War). 
This, the first sea fight in the 
Atlantic, was fought B.C. 56, 
between the Roman fleet under 
Brutus, and the fleet of the 
Veneti, consisting of 220 gal- 
leys. The Romans were vic- 
torious, and the surrender of the 
Veneti and the whole of Brittany 
quickly followed. 

Bronkhorst Spruit (First Boer 
The opening engagement of 
the war, when, on December 20, 
1880, a British column, 259 
strong, under Colonel Anstruther, 
was ambushed by 150 mounted 
Boers under Joubert, and de- 
feated with a loss of 1 5 5 killed and 
wounded. The Boers stated 




their losses at 2 killed and 5 
wounded only. 

BrooklTn (American War of 
Fought August 27, 1776, be- 
tween 30,000 British under Sir 
William Howe, and the Ameri- 
cans, about 1 1 ,000 strong, under 
General Putnam. The Americans 
were completely defeated, with 
a loss of about 2,000 killed and 
wounded. The British lost 65 
killed and 25$ wounded. 

Brunanburh (Danish Invasion). 
Fought 937, when i£thelstan 
defeated with great slaughter the 
combined armies of Anlaf the 
Dane, Owen of Cumberland, 
and Constantine III of Scotland. 

Bucharest (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought 1 77 1, between the 
Turks under Mousson Oglou, 
and the Russians under General 
Romanzofi. The Turks were 
totally defeated. 

Buena Vista (Americo-Mexican 
Fought February 22. 1846, 
between 18,000 Mexicans under 
General Santa Anna, and 4,500 
Americans under General 
Zachary Taylor. The Americans 
occupied a series of heights 
commanding the Angostura 
pass, and were there attacked by 
Santa Anna, who failed to dis- 
lodge them, the day ending with 
the combatants occupying the 
same ground as in the morning. 
On the 23rd, however, Santa 
Anna retired. The Americans 
lost 746 lolled and wounded ; the 
Mexicans admitted a loss of i , 500 
killed, but it was probably 

Buenos Ayres (Napoleonic Wars ). 
This city was captured June 

2y, 1806, by a coup de main, by 
a British force, 1,700 strong, 
under General Beresford, aided 
by a small squadron under Sir 
Home Popham. Beresford, 
however, was not strong enough 
to hold the place, and before 
reinforcements could arrive he 
was defeated by the South 
Americans under General 
Liniers, with a loss of 250 killed 
and wounded, and compelled to 
surrender with his whole force. 

Buenos Ayres (Napoleonic Wars). 
Fought July 5, 1807 when 
9,000 British troops under 
General Whitelocke assaulted 
the city. They penetrated into 
the streets, but suffered terrible 
losses from the defenders' fire 
from windows and roofs, and. 
General Whitelocke proving a 
most incapable leader, were 
forced to surrender and evacuate 
the whole of the River Plate 

Buenos Ayres (Mitre's Re- 
Fought November 6, 1874, 
between the Argentine Govern- 
ment troops under Sarmiento, 
and the rebels under Mitre and 
Aredondo. The rebels were de- 
feated, and Mitre forced to 

Bull Run (American Civil War). 
Fought July 21, 1 86 1, between 
40,000 Federals under General 
M'Dowell, and 30,000 Confede- 
rates under General Beauregard. 
The Confederates occupi^ a 
position extending for about nine 
miles along the southern bank 
of the Bull Run, and an attempt 
to turn and drive in their left 
was at first successful, but, being 
rallied by General Beauregard, 
they assumed the offensive, and 



totally routed the Northerners, 
with a loss of 1,492 kUled and 
wounded, 1,600 prisoners, and 
28 guns. The Confederates lost 

Bull Run, Second Battle (Ameri- 
can Civil War). 
Fought August 30, 1862. be- 
tween the Confederates under 
Stonewall Jackson, and the 
Federals under General Pope. 
The Federals attacked Jackson's 
pK>sition. which he maintained 
till evening, when, the Federal left 
giving way, he ordered a general 
advance, and drove the enemy 
from the field with heavy loss. 
Over 7,000 prisoners were taken. 

Bunker's Hill (American War of 
Fought June 17. 1775, when 
2,000 British troops, forming a 
portion of General Gage's army, 
dislodged the Americans holding 
Breeds HiU and Bunker's Hill, 
on the outskirts of Boston. The 
position was stubbornly con- 
tested, the assailants losing 
800 men. 

Burlington Heights (Second 
American War). 
Fought May 5. 181 3, when the 
British under Colonel Procter 
were attacked by 1.300 Ameri- 
cans under General Clay, while 
engaged with another American 
force holding Burlington Heights. 
The Americans broke the British 
Une and seized their guns, but 
Procter, who had only 1,000 
men. with some Indian auxiU- 
aries. ralUed his troops and 
routed Clay, with a loss of 
nearly 1,000 killed, wounded 
and captured. 

Bums HiU (Kaffir Wars). 

Fought 1847. between the 

Kaffirs under Sandilli, and a 
small British force sent to arrest 
that chief. The British were 
greatly outnumbered, and were 
defeated and forced to retreat. 

Busaco (Peninsular War). 

Fought by Wellington, Sep- 
tember 29, 18 10, to secure his 
retreat to Torres Vedras. He 
occupied the heights of Busaco 
with 25,000 men and was 
attacked by 40,000 French under 
Mass^na. The actual assault 
was delivered by the corps of 
Ney and Reynier, but they 
could make no impression, and 
were repulsed with a loss of about 
4.500. The British lost 1.300 
killed and wounded 


Fought October 23, 1764, 
between 7.000 British troops and 
sepoys under Major Monro, and 
the army of Oude, 40,000 strong, 
under Surabjah Daulah, who 
was accompanied by the Great 
Mogul, Shah AUum. The British 
gained a signal victory, Surabjah 
Daulah abandoning his camp 
with a loss of 4,000 men and 1 30 
guns. The British lost 847 killed 
and wounded. 

Buzenval (Franco-German War). 
A sortie from Paris under 
General Trochu on January 19, 
1 87 1. The French, advancing 
under cover of a fog, estab- 
lished themselves in the Park of 
Buzenval, and occupied St. 
Cloud, where they maintained 
their position throughout the 
day. At other points, however, 
they were less successful, and. on 
the morning of the 20th. the 
force at St. Cloud, finding itself 
unsupported, was obliged to re- 
tire, and all the captured posi- 
tions were abandoned. The 




Germans lost 40 officers and 570 
men ; the French 189 officers 
and 3,88 1 men. This sortie is also 
known as the Battle of Mont 


Fought 318 B.C., between the 
Macedonian fleet under Anti- 
gonus, and that of the Asiatic 
rebels under Clytus. The 
Asiatics were surprised at an- 
chor, most of the crews being 
ashore,, and, after a feeble de- 
fence, the whole of their fleet 
was destroyed or captured, with 
the exception of the admiral's 
galley, in which Clytus succeeded 
m escaping. 

Byzantium (War of the Two 
In 323 the city was besieged 
by Constantine the Great after 
his victory over Licinius at 
Hadrianopolis. Licinius, flnding 
the place difficult of defence, 
crossed into Asia and collected 
an army to raise the siege. He 
was, however, defeated at Chry- 
sopolis, and Byzantium sur- 
rendered in 324. Constantine 
was proclaimed Emperor of the 
united Empire, and Byzantium, 
under its modern name of 
Constantinople, was made the 

Cabala (Second Carthaginian 
Invasion of Sicily). 
Fought B.C. 379, between the 
Syracusans under Dionysius, 
and the Carthaginians under 
Mago. The latter were totally 
defeated and Mago slain. 

Cabria (Third Mithridatic War). 

Fought B.C. 72, between three 

Roman legions under LucuUus, 

and the Pontic army under 
Diophantus and Taxiles. The 
Pontic cavalry, on which 
Mithridates chiefly relied, was 
overwhelmed by Fabius Had- 
rianus. and the king was driven 
out of Pontus, which was 
erected into a Roman province 

Cadesia (Moslem Invasio.i of 
Fought 636, between 30,000 
Moslems under Said, the lieu- 
tenant of the Caliph Omar, and 
120,000 Persians under Rustam. 
Throughout the first day the 
Persians, superior in numbers, 
but far inferior in warlike 
qualities, sustained the attacks 
of the Moslems without losing 
ground, but on the following 
day Rustam was slain, and his 
followers, losing heart, were 
driven headlong from the field, 
with fearful slaughter. The 
Moslems lost 7,500 in the 


On April 19, 1587, Sir Francis 
Drake, with between 30 and 40 
English ships, entered Cadiz 
Bay, and destroyed over 100 
Spanish vessels. This exploit 
Drake described as " Singeing 
the King of Spain's beard." 

Cadsand (Hundred Years' War). 
Fought November 10, 1357. 
between 2,500 English under the 
Earl of Derby, and 5,000 
Flemings in the French service. 
The Flemings were defeated 
with a loss of i ,000 men. 

Cairo (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought 1 5 17, between the 
Turks under Selim I, and the 
Egyptians under the Mameluke 
Sultan, Toomaan Bey. The 
Egyptians were utterly routed 



and Cairo taken, 50,000 of the 
inhabitants being massecred. 
Toomaan Bey, the last of the 
Mamelukes, was hanged before 
the city gates, and Eg^pt 
annexed to the Ottoman Em- 


Fought January 8, 1659, be- 
tween the Moguls of Delhi, 
under Aurungzebe, the Great 
Mogul, and the army raised by 
his brother Shuja, in support of 
Dara, the rightful heir to the 
throne. After an obstinate con- 
flict, Shuja was driven from 
the field with heavy losses in 
men, leaving behind him 1 14 

Calafat (Crimean War). 

This position, strongly en- 
trenched and held by 30,000 
Turks under Ahmed Pasha, 
was invested by the Russians, 
40.000 strong, under General 
Aurep, about the middle of 
February, 1854. The Russians 
delivered assault after assault 
upon the place, without effect, 
and finally withdrew their forces 
in May ; having suffered a loss 
from disease, privation, and 
battle of 20,000 men. The Turks 
lost 12,000. 

Calais (Hundred Years' War). 

Siege was laid to this fortress 
in August 1346 by the English 
under Edward III. The citizens 
made a gallant defence, holding 
out for nearly a year, but at 
last were forced to surrender 
August 4. 1347. In the course 
of the siege, six burgesses offer- 
ed themselves to the king as 
ransom for their fellow citizens ; 
but their lives were spared 
on the intercession of Queen 


The last English stronghold 
in France was captured by the 
French under the Due de Guise, 
January 8, 1558, after a siege of 
seven days only. Mary is said 
to have exclaimed, on hearing 
the news, that at her death the 
word " Calais " would be found 
engraven on her heart. 

Calatafimi (Unification of Italy). 
Fought May 15, i860, be- 
tween Garibaldi's " Thousand 
Volunteers," with a few thou- 
sand Sicilian " Picciotti " and 
4,000 Neapolitans under General 
Landi. The Neapolitans were 
driven back with heavy loss, 
and retreated in disorder to 
Palermo. Garibaldi lost, of his 
thousand, 18 killed and 128 


Siege was laid to the citv 
June 16, 1756, by Sarabjah 
Daulah, Nawab of Bengal, with 
a large force. The garrison, 
consisting of 5T4 regulars and 
militia, and 1,000 matchlock 
men, under Captain Minchin, 
was quite inadequate to man the 
defences, and it was decided to 
abandon the city, remove all 
non-combatants to the ships, 
and only defend the fort. The 
Governor, Mr. Drake, was among 
those who left the place, and 
he was accompanied by Captain 
Minchin, who deserted his post, 
as did many of the militiamen, 
with the result that only 190 
remained for the defence of the 
fort. An assault was repulsed, 
with a loss to the defenders of 
95 killed and wounded, but on 
the 20th the little garrison 
surrendered. The survivors were 
thrust into a small room, known 



as the Black Hole, and used as a 
soldiers' prison, and out of 146 
only 23 survived the horrors of 
the night. 

Caldiero (Napoleon's Italian Cam** 
Fought November 11, 1796, 
between the French under 
Napoleon and the Austrians 
under Alvinzi. Napoleon at- 
tacked the Austrian position, 
and, for the first time in the 
campaign, suffered a reverse, 
being unable to carry the 
enemy's lines, and eventually, 
after severe fighting, retiring 
with a loss of 3,000. Within the 
week, however, this defeat was 
avenged by the victory of 

Caldiero (Napoleon's Italian Cam- 
On November 30, 1800, 
Mass^na, with 50.000 French, 
encountered the Austrians, 
80,000 strong, under the Arch- 
duke Charles, strongly posted 
in the village and on the heights 
of Caldiero. Mass6na attacked 
and carried the heights, but the 
village held out until nightfall. 
During the night the Archduke 
removed his baggage and artil- 
lery, leaving a corps of 5,000 
men, under GeneraJ Hillinger, 
to protect his retreat, which 
force was on the following day 
captured en bloc. The Austrians 
lost 3,000 killed and wounded, 
and, including Hillinger 's corps, 
8,000 prisoners ; the French 
about 4,000 killed and wounded. 
Thus, though the battle was 
indecisive, Mass6na gained a 
considerable strategic victory. 

Calicut (Second Mysore War). 

Fought December 10, 1790, 
between 9,000 Mysore troops 

under Hussein Ali, and a 
British force of one European 
and two native regiments under 
Colonel Hartly. Hussein Ali 
occupied a strong position in 
front of Calicut, which was 
attacked and carried by Hartley 
with a loss of 52 only. The 
enemy lost 1,000 killed and 
wounded, and 2,400 prisoners, 
including their commander. 

Callao (South American War of 
On the night of November 5, 
1820, Lord Cochrane, who with 
three Chilian frigates was 
blockading the Spaniards in 
Callao, rowed into the harbour 
with 240 seamen and marines, 
and cut out the Spanish frigate 
Esmeralda from under the 300 
guns of the shore batteries. 
He lost in the enterprise 41 
killed and wounded, while the 
whole of the crew of the Es- 
meralda, including the Spanish 
Admiral, was captured or 


The town was bombarded by 
the Spanish fleet of 1 1 warships. 
May 2, 1866. The Peruvian 
batteries replied vigorously, 
and, after severe fighting, drove 
ofi the Spanish ships with a loss 
of 300. The Peruvians lost 
1,000 killed and wounded. 

Calpulalpam (Mexican Liberal 
Fought December 20, i860, 
between the Mexican Govern- 
ment troops under Miramon, 
and the Lioerals under Juarez. 
The Liberals won a signal vic- 
tory, which opened the way to 
Mexico, and brought about the 
downfall of Miramon's adminis- 



Cal^en, The (Swabian War). 

Fought March 22, 1499, be- 
tween 6,300 men of the Grisons 
under Benedict Fontana, and 
15.000 Imperialists under Maxi- 
milian I. The Swiss carried the 
Austrian entrenchments, and 
drove them out with heavy loss. 

Cambuskenneth. See Stirling. 

Camden (American War of 
Fought August 16, 1780, be- 
tween the British under Com- 
wallis, and the Americans under 
Gates and de Kalb. Comwallis 
had concentrated about 2,000 
men at Camden, and though the 
Americans numbered s,ooo, they 
were of very inferior quality. 
After a small affair of outposts, 
the British attacked the Ameri- 
can levies, who were unable to 
face the steady attack of the 
regulars, and fled with heavy 
loss. Among the killed was 
de Kalb. The British lost 312 
killed and wounded. 

Camdodunum (Second Invasion 
of Britain). 
Fought 43. between the 
Romans under the Emperor 
Claudius, and the Britons 
under Caractacus. The Britons 
were routed, and Camelodunum, 
Caractacus' capital, taken. 

Camerinum (Third Samnite 
Fought B.C. 298, between two 
Roman legions under Lucius 
Scipio, and the Samnites under 
G^us Equatius, aided by a 
force of Gauls. Scipio, who had 
been stationed near Camerinum 
to watch the pass through which 
the Gauls were expected to cross 
the Apennines, was unable to 
prevent the junction of the two 

armies, and was totally de- 
feated, one of his legions being 
cut to pieces. 

Campaldino (Guelfs and Ghibel- 
Fought June 11, 1289, be- 
tween the Guelfs of Florence 
and the Ghibellines who had 
been expelled from the city. 
The latter were utterly routed, 
and this defeat put an end to 
their power in Florence. The 
battle is notable for the pre- 
sence of Dante in the ranks of 
the victors. 

Campen (Seven Years' War). 

Fought October 18, 1759, 
between the Prussians under 
the Prince of Brunswick, and 
the French under General de 
Castries, when the Prussians 
were defeated ^ith a loss of 
1 ,600 men. 

Campo Santo (War of the 
Austrian Succession). 
Fought February 8, 1743, 
between the Spaniards under 
Mortemar, and the Imperialists 
under Count Traum. Mortemar 
was endeavouring to effect a 
junction with the army of the 
Prince de Conti, and though 
the action was undecided, its 
results were in favour of the 
Imperialists, who prevented the 
two armies from joining hands. 

Campus Castorum (Revolt of 
Fought in 69 between the 
revoltal legionaries, 70,000 
strong, under Valens and Cx- 
cina, and the army of the 
Emperor Otho under Suetonius 
Paulinus. The Imperial troops 
gained some advantage, but 
Suetonius did not consider him- 
self strong enough to follow it 



up. and was relieved of his com- 
mand by Otho. 

Camperdown (Wars of the 
French Revolution). 
Fought between the British 
fleet, 1 6 line of battle ships, 
under Admiral Duncan, and the 
Dutch, in equal force, under 
Admiral de Winter, October ii, 
1797. The Dutch fleet was on 
its way to co-operate with the 
French in a landing in Ireland, 
and was intercepted by Duncan, 
who at once gave battle. The 
British fleet, in two lines, broke 
through the Dutch line, and, in 
the general action which fol- 
lowed, captured eight ships, 
including the flagship, the Vrif- 
heid. The British lost 1,040 
killed and wounded, the Dutch 
1,160 and 6,000 prisoners. 

Candia (Candian War). 

Siege was laid to this place 
by the Turks under Jussuf, the 
Capitan Pasha, in 1648, and 
was defended by a small garri- 
son of Venetians, under Luigi 
Moncenigo. So vigorous was the 
defence that the Turks lost 
20,000 men in the first six 
months of the siege. The siege 
lasted over twenty years, the 
place being from time to time 
revictualled and reinforced by 
the Venetians and the French, 
but it was finally surrendered 
by Morosini, September 27. 1669. 

Canea (Candian War). 

This place was besieged June 
24, 1644, by 50,000 Turks under 
Jussuf, the Capitan Pasha, and 
defended by a small force of 
Venetians and Candians, who 
held out until August 22, re- 
pulsing numerous assaults, 
which cost the Turks 20,000 

Canne (Second Punic War). 

Fought August 2, B.C. 216, 
between 90,000 Romans under 
Varro, and about 50,000 Cartha- 
ginians under Hannibal. Hanni- 
bal, though outnumbered in 
infantry, was much superior in 
cavalry. The Romans were 
drawn up with the sea in their 
rear, and were attacked and 
broken by the Carthaginian 
horse. The infantry followed up 
the attack, and, flight being 
impossible, the Romans were 
slaughtered where they stood, 
80,000 falling, including the 
Consul iCmilius, 25 superior 
officers, and 80 senators. The 
Carthaginians lost 6,000. 

Cape Bona (Invasion of the 
Fought 468, between the 
Roman fleet of 1,100 galleys 
and transports under Basiliscus, 
and the fleet of the Vandals 
under Genseric. The Romans 
were lying at anchor, having 
landed their troops, and Gen- 
seric, taking advantage of a 
favourable wind, sent in a fleet 
of fireships, following them up 
by a determined attack. More 
than half the Roman ships 
were destroyed, Basiliscus es- 
caping with difliculty. 

Cape Finisterre (War of the 
Austrian Succession). 
Fought May 3, 1747, between 
a British fleet of 16 sail under 
Admiral Anson, and a French 
fleet of 38 sail under Admiral 
de la Jonquidre. The French 
were completely defeated, losing 
10 ships and nearly 3,000 

Cape Finisterre (War of the 
Austrian Succession). 
Fought October 14, 1747, 



when a British fleet of 14 ships 
under Admiral Hawke attacked 
a French fleet of 9 battleships 
under Admiral de Letendeur. 
The French were signally de- 
feated, losing four ships. The 
British lost $98 killed and 

Cape Finisterre (Napoleonic 
Fought July 22, 1805, be- 
tween a British fleet of 1 5 sail of 
the line under Sir Robert 
Calder. and the combined 
French and Spanish fleets re- 
turning from the West Indies, 
under Admiral Villeneuve. The 
French fleet, consisting of 20 
battleships, was attacked by 
Calder, who captured 2 ships. 
Fogs and light airs prevented 
him from following up his 
advantage next day, for which 
he was tried by court-martial 
and most unjustly censured. 
The British loss was 183 killed 
and wounded, the French losing 
149 killed and 327 wounded. 

Cape Henry (American War of 
Fought March 16, 178 1, be- 
tween a British fleet of eight 
ships of the line and tli^ee 
frigates under Vice-Admiral 
Arbuthnot, and a French squad- 
ron stronger by one frigate. 
The French were forced to 
retire, the British losing 30 
killed and 64 wounded. 

Cape Passaro (War of the 
Quadruple Alliance). 
Fought July 31, 17 1 8, between 
a British fleet of 21 ships under 
Sir George Byng, and a Spanish 
fleet of 29 ships under Don 
Antonio Casta&eta. Admiral 
Byng attacked the Spaniards 
in the Straits of Messina, and. 

after a very severe action, in 
which both sides lost heavily, 
captured or destroyed no less 
than 15 of the Spanish ships. 
Castafieta died of wounds re- 
ceived in the action. This battle 
is also known as the Battle 
of Messina. 

Cape St. Vincent (Wars of the 
French Revolution). 
Fought February 14, I797. 
between a British fleet of 15 
ships of the Une and 5 frigates 
under Sir John Jervis, and a 
Spanish fleet of 26 sail of the 
line and 12 frigates. In spite 
of their superior numbers, the 
Spaniards were totally defeated, 
losing 4 ships and over 3.000 

f>risoners, in addition to heavy 
osses in killed and wounded. 
The British lost 74 killed and 
227 wounded. For this signal 
victory, Jervis was created Lord 
St. Vincent. 

Caprysema (First Messenian 
Fought B.C. 743. between the 
Spartans and Corinthians, and 
the Messenians with their allies 
from other Peloponnesian states 
under Cristomenes. The Spar- 
tans were routed, and, but for 
the eloquence of Tyrtacus. 
would have abandoned the 

Capua (Second Punic War). 

This place was besieged in 
the autumn of B.C. 212, by 
60,000 Romans under Q. Ful- 
vius and Appius Claudius. The 
Romans formed a double wall 
of circumvallation round the 
city, and, early in the winter, 
their defences were attacked by 
the garrison from within and 
Hannibal from without, but 
with no success. Hannibal then 



attempted to draw the be- 
siegers from their position by 
marching upon Rome, but only 
a small portion of the besieging 
force followed him. It being 
thus found impossible to relieve 
the city, it shortly afterwards 

Carabobo (South American War 
of Independence). 
Fought June 24. 1821, be- 
tween the Colombian patriots, 
8,000 strong, under Bolivar, and 
the Spanish Royalists, about 
4,000 in number, under La 
Torre. The Royalists were 
utterly routed, barely 400 
reaching Porto Cabello. This 
battle determined the indepen- 
dence of Colombia. 

Caracha (South American War 
of Independence). 
Fought 18 1 3, between the 
Colombian Patriots under Bo* 
livar and the Spanish Royal- 
ists, Bolivar gaining a complete 

Caraguatay (Paraguayan War). 
Fought August 1869, between 
the Paraguayans under Lopez, 
and the Brazilians under the 
Comte d'Eu. After a stubborn 
engagement the Brazilians were 

Carbisdale (Civil War). 

Fought April 27, 1650, be- 
tween the RoyaUsts of Orkney, 
1. 000 strong, with 500 Swedish 
mercenaries, and a small ParUa- 
mentary force under Colonel 
Strachan. Montrose, who com- 
manded the Rovalists, saw his 
troops broken by the ParUa- 
mentary horse, only the Swedes 
offering any serious resistance. 
The Royalists lost 396 killed 
and wounded and over 400 

prisoners, while Strachan only 
had lost 2 wounded. This was 
Montrose's last fight, and he was 
soon afterwards captured. 

Car^nage Bay (American War 
of Independence). 
Fought 1778, between the 
French under the Comte 
d'Estaing, and the English under 
Admiral Barrington and General 
Meadows. After a severe en- 
counter, the French were de- 
feated, and the British took 
possession of the island of St. 

Carigat. See Arikera. 

Carlisle (Rebellion of the Forty- 
This city was besieged by the 
Jacobites under the Young 
Pretender, November 9, 1745, 
and was defended by the 
Cumberland and Westmoreland 
Militia, with small force of 
regulars, under Colonel Durand. 
The besiegers opened fire on the 
13th, and on the evening of the 
14 th, under pressure of the 
inhabitants. Durand surrendered. 

Camoul (Persian Invasion of 
Fought 1739, between the 
Persians under Nadir Shah, and 
the Moguls under the Emperor 
Mohammed Shah and his Grand 
Vizier, Nizam-ul-Mulk. The 
Persian veterans completely de- 
feated the raw Mogul levies, 
and Nadir Shah shortly after- 
wards occupied and sacked 
Delhi, carrying off, it is said, 
jewels and coin to the value of 
thirty miUions sterling. 

Carpi (War of the Spanish 
Fought July 1 70 1, between 
the ImperiaUsts under Prince 



Eugene, and the French army in 
Lombardy, under Marshal Cati- 
nat. The French were signsJly 
defeated, and, in consequence, 
Catinat was recalled from the 

Carrh» (Parthian War). 

Fought B.C. 53, between the 
Romans, $2,000 strong, under 
Publius Crassus, and the Par- 
thians under SiUaces. The 
Parthians, who were entirely 
cavalry, adopted their usual 
tactics of retiring and drawing 
their foes in pursuit. As the 
heavily armea legionaries be- 
came strung out across the 
plain, they turned upon them and 
cut them down in detail. Of 
the division. 6.000 strong, which 
actually came into action, 500 
were made prisoners, and the 
rest, including Crassus, slain. 

Carrical (Seven Years' War). 

An action was fought off this 
place August 2, 1758, between 
a British squadron under Ad- 
miral Pococke. and the French 
under Comte d'Ach6. After a 
severe engagement, the French 
fleet drew off, but the English 
pursuit, owin^ to damaged 
rigging, was meffectual. and 
d'AchI reached Pondicherry 
without the loss of a ship. 

Carthage (Third Punic War). 

In B.C. 152 siege was laid to 
this city by a Roman consular 
army under Manius Manilius, 
aided by a fleet under L. Cen- 
sorinus. The Carthaginian army 
under Hasdrubal was encamped 
outside the walb, and greatly 
hindered the operations of the 
Romans, who would have made 
little progress but for the efforts 
of Scipio ^milianus, then a 
military tribune. In B.C. 148, 

Scipio was made consul, and 
appointed to the command, 
and he succeeded in completely 
blockading the city, which, 
after an obstinate resistance 
lasting six years, was captured 
B.C. 146 and razed to the 

Carthage (Invasion of the 
Fought September 14, 533, 
between the Vandals under 
Gelimer. about 160,000 strong, 
and the Romans under Beli- 
sarius. far inferior in numbers. 
Gelimer divided his army into 
three, of which he led one por- 
tion to attack the main body of 
the Romans. The action was 
precipitated, however, by the 
hasty attack by Ammatas of 
the vanguard, wherein he was 
routed with heavy loss. Gelimer 
then fell upon the pursuing 
Romans, but Belisarius coming 
up. the Vandals were put to 
flight, and the Romans gained 
a complete victory. On the 
following day Carthage opened 
her gates to the victors. 

Carthagena (War of the Aus- 
trian Succession). 
This port was blockaded 
March 9, 1 741. by a British fleet 
under Admiral Vernon. An 
unsuccessful attack was made 
upon the forts, and eventually 
Vernon, having lost 3.000 men 
during the operations, withdrew 
April 9. 

Casal (Wars of Louis XIV). 

Fought April 1640, between 
the French, 10.000 strong, under 
Harcourt, and the Spaniards, 
numbering 20.000, who were 
besieging Casal. Harcourt 
pierced the Spanish Unes and 
totally defeated them, with a 







loss of 3.000 killed and wounded, 
800 prisoners, and 18 guns. 

Catilinum (Second Frank In- 
▼asion of Italy). 
Fought 554. between 18.000 
Imperial troops under Narses. 
ana the Franks and Alemanni, 
30.000 strong, under Buccelin. 
The Romans won a signal vic- 
tory, and are said by the 
chroniclers to have exterminated 
the invading army with a loss 
to themselves of 80 only. 
Buccelin fell in the battle. 

Cassano (War of the Spanish 
Fought August 16, 1705. be- 
tween the French under the 
Due de Venddme, with 35 
battalions and 45 squadrons, 
and the Imperialists under 
Prince Eugene. The Prince, 
with greatly inferior numbers, 
attacked the French in a strong 
position, which he succeeded in 
carrying as the night fell. The 
Imperialists lost about 4.000 ; 
the French about 5.000. 

Castalla (Peninsular War). 

Fought April 13, 181 3, be- 
tween 17.000 allied troops under 
Sir John Murray, and 15.000 
French under Suchet. The 
French were defeated. The allies 
lost 600 killed and wounded ; 
the French, according to Suchet, 
800, according to Murray, 
but the former figure is prooably 
nearer to the truth. 

Castelfidardo (Unification of 
Fought September 18, i860, 
between the Papal troops under 
General La Moricidre, about 
8.000 strong, and the Sardinians. 
40,000 strong, under General 
Cialdini. The Papal army was 

totally routed, and, after the 
action.La Moricidre was only able 
to assemble about 300 infantry, 
with which remnant he made lus 
way to Ancona. 


Fought September i, 1632, 
between the troops of Louis XIII 
and the rebel nobles under the 
Due de Montmorenci, son of the 
Constable. The rebels were 
utterly routed, and Mont- 
morenci taken prisoner. 

CastigHone (War of the Spanish 
Fought September 8, 1706, 
between the ImperiaUsts under* 
the Prince of Hesse, and the 
French under General de Medavi. 
The Prince was besieging 
CastigHone. when he was 
attacked by the French, and 
totally defeated, with a loss of 
8,000 killed, wounded, and miss- 

CastigHone (Napoleon's Italian 

Fought August 3. 1796. be- 
tween the French under Napo- 
leon, and the ImperiaUsts under 
Wurmser. Napoleon, with 

25.000 men. advanced upon 
Lonato. while Augereau moved 
upon Castiglione. Lonato was 
carried by assault, and the Aus- 
trian army cut in two. One 
part under General Bazalitch 
effected a retreat to the Mincio, 
but the other section was cut up 
by a French division under 
Guyeaux and Junot's dragoons, 
near Salo. losing 3,000 prisoners 
and 20 guns. 

In the portion of the action 
fought near Castiglione, the 
Austrians were defeated with a 
loss of 2.000 men, after a des- 
perate encounter, and driven 



back upon Mantua. On the 4th, 
Napoleon at Lonato, vdth only 
12,000 men, was summoned to 
surrender by a portion of Baza- 
litch's force, 4.000 strong. Na- 
poleon, however, succeeded in 
making the messenger think that 
he was in the middle of the main 
French army, and consequently 
the whole Austrian detachment 
laid down their arms. 

Castillejos (Moroccan War). 

Fought January i, i860, 
when the adfvance guard of the 
Spanish army, under General 
Ptim, defeated a strong force of 
Moors, after severe fighting. 
The victory opened the road to 

CastUlon (Hundred Years' War). 
This was the last battle of the 
Hundred Years' War, and was 
fought July 17, 1453. The Eng- 
lish under Talbot, Earl of 
Shrewsbury, marched to the 
relief of Castillon. and attacked 
the Unes of the besiegers, but 
were taken in flank by a sortie 
from the French entrenchments 
and totally defeated, Talbot 
being slain. On October 19 
following, Bordeaux opened her 
gates to the French. 

Catana (Second Carthaginian 
Invasion of Sicily). 
Fought B.C. 387 between 200 
Syracusan galleys under Lep- 
tines, and a vastly superior Car- 
thagiiiian fleet. The Syracu- 
sans were utterly routed, partly 
owing to their inferior numbers, 
but also in part to the bad 
generalship of Leptines, who 
dispersed his ships too widely, 
allowing them to be over- 
whelmed in detail. The victors 
at once entered upon the siege 
of Syracuse. 

Caudine Forks (Second Samnite 
Fought B.C. 322, when four 
Roman legions, under T. Vetu- 
rius Calvinus and Spurius Post- 
umus were entrapped by the 
Sabines under Pontius, in the 
narrow pass of Caudium. The 
Romans fought till nightfall, 
suffering heavy loss, and next 
day, finding every exit from the 
pass barred, the survivors sur- 

Cawnpur (Indian Mutiny). 

The Residency of Cawnpur 
was invested by the mutineers 
June 6, 1857, and defended by a 
small garrison until June 24, 
when the survivors, about 459 
in number, surrendered under 
promise from the Nana Sahib 
of a safe conduct to Allahabad. 
They were, however, fired upon 
as they took to the boats, and 
only a few escaped. The sur- 
vivors of this massacre were 
afterwards murdered in cold 
blood by order of the Nana Sahib. 

Cawnpur (Indian Mutiny). 

Fought December 6. 1857, 
between the British under Sir 
Colin Campbell, and 25,000 
rebels, including the Gwalior 
contingent. The mutineers 
were routed at all points, and 
fled, pursued by the cavalry for 
14 miles, suffering heavy loss. 
Out of 36 guns, 32 were cap- 
tured. The British lost 99 only. 

Cecryphalea (Third Messenian 
A naval action, fought B.C. 
458 between the Peloponnesians 
and the Athenians, in which the 
latter were victorious. 

Cedar Creek (American Civil 
Fought October 17, 1864, be- 




tween Confederates under 
General Early, and about 40.000 
Federals under General Sheri- 
dan. Under cover of a fog, 
Early turned Sheridan's right, 
capturing 18 guns, but Sheridan, 
rallying his broken right wing, 
totally routed the Confed- 
erates, who had been en- 
gaged in plundering the cap- 
ture camp. The F^eral losses 
were the heavier, but Sheridan 
captured 22 guns, besides re- 
taking the 18 he had lost at the 
beginning of the action. 

Cedar Mountain (American 
Civil War). 
Fought August 9, 1862, be- 
tween 1 5.000 Confederates under 
Jackson, and about 20,000 
Federals under General Pope. 
The strong Confederate position 
was assailed at $ p.m., and suc- 
cessive attacks were repulsed 
until late in the evening, when 
the fighting ceased. The Fede- 
rals lost about 2,800 killed, 
wounded, and missing ; the 
Confederates, 800 or 900. 


Fought October 23, 1859, 
between the troops of the Argen- 
tine Confederation under Ur- 
quiza, and those of the State of 
Buenos Ayres. under Mitre. 
Urquiza was victorious, and in 
the following month Buenos 
Ayres entered the Confedera- 


Fought 1307 between the 
Catalan " Great Band," 9.500 
strong, and the troops of WaJter 
de Brienne, Duke of Athens, 
15,000 in number. The Cata- 
lans surrounded their camp with 
an artificial inundation, into 
which the Duke's cavalry rode 

unsuspectingly, and were cut 
to pieces, de Brienne being 
amongst the slain. 

Cerignola (Neapolitan War). 

Fought 1503 between the 
Spaniards under Gonsalvo de 
Cordova, and the French under 
the Due de Nemours. The 
French were totally defeated 
and Nemours slain. 

Cerisolles (Wars of Charles V). 

Fought 1544, between the 
French under Francois de Bour- 
bon, and the Imperialists under 
du Gast, the French gaining a 
complete victory. 

Chacabuco (South American War 
of Independence). 
Fought February 12, 18 17. 
between the ChiUan patriots 
under San Martin, and the 
Spanish royaUsts. The Chilians 
won a complete victory. 

Chaeronea (Amphictyonic War). 

Fought August B.C. 338 be- 
tween the Macedonians under 
Philip, and the Athenians and 
Thebans under Chares and 
Theagenes respectively. 1 Philip 
had 30.000 foot and 2,000 horse, 
the latter led by Alexander, then 
a lad of eighteen ; the allies were 
slightly fewer in number. Philip 
reinforced his right wing, which 
was opposed by the Athenians, 
and sent his heavy cavalry 
against the Thebans, on the 
a&ed right. Their charge broke 
the Theban ranks, and they then 
attacked the Athenians in flank 
and rear. A hopeless rout 
ensued, the Theban " Sacred 
Band " dying where they stood. 
The Athenians lost 6.000 killed 
and 2,000 prisoners. The The- 
bans were almost annihilated. 



Chaeronea (First Mithridatic 
Fought B.C. 86, between the 
Romans under Sulla, 30,000 
strong, and the troops of Pontus, 
90,000 in number, under Arche- 
laus. The Romans were com- 
pletely victorious. 

Chalcedon (Third Mithridatic 
Fought B.C. 74, between the 
Roman fleet, under Rutilius 
Nudo, and that of Pontus. The 
Romans salUed out of the har- 
bour, but were driven back, and 
the Pontic fleet then broke the 
chain protecting the entrance 
and destroyed the whole of the 
Roman ships, 70 in number. 

Chalgrove Field (Civil War). 

A cavalry skirmish fought 
June 18, 1643, between the 
Royalists under Prince Rupert, 
and the Parliamentarians under 
Hampden, and notable only for 
the fact that Hampden was 
killed in the affair. 

Chdlons (Revolt of the Legions 
of Aquitaine). 
Fought 271, between the 
troops of the Emperor AureUan, 
and the revolted legions under 
Tetricus. Tetricus, who was 
only a puppet in the hands of 
his soldiers, concerted measures 
with AureUan for their destruc- 
tion, and so posted his forces as 
to give the Emperor the advan- 
tage, after which he deserted, 
with a few followers. The re- 
volted legionaries fought despe- 
rately, but were cut to pieces. 

ChAlons (Invasion of the Ale- 


Fought July 366 between the 

Romans under Jovinus, and the 

Alemanni under Vadomair. 

After an obstinate engagement, 
lasting throughout the da}r, the 
Alemanni were routed with a 
loss of 6,000 killed and 4,000 
prisoners. The Romans lost 

Ch^ons (Invasion of the Huns). 
Fought 451 between the Ro- 
mans and the Visigoths under 
Actius and Theodoric respec- 
tively, and the Huns under 
Attila. The battle was fought 
on an open plain, and while the 
right and centre of the allies 
withstood Attila's onslaught, 
the Visigoths on the left made a 
furious charge, in which Theo- 
doric fell, and totally routed the 
right of the Huns. Attila then 
withdrew to his camp, having 
suffered heavy loss, and pre- 
pared to resist the attack of the 
allies on the following day. 
Actius, however, did not renew 
the conflict, and allowed Attila 
to retreat unmolested. 


Arising out of a tournament 
in 1274, in which the life of 
Edward I was endangered by 
foul play, a fight in earnest took 
place between the EngUsh and 
French knights present. The 
French were worsted, and a 
considerable number slain. This 
fight is called the "Little" 
Battle of Ch&lons. 

Champ-Aubert (Allied Invasion 
of France). 
Fought February 10, 18 14, 
when Napoleon with his main 
army, by an extraordinary 
forced march through a difficult 
country, fell upon Blucher's 
army marching upon Paris, viA 
ChAlons. Blucher was advanc- 
ing in three divisions, and 
Napoleon attacked the second 



of these, under Alsusiefi, and 
completdy dispersed it, taking 
2.000 prisoners and all the guns. 
On the following day he encoun- 
tered Sachen, who with 20,000 
men form^ the advance guard, 
and defeated him at Montmirail, 
with a loss of 6.000, forcing 
him to abandon the main road 
and retire on ChAteau Thierry. 
On the 13th he encountered 
General d'York, with 30,000 
Russians and Prussians at Chi- 
lean Thierry, driving him out 
with heavy loss, including 3.000 
prisoners, while finally on the 
14th he turned on the main body 
under Blucher himself, who, not 
being sufficiently strong to face 
the main French armyr, was 
compelled to retire, which he 
did m good order, after losing 
3,000 in killed, wounded, and 
prisoners. This flank march is 
considered one of Napoleon's 
most brilliant achievements. 

ChancellorsviUe (American Civil 
Fought May 2, 3. and 4, 1863. 
between 53.000 Confederates 
under Lee, and 1 20.000 Federals 
under Hooker. Lee, though 
largely outnumbered, detached 
half tus force under Jackson to 
turn Hooker's right, while he 
contain^ the Federals with the 
rest of his army. Jackson's 
march was successfully carried 
out, and on the afternoon of the 
2nd he commenced his attack, 
routing the Federal nth Corps. 
This success, however, cost the 
Confederates dear, for Jackson's 
staff was mistaken in the dusk 
for that of a Federal general, 
and was fired into by a South 
Carolina regiment, and Jackson 
mortally wounded. On the 3rd 
the attack was renewed in front 

and flank, with further success 
for the Confederates, while on the 
4th the Federals were driven off, 
and Hooker fcn-ced to recross 
the Rappahannock on the 5 th. 
The Confederates lost about 
10,000 men ; the Federals about 
1 8,000, including 7,650 prisoners. 

Chanda (Third IfahratU War). 
This fortress, the chief strong- 
hold of the Rajah of Nagpur, 
was besieged by a British force 
under Colonel Adams, May 9, 
18 1 8. It was defended by over 
3.000 of the Rajah's troops, but 
aher two days' bombardment 
the place was taken by storm, 
with small loss to the assailants, 
while the garrison had 500 
killed, including the command- 

Chandemagore (Seren Years' 
This place was besieged Biarch 
14, 1757. by Clive. with 2,000 
Company's troops, and defended 
by 600 Frenchmen and 300 
Sepoys. On the 19 th tlu-ee 
British ships under Admiral 
Watson arrived, and on the 24th 
a joint attack by sea and laiid 
resulted in the capture of the 

Charasiab (Second Afghan War). 
Fought October 6, 1879, when 
Sir Frederick Roberts attacked 
a force of Afghans and Ghilzais, 
who were massed on the road 
by which a convoy was approach- 
ing from Zahidabad, under 
General Macpherson. The enemy 
was routed and dispersed, and 
the convoy reached camp safely. 

Charenton (War of the Fronde). 
Fought February 8, 1649, be- 
tween the Royal troops. 8.000 
strong, under the Great Cond6, 



and the forces of the Paris Par- 
liament under Clauleu. Cond6 
gained a complete victory, driv- 
ing the Frondeurs from all their 
entrenchments, and forcing them 
back upon Paris with heavy loss, 
including loo officers. Among 
the slain was Clauleu. 

Charleston (American Civil War). 
The siege of this place may be 
considered to have commenced 
April 6, 1863, on which day the 
Federal fleet crossed the bar. 
On the 7th an attack was made 
upon fort Sumter by nine iron- 
clads under Admiral Dupont, 
which was repulsed with a loss 
of I ship and the disabling of 
several others. The defenders 
lost 2 men only. On July loth 
and nth a land force attacked 
Fort Wagner, but was repulsed 
with loss. On the i8th an 
assault by three brigades under 
General Seymour was also re- 
pulsed with enormous loss ; and 
preparations were then made for 
a sap. On September 5. after a 
very heavy bombardment. Fort 
Wagner proved to be untenable, 
and, with the works on Morris 
Island, was abandoned, but the 
besiegers failed in all their 
attempts on Fort Sumter, and 
the inner defences. From this 
time the siege became a mere 
blockade of the port, until, on 
the approach of Sherman's army, 
the garrison, then 9,000 strong, 
evacuated the city, February 18, 

ChAteauguay (Second American 
Fought 18 1 3, between the 
Americans, 7.000 strong, under 
General Hampton, and a force 
of Canadian Militia, far inferior 
in numbers, who were strongly 

posted near Chiteauguay. The 
Americans attempted to storm 
the Canadian lines, but the 
Canadians made a most gallant 
defence, and repulsed them with 
heavy loss. 

ChAteauneuf-Raudon (Hundred 
Years' War). 
This fortress was besieged 
1380 by the French under Du 
Guesclin, and was defended by 
an English garrison under de 
Ros. After an obstinate de- 
fence the town surrendered, 
iuly 4, but the siege was fatal to 
^u Guesclin, who succumbed to 
his fatigues and privations. 

ChAteau Thierry. See Champ- 

Chattanooga (American Civil 
Fought November 24 to 27. 
1863, between 80,000 Federals 
under Grant, and the Con- 
federate Army of the West. 
40,000 strong, under Bragg. 
The attack on the Confederate 
lines commenced on the 27th, 
the Federals capturing Look 
Out Mountain, on their extreme 
left. They advanced unseen 
through a thick fog, to the upper 
slopes, and drove out the de- 
fenders, whence this action is 
known as the " Battle above 
the Clouds." On the following 
day Bragg's centre was pierced, 
wlule the fighting of the 26th 
and 27 th was in the nature of 
severe rearguard actions. The 
Federals lost 5,286 kUled and 
wounded, and 330 missing. The 
Confederates lost fewer in killed 
and wounded, but they left in 
the hands of the Federals 6,142 
prisoners, 40 guns and 7.000 
rifles. Also called the " Battle 
of Missionary Ridge." 


sw— ^■gwwf^sy 



Che-mul-pho (Russo-Japanese 
Fought February 8, 1904, 
between a Japanese squadron 
of four protected cruisers, con- 
voying transports, under Ad- 
miral Uriu, and a Russian 
cruiser and gunboat which 
sought to oppose the landing. 
After a smart action the cruiser 
was blown up to avoid capture, 
and the gunboat destroyed, the 
Russians losing 504 killed and 
wounded. The Japanese suf- 
fered no material damage. 

Cheriton (Civil War). 

Fought March 29, 1644. when 
the Rovalists under Lord Firth 
were defeated by the Parlia- 
mentarians under Waller. This 
defeat prevented the threatened 
Royalist incursion into Kent and 

ChetaU (Crimean War). 

Fought January 6 to 9. 1854. 
On the 6th the advanced Rus- 
sian post of 6,000 men at Che- 
tat6 under General Fischbuch 
was attacked by 6.000 Turks 
under Ahmed Pasha, and after 
heavy fighting, in which the 
Russians lost 3.000 killed and 
wounded, and many prisoners, 
and the Turks 1,000. was driven 
out of the village. On the 
following days the Russians 
made desperate attempts to 
recover the position. General 
Anrep. on the 9th. bringing up 
some 20,000 men from Cragova. 
All their efforts, however, failed, 
and the three days' fighting cost 
them a further 2.000 men. the 
Turks losing about 1,000. 

CheviUy (Franco-German War), 

Fought September 30, 1870. 

when a sortie from Paris under 

General Vinoy was repulsed by 

the Sixth German Corps under 
Von Tumpling, with a loss of 74 
officers and 2.046 men. The 
Germans lost 28 officers and 413 
men killed and wounded. 

Chevy Chace. See Otterbum. 

Chiari (War of the Spanish Suc- 
Fought September i, 1701. 
between the Imperialists, about 
28.000 strong, under Prince 
Eugene, and the French and 
Spaniards under the Duke of 
Savoy. The Prince occupied 
the small town of Chiari, where 
he was attacked by the alUes. 
who, after two hours' hard fight- 
ing, were repulsed with a loss of 
nearly 3,000. Owing to the 
strength of their position, the 
Imperialists lost 117 only. 

Chickahominy (American Civil 
Fought June 3, 1864, between 
the Federal Army of the Poto- 
mac under Grant, and the Con- 
federate army of Virginia under 
Lee. Grant attacked the South- 
erners' entrenchments, with the 
object of forcing the passage of 
the Chickahominy, and his first 
onslaught met with some success, 
but the Confederates, rallying, 
drove back their assailants to 
their original position with 
heavy loss. All further attempts 
on Lee's lines failed, and the 
Federals were finally repulsed 
with a loss of over 13.000 Killed, 
wounded and missing. The 
Confederates lost about 6.000. 

Chickamauga (American Civil 
Fought September 19 and 20. 
1863, between the Confederate 
Army of the West under General 
Bragg, and the Federals under 
General Rosecrans. On the 19th 



the Confederates attacked along 
the whole line and drove back 
their opponents, cutting them 
off from the river, and forcing 
them to bivouac for the night 
in a waterless country. On the 
20th the attack was renewed, 
and though Bragg's right was 
repulsed, he was elsewhere suc- 
cessful, and by nightfall Rose- 
crans was in full retreat. Bragg 
however, failed to follow up his 
victory, and allowed Rosecrans 
to retire on Chattanooga un- 
molested. The Federals lost 
16,351 men and 36 guns; the 
Confederates about 12,000. 

ChiUianwaUah (Second Sikh 
Fought January 14, 1849. be- 
tween the British under Lord 
Gough, and the Sikhs, 40,000 
strong, under Shere Singh. The 
battle was very evenly con- 
tested, and though in the end 
Lord Gough drove the Sikhs 
from the field, his own position 
was so insecure that he was 
himself compelled to retire after 
the action. 

Chiloe (South American War of 
On January 19, 1826, the 
small group of islands, held for 
the Spanish crown by a garrison 
under Quintanella, was surren- 
dered to a force of ChiUans, 
4.000 strong, with a small 
squadron of warships under 

Chingleput (Seven Years' War). 
This fortress, defended by a 
French garrison of 40 Euro- 
peans and $00 native troops, 
was captured, 1752, by CUve, 
with a force of about 700 re- 
cruits and Sepoys. 

Chios (Social War). 

Chios having risen against 
Athenian rule in B.C. 357, a fleet 
of 60 ships under Chabrias and 
Chares was sent to reduce it. 
A force having been landed, 
a joint attack was made by the 
fleet and the army, but in 
attempting to enter the harbour, 
the galley of Chabrias, which led 
the way, was surrounded and 
overpowered, Chabrias falling 
The troops were then with- 
drawn, and the attack aban- 


Fought B.C. 201 between the 
Macedonian fleet. 48 triremes 
and some smaller vessels under 
Philip, and the combined fleets 
of Rhodes and Pergamus under 
Theophiliscus and Attains. 
Philip was defeated with the 
loss of half his ships, 3,000 killed 
and 5,000 prisoners. The allies 
lost 6 ships and 800 men. 

Chiozsa (War of Chiozza). 

This city, which had been 
captured by the Genoese from 
Venice, was besieged by the 
Venetians under Pisani and de- 
fended by Doria, who was killed 
during the siege. The place 
made an obstinate resistance, 
but was forced to surrender 
June 24, 1380, the Venetians 
capturing 19 Genoese galleys 
and 4,000 prisoners. This dis- 
aster broke the power of the 
Genoese Republic for many 

Chippewa (Second American 
Fought July 6, 18 14, between 
4.000 Americans under General 
Jacob Brown, and 2,400 British, 
1,500 being regulars, under 
General Riall. Riall attacked 



Brown in a strong position at 
Chippewa, and was repulsed 
with considerable loss. 


Towards the end of the thir- 
teenth century this fortress was 
besieged by the Pathans under 
Ala-ud-Din, and was defended 
by the Rana, Lakhsman. The 
first attack was repulsed, though 
the Rajputs suffered terribly, 
but at the second attempt the 
Pathans overpowered the de- 
fenders, who were mercilessly 
put to the sword. All the Raj- 
put women in the place com- 
mitted suttee, to avoid captivity. 
Lakhsman Singh and eleven out 
of his twelve sons fell in the de- 

The second sack of Chitor 
took place in 1535, when the 
Rana Bikrmajit made a gallant 
but unavailing defence against 
the Gujeratis under Bahadur 
Shah. Thirteen thousand wo- 
men were slain by the remnant 
of the garrison, before they 
opened the gates, and rushed 
out to fall fighting. Only one 
small child of the Royal Une 
escaped the maissacre, namely 
Udai Singh. It was during the 
reign of this Udai Singh that the 
third sack took place in 156X, 
by the Delhi Moguls under 
Akbar. Udai Singh deserted 
his capital, which was defended 
by a garrison of 8,000 Rajputs 
under Jagmal. The siege was 
scientifically conducted, and, a 
breach having been effected, an 
assault was ordered. A mine, 
however, was exploded in the 
breach, killing 500 of the assail- 
ants, and the assault was re- 
pulsed. Shortly afterwards 
Jagmal was killed, and a second 
assault proved successful, the 

garrison, refusing to surrender, 
being put to the sword. 

Chitral (Chitral Campaign). 

On March 3, 1895, ^^^ Chitral 
garrison, consisting of 90 Sikhs 
and 280 Kashmir Imperial Ser- 
vice troops, with 7 British offi- 
cers under Captain Campbell, 
was attacked by a large force of 
Chitralis and Bajauris under 
Shere Afzal, the Pretender to 
the Chitral throne, and Umrar 
Khan of Bajaur. A sortie was 
repulsed, with a loss of 58, in- 
cluding 2 British officers, and 
General Baj Singh, who com- 
manded the Kashmiris, but in 
spite of a series of attacks, and 
continual mining operations, 
the garrison held out until 
April 18, when it was relieved 
by Colonel Kelly. One fifth of 
the garrison was killed or 

Chizai (Hundred Years* War). 

Fought July 1372, between 
the French under Du Guesclin, 
and the EngUsh under Thomas 
Hampton. Du Guesclin, who 
was engaged in the siege of 
Chizai, was attacked by the 
English, in about equal force to 
his own, and, after a long and 
bloody engagement, totally 
defeated them, and captured 
the town. The reverse cost 
Edward III Saintonge and 

Choczim (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought 1769. between the 
Russians under GaUtzin, and the 
Turks under Mohammed Emin 
Pasha. The Russians, who were 
endeavouring to capture Choc- 
zim by a coup de main, were met 
and defeated by the Turks with 
considerable loss. 



Chong-ju (Russo-Japanese War). 
The first encounter between 
the land forces of Russia and 
Japan, April, 1904. when the 
advanced guard of the First 
Japanese Army came in contact 
with a force of Cossacks under 
General Mischtchenko. and after 
a brisk engagement drove them 
back and occupied Chong-ju. 
The losses on both sides were 

ChoriUos (Penivio-ChilianWar). 
Fought January 13. 1 861, be- 
tween the Chilians under Gene- 
ral Baquedano and the Peru- 
vians under General Caceres. 
The Peruvians were totally de- 
feated with a loss of 9.000 killed 
and wounded, and 2.000 prison- 
ers. The ChiUans lost 800 killed 
and 2,500 wounded. 

Chotusitz (War of the Aus- 
trian Succession). 
Fought May 17. 1742, between 
the Austrians under Prince 
Charles of Lorraine, and the 
Prussians under Frederick the 
Great. The numbers were 
about equal, but the steadiness 
of the Prussian infantry eventu- 
ally wore dovm, the Austrians, 
and they were forced to retreat, 
though in good order, leaving 
behind them 18 guns and 12,000 
prisoners. The killed and 
wounded numbered about 7,000 
on each side, and the Austrians 
made prisoners. The 
Prussian cavalry deUvered seve- 
ral desperate and unsuccessful 
charges, and were almost de- 

ChristUnople (Dano-Swedish 


The first military exploit of 

Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, 

who, during the war of 161 1, 

made a night assault on this for- 
tress with 1 , 500 men, and blowing 
in the gate, captured the place 
without losing a man. 

Chrysopolis (War of the Two 
Fought 323 between 60,000 
troops under Licinius, Emperor 
of the East, and a force detached 
by Constantine from the siege of 
Byzantium. Licinius was to- 
tally defeated, with a loss of 
25.000, and surrendered. The 
result of this victory was the 
re- union of the whole of the 
Roman Empire under one head. 

Chrystlers Farm (Second Ameri- 
can War). 
Fought November 11, 18 13, 
between 800 British under Col- 
onel Morrison, and about 3,000 
Americans under General Boyd. 
The Americans were defeated 
with a loss of 249 killed and 
wounded and 100 prisoners. 
The British lost 203. 


This fortress, which was held 
for Shir Khan Sur, Nawab of 
Bengal, was besieged by the 
Moguls under Humayun in 1538. 
This is the first siege in Indian 
history which was conducted 
according to the rules of war, 
and was notable for the use 
made of artillery by both sides. 
After a siege lasting several 
months, the garrison was forced 
by famine to surrender. 

Cibalis (War of the Two Em- 
Fought October 8, 315, be- 
tween Constantine the Great, 
with 20.000 men, and Licinius, 
Emperor of the East, with 
35.000. Constantine was posted 
in a defile, where he was 





attacked by Licinius. The 
attack was repulsed, and Con- 
stantine followed the enemy 
into the open plain, where Lici- 
nius ralUed his troops, and re- 
sumed the offensive. The day 
seemed lost, when a charge of 
the right wing, under Constan- 
tine in person, once more broke 
the lUyrians, and Licinius hav- 
ing lost 20,000 of his best troops, 
abandoned his camp during the 
night and retreated to Sirmium. 

Ciudad Rodrigo (Peninsular 
This town was invested by 
Wellington January 8, 181 2, 
and carried by assault twelve 
days later. The besiegers lost 
during the siege 1,290 lolled and 
wounded, of whom 710, includ- 
ing Generals Craufurd and Mac- 
kinnon, fell in the storm. The 
French lost 300 killed and 
wounded, 1,500 prisoners, and 
150 guns. 

Ciuna (Second Samnite War). 

Fought B.C. 315, between the 
Romans under Caius Maenius 
and the Samnites under Pon- 
tius. The Romans gained a 
signal victory. 

Civitella (Norman Invasion of 
Fought 1033, when 3,000 Nor- 
mans under Robert Guiscard 
assailed and totally routed a 
miscellaneous force of Germans 
and Italians under Pope Leo IX. 
Only the Germans offered any 
serious resistance, but they were 
cut down to a man, and the Pope 
was overtaken in his flight and 

Clissau (Swede-Polish Wars). 

Fought July 13, 1702, be- 
tween the Swedes, 1 2,000 strong, 

under Charles XII, and 24,000 
Poles and Saxons under Fred- 
erick Augustus. The Saxons 
fought gallantly, but the Poles 
fled at the first onslaught, and 
in the end the Swedes gained a 
complete victory. Among those 
who feu was the Duke of Hol- 
stein, commanding the Swedish 

Clontarf (Norse Invasion of Ire- 
Fought April 24, 1014, when 
the Scandinavian invaders were 
totally routed by the Irish of 
Munster, Connaught, Ubter and 
Meath, under Brian Boru. The 
Norsemen are said to have lost 
6,000 men. Brian Boru and his 
son fell in the battle. 

Clusium (Conquest of Cisalpine 
Fought B.C. 225, when the 
Gauls utterly routed a Roman 
army with a loss said to have 
amounted to 50,000 men. 


Fought B.C. 394 between 120 
Spartan triremes under Pisander 
and a largely superior Persian 
fleet under Phaniabazus, and 
Conon the Athenian. Pisander 
was defeated and slain, and his 
fleet destroyed. Persia thus re- 
established her power in the 
Greek cities of Asia, and the 
maritime power of Sparta was 

Cockerel (Hundred Years' War). 
Fought May, 1364, between 
the Navarrese under Jean de 
Grailli, aided by a force of Eng- 
lish mercenaries under John 
Joel, and the French, 10,000 
strong, under Bertrand du 
GuescUn. Du Guesclin, who was 
executing a strategic retreat, was 



attacked by the English, who were 
surrounded and overpowered, 
Joel falling. De Grailli came to 
their aid, but was also over- 
whelmed and made prisoner, 
and the Navarrese, deprived of 
their leaders, laid down their 

Colenso (Second Boer War). 

Fought December 15, 1899, 
being the first action in Sir Red- 
vers BuUer's campaign for the 
relief of Ladysmith. Buller 
attempted to carry by a frontal 
attack the Boer position on the 
opposite side of the Tugela, and 
notwithstanding the gallantry 
of the troops, was compelled to 
retire, with a loss of 71 officers 
and 1 ,05 5 rank and file. Of this 
total the Irish Brigade lost about 
half. The Boers captured 10 guns. 

Colline Gate (Civil War of Mar- 
ias and Sulla). 
Fought B.C. 82 between the 
adherents of Sulla, and the 
Roman democrats and Samnites 
under Pontius, outside the walls 
of Rome. The battle was ob- 
stinately contested, but, after a 
fi^ht lasting throughout the 
mght, the insurgents were 
routed, and 4,000 prisoners 
taken. This victory of the aris- 
tocratic party ended the civil 

Colombey (Franco-German War). 
Fought August II, 1870, be- 
tween the retiring French army, 
and the advance guard of the 
First German Army Corps under 
von Steinmetz. The French 
maintained most of their posi- 
tions, but two of their divisions 
were overthrown, and Bazaine's 
retreat on Verdun was seriously 
delayed. The French lost about 
7,000^; the Germans 222 officers 
and 5,000 men. 

Colombo (Wars of the French 
This town was captured from 
the Dutch in 1796, by a squad- 
ron of four British warships, and 
a small force of troops under 
Admiral Peter Rainier and 
Colonel Stuart. 

Concha Rayada (South Ameri- 
can War of Independence). 
Fought February 18 18, be- 
tween the Spanish Royalists, 
5,000 strong, under General 
Osorio, and the Chilians and 
Colombians under San Martin. 
The Spaniards gained a com- 
plete victory. 

Concon (Chilian Civil War). 

Fought August 21, 1 89 1, be- 
tween 10,000 Congressists under 
General del Canto, and 11,000 
Balmacedists under General Bar- 
bosa. Aided by the fire of three 
warships, the Congressists, who 
had landed unopposed on the 
20th, stormed the entrench- 
ments of the Balmacedists. and 
drove them out with a loss of 
1,648 killed and wounded, and 
1,500 prifjoners. The victors 
lost 869. 

Condorcanqui. See Ayacucho 

Constantine (Conquest of Al- 
This fortified city in Eastern 
Algeria, which, under Hadji 
Ahmad, had held out for six 
years against French rule, was 
invested by the French, 7,000 
strong, under Marshal Clausel, 
in the autumn of 1836. Having 
no breaching pieces, Clausel 
essayed an assault, but was re- 
pulsed with a loss of 2,000 men, 
and abandoned the siege. In 
the following year General 




Damr6mont sat down before 
Constantine October 6, with 
10.000 men, and on the 12th, 
a breach having been effected, 
an assault was on the point of 
taking place, when Damr6mont 
was killed. His successor, Gen- 
eral Valee, however, took the 
place by storm on the following 

Constantinople (Moslem In- 
vasion of Europe). 
This city was besieged in 668, 
by the Saracens under Sophian, 
the lieutenant of the Caliph 
Moawiyeh. The Moslem fleet 
passed the Hellespont unopposed, 
but their attack upon the city 
was met with a most determined 
resistance. After keeping the 
field from April to September, 
Sophian retired into winter 
quarters, but renewed active 
operations during the follow- 
ing and five succeeding summers, 
without success, until, in 675, he 
finally abandoned the siege, 
having lost in its progress over 
30,000 men. 

In 7 16. the Saracens again laid 
siege to the city, with 120,000 
men under Moslemeh, brother 
of the Caliph Sol)rman. A fleet 
of 1,800 sail co-operated with 
the land forces, but was de- 
stroyed by the Greek fire ships, 
and thus obtaining the com- 
mand of the sea, the citizens 
were relieved from all fear of 
famine, and repulsed all Mos- 
lemeh's assaults. After a siege 
of 13 months, the Saracens 
withdrew, after a defeat at the 
hands of a Bulgarian relieving 
army, in which they lost 22,000 

Constantinople (Fourth Cru- 
The city was besieged July 

7, 1203, by the French and 
Venetian Crusaders under Count 
Thibaut de Champagne. After 
a feeble defence, it was surren- 
dered July 18, by the Usurper, 
Alexius, and occupied by the 
Crusaders, who restored Isaac 
Angelus to the throne, and with- 

In January 120^ the Crusa- 
ders again laid siege to Constan- 
tinople, and at the end of three 
months, in the course of which 
Isaac Angelus died, and Mour- 
zoufle assumed the purple, they 
stormed and pillaged the city. 
Baldwin was then proclaimed 
first Latin Emperor of the East. 

On July 25, 126T, Constanti- 
nople was taken by surprise by 
the troops of the Greek Em- 
peror, Michael Palaeologus, 
under his lieutenant, Alexius 
Strategqpulus. The Latin Em- 
peror, Baldwin II, made no 
attempt at resistance, but es- 
caped to the Venetian galleys, 
and the restoration of the Greek 
Empire was accomplished with- 
out opposition. 


A naval action fought Feb- 
ruary 13, 1352, between 64 
Genoese galleys under Doria, 
and 75 Greek and Venetian 
galleys under Pisani. The Geno- 
ese were victorious, taking or 
sinking 26 galle3rs, and forcing 
Pisani to retire into the forti- 
fied harbour. The Genoese lost 
13 galleys. 

Constantinople (Ottoman In- 
vasion of Europe). 
On June 10, 1422, Amurath 
II, with 200,000 Turks, laid 
siege to the city, which was 
defended by the Greek garrison 
under the Emperor Manuel. 



After a siege of two months, in 
which the Turks lost heavily 
in their numerous assaults, and 
in the defenders' sallies Amurath, 
was called away to Boursa 
by a domestic revolt, and raised 
the siege. 

On April 6. 1453, the Turks 
again laid siege to Constanti- 
nople with 258,000 men under 
Mohammed II. The garrison, 
consisting of 5.000 Greeks and 
3.000 foreigners, though short 
of ammunition, made a 8[allant 
defence, but were overpowered 
by numbers in a general assault 
on May 25, and the city was 
captured. Constantine Palaeo- 
logus, the last Emperor of the 
East, was killed by an unknown 
hand, in the tumult which 
followed the storming of the 

Copenhagen (Napoleonic Wars). 
Fought April 2, 1801, between 
the British fleet of 20 sail of 
the line, besides frigates, under 
Admirals Hyde Parker and 
Nelson, and the Danish fleet of 
10 line of battleships, aided by 
the shore batteries. Nelson 
attacked with 12 ships, Parker 
remaining in reserve, but three 
of Nelson's vessels running 
a^und, he met the Danish line 
with 9 only. The Danes offered 
a strenuous resistance, and Par- 
ker hoisted the signal to retire, 
but Nelson put the telescope to 
his blind eye, and refused to see 
the signal. The action con- 
tinued until the Danish fire was 
sUenced. The British lost 1,200 
men, and had six vessels seri- 
ously damaged. The Danes had 
one ship destroyed, and the 
rest of their fleet completely 
disabled. The result of this 
victory was the dissolution 

of the league of the Northern 

Copenhagen (Napoleonic Wars]. 
ITie city was captured Sep- 
tember 5, 1807, by 20,000 
British troops under Lord Cath- 
cart, after a four days' bom- 
bardment of the forts and 
citadel by 27 ships of the line. 
The Danish fleet of 18 sail of the 
line, which was surrendered, 
would otherwise, under a secret 
clause of the Treaty of Tilsit, 
have been placed at the dis- 
posal of Napoleon. 

Copratus, The (Wars of Alex- 
ander's Successors). 
Fought B.C. 316. between the 
Macedonians under Antigonus, 
and the Asiatics under Eumenes. 
Each army was about 30,000 
strong, and Eumenes fell upon 
the Macedonians as they were 
crossing the Copratus. and sig- 
nsdly defeated them, though 
Antigonus was able to retreat 
in g(xxi order. 

Cordova (Moorish Empire in 
Fought August 1 010, between 
the Berbers under Sulaiman, 
aided by the Spaniards under 
Sancho, Count of Castile, and 
the Moors of Cordova under 
Almudy. Almudy marched out 
of Cordova to meet the Berbers, 
but was utterly routed, with a 
loss of 20.000, including most of 
his principal Emirs. 

Corinth (Peloponnesian War). 

Fought B.C. 429. between 47 
Peloponnesian ships under Cne- 
mus, and 20 Athenian triremes 
under Phormio. Phormio, who 
was blockading the Gulf of 
Corinth, allowed Cnemus to pass 
into the open sea, and when 
disordered by the heavy weather 




prevailing, he attacked and 
completely defeated the Pelo- 
ponnesians, capturing 12 ships. 

Corinth (Corinthian War). 

Fought B.C. 304 between 
14,000 Spartans, and 26,000 
Athenians, Corinthians, The- 
bans and Argives. The allies 
were defeated, losing twice as 
many men as their opponents, 
but the Spartans, in spite of 
their victory, were obliged to 
retire, leaving the Isthmus in 
their possession. 

Corinth (American Civil War). 

Fought October 3 and 4, 1 862, 
between the Confederates under 
Van Dom, and the Federals 
under Rosecrans. Rosecrans 
was strongly entrenched at 
Corinth, where he was attacked 
on the 3rd. and driven into his 
inner Imes. The attack was 
renewed on the 4th, but an 
attempt to storm the entrench- 
ments was repulsed, and the 
Federals, taking the offensive 
against the disordered South- 
erners, drove them from the 
field with a loss of ^,423 killed 
and wounded, and 2,248 prison- 
ers. The Federals lost 2,359 
killed, wounded, and missing. 

Coroneia (Bceotian Wars). 

Fought B.C. 447, when an 
Athenian army under Tolmides, 
which had entered Boeotia to 
reduce certain of the Boeotian 
towns which had thrown off 
their allegiance to Athens, was 
encountered and totally de- 
feated by a largely superior 
force of Boeotians. Almost all 
the surviving Athenians were 
captured, and, to secure their 
release, Athens resigned her 
claims over Boeotia, 

Coroneia (Corinthian War). 

Fought August B.C. 394. l>«- 
tween the Athenians, Argives, 
Thebans, and Corinthians, and 
the Spartans under AgesUaus. 
The Spartan right defeated the 
Argives, but their left lied be- 
fore the Thebans. who then 
attacked the Spartan right, but, 
after a desperate struggle, were 
defeated. The Spartans, how- 
ever, had suffered so severely 
that Agesilaus was compelled 
to evacuate Boeotia. 

Corrichie (Huntly's Rebellion). 

Fought 1562, between the 
troops of Mary, Queen of Sc<^ts, 
and the Scottish rebels under 
the Earl of Huntly. The rebels, 
whose forces had been greatly 
reduced by desertions, were 
totally defeated, and Huntly 

Corte Nuova (Guelfs and Ghibel- 
Fought 1237, between the 
Imperialists under Frederick II, 
and the Lombard Guelfs under 
the leadership of the Milanese. 
Frederick won a signal victory, 
capturing the carroccio of Milan. 

Corumba (Paraguayan War). 

Fought 1877, between the 
Paraguayans and a Brazilian 
army corps which was endea- 
vouring to enter Paraguay from 
the north-east. The Brazilians 
retired in disorder, being pur- 
sued for many miles, and suffer- 
ing heavy loss. The battle is 
remarkable for the presence in 
the Paraguayan army of a corps 
of Amazons led by Eliza Lynch. 

Coruna (Peninsular War]. 

Fought January 16, 1809, 
between 14,000 British under 
Sir John Moore, and 20,000 
French under Soult, who was 



endeavouring to prevent the 
British from embarking. The 
French attacks were aniformly 
repulsed, and the troops safely 
embarked, with a loss of about 
800. including Sir John Moore. 
The French lost about 2.000. 

Compedion (Wars of Alexander's 

Fought B.C. 281 between the 
Macedonians under Lysimachus. 
and the Sjrrians under Seleucus. 
The two generals met in single 
combat, in front of their armies, 
and Seleucus. though 81 years 
of age. defeated and slew his 
ancient comrade in arms. 
The two armies then engaged, 
and the Syrians gained a com- 
plete victory. 

Coulmiers (Franco - German 
Fought November 9, 1870. 
between 20.000 Germans under 
Von der Tann. and a largely 
superior French force under 
General d'Aurelle de Paladines. 
After maintaining their position 
for the greater part of the day, 
the Germans were driven back, 
having lost 576 killed and 
wounded, 800 prisoners, an 
ammunition column and 2 guns. 
The French losses were about 

Courtrai (Flemish War). 

Fought 1307. between the 
French under Robert d'Artois. 
and the Flemings under Guy de 
Namur. The French were 
utterly routed, and so great was 
the carnage among the French 
nobility and knighthood, that 
after the battle 4,000, some say 
7.000, gilt spurs, were hung up 
as trophies in Courtrai cathe- 
dral From this circumstance 

this battle is commonly known 
as the Battle of the Spurs. 

Coutras (Eighth Civil War). 

Fought 1587 between the 
Huguenots under Henry of 
Navarre (Henri IV) and the 
Catholics under the Due de 
Joyeuse. The Catholic army 
was annihilated. Joyeuse being 
amongst the slain. 

Covdong (Seven Years' War). 
This fortress, held by a French 

garrison of 350, was captured 
y Clive in 1752. after a few 
days' siege. Clive had only 200 
European recruits and 500 Se- 
poys, and had great difficulty 
m getting his men to face the 
French fire. Having, however, 
managed to erect a battery 
which commanded the place, 
the Governor surrendered. On 
the following day CUve am 
bushed and defeated, with a loss 
of 100 men. a relieving force 
approaching from Chingleput. 

Coverypank (Seven Years' War) 
Fought February 1752. be- 
tween the British, 380 
Europeans, and 1,300 Sepoys, 
under Clive. and the troops 
of Rajah Sahib, with 400 
Frenchmen, in all about 5,000. 
CUve's advance guard marched 
into an ambush, and with diffi- 
culty held its ground against 
the fire of 9 guns. Meanwhile 
Clive passed round the enemy's 
position, and attacked them 
vigorously in the rear, where- 
upon they fled in panic. Most 
of the Frenchmen and the guns 
were captured. 

Craonne (Allied Invasion of 
Fought March 7, 18 14. be- 
tween 5S*ooo French under 




Napoleon, and about 90,000 of 
the allies under Blucher. Blu- 
cher occupied a very strong 
position on the heights about 
Craonne, which was attacked 
and carried by Victor's and 
Ney's corps at the pdnt of the 
bayonet. The French lost 
9,000. the alUes 7,000 killed and 

Crayant (Hundred Years* War). 

Fought July 31. 1423. A 
force of Armagnacs under Bu- 
chan. Constable of France, with 
some Scottish mercenaries under 
Sir John Stewart, was advanc- 
ing upon Craonne, the capture 
of which town would secure 
Charles VII's communications 
with Champagne. They were 
attacked by the Burgundians 
and English under the Earl of 
SaUsbury, and defeated with 
heavy loss. Both Buchan and 
Stewart were captured. 

Crayford (Jutish Invasion). 

Fought 456 between the Jutes 
under Hengest, and the Britons 
under Vortigern. The Britons 
were defeated, and driven out of 

Crefeld (Seven Years' War). 

Fought June 23, 1758, be- 
tween 32,000 Hanoverians, Hes- 
sians and Brunswickers under 
Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick, 
and about 50,000 French under 
the Comte de Clermont. The 
French were totally defeated, 
with heavy loss. 

Cremona (Second Gallic Inva- 
Fought B.C. 198, when the 
Romans defeated with heavy 
slaughter an invading army of 
Gauls under Hamilcar, a Cartha- 
ginian. Hamilcar was slain. 

Cremona (Revolt of ^^teUius). 

Fought December 69, between 
the ViteUians, and the Flavians 
under Antonius Primus, 40,000 
strong. The VitelUans, who 
were without a leader, having 
deposed their general, Caecina, 
were attacked in their camp, 
and after a hard fight, which 
lasted throughout the night, 
were totally routed. The victors 
sacked and burnt Cremona. 

Cremona (War of the Spanish 

This city, held by a French 
garrison, was surprised by the 
Imperialists under Prince Eu- 
gene, February i, 1702. The 
town was entered without the 
alarm being given, and many 
important officers, including 
Marshal Villeroy, were made 
prisoners. A portion of the 
garrison, however, still held out 
in the citadel, and made Eu- 
gene's tenure of the town pre- 
carious, and finally, on the 
approach of a relieving force 
under the Prince de Vaudemont, 
he was forced to withdraw his 
troops. The garrison lost 1,000 

Cressy (Hundred Years' War). 

Fought August 26, 1 346. when 
a very inferior force of English 
under Edward III defeated the 
French under Philip VI. The 
battle is notable as being the 
first in which the English army 
was mainly composed of infan- 
try, and as proving the power- 
lessness of mounted men against 
the English archers. The 
French losses were 11 princes, 
1,200 knights, and 30,000 of 
lesser ranks, a total exceeding 
the whole English force. 



Crimisus (Third Carthaginian 
Invasion of Sicily). 
Fought June b.c. 340. be- 
tween 10,000 Sicilians under 
Timoleon, and 70,000 Cartha- 
ginians, including the " Sacred 
Band " of 2,500 Carthaginian 
citizens of good birth, under 
Hamilcar and Hasdrubal. Tim- 
oleon attacked the Carthagini- 
ans while they were crossing the 
Crimisus, and routed and dis^ 
persed the Sacred Band before 
the main army had crossed. A 
heavy storm of rain in the faces 
of the Carthaginians came to 
the aid of the Sicilians, and after 
a severe struggle, they gained a 
signal victory, and the Cartha- 
ginians fled, leaving 10,000 dead 
in the field, and 1 5 ,000 prisoners. 
Many more were drowned in 
their endeavour to recross the 

Cronion (Second Carthaginian 
Invasion of Sicily). 
Fought B.C. 379 between the 
Syracusans under Dionysius, 
and the Carthaginians. The 
Syracusans were defeated, with 
enormous loss, and Dionysius 
forced to accept unfavourable 
terms of peace. 

Cropredy Bridge (Civil War). 

Fought June 29, 1644, be- 
tween the Royalists under 
Charles I, and a detachment of 
the Parliamentary army under 
Sir WiUiam Waller. Waller 
crossed the Cherwell near Ban- 
bury with the object of taking 
the Royalists in the rear, but 
was repulsed with considerable 

Crosskeys (American Civil War). 

A rearguard action, fought 

June 8, 1862, between 8,000 

Confederates under Ewell, and 

about 15,000 Federals under 
Tremont. Ewell was given the 
task of holding Tremont in 
check, while General Jackson 
marched to meet the Federals 
under Shields, who were endea- 
vouring to effect a junction with 
Tremont. The Confederates 
held their ground, beating back 
their opponents with a loss of 
664 killed and wounded. After 
the action, Ewell crossed the 
river, burning the bridge behind 
him, and Jackson was enabled 
to fall upon Shields with his 
whole force. 


Fought 983, between the 
Germans under Otho II, and the 
Greeks, aided by 40,000 Sara- 
cens under the Caliph of Egypt. 
After an obstinate engagement, 
Otho was totally defeated, losing 
many of his bravest knights. 

Crotoye (Hundred Years' War). 
Fought 1347, during the siege 
of Calais by Edward III. The 
French fleet attempted to re- 
lieve the town, but was defeated 
and driven off with heavy loss 
by the English fleet. 


Fought December 6, 1862, 
between the Ecuadorians under 
Flores, 6,000 strong, and 4,000 
Colombians under Mosquera. 
The Ecuadorians were utterly 
routed, losing 1,500 killed and 
wounded, 2,000 prisoners, and 
all their guns. 


Fought June 13, 1783, when 
a portion of the British force 
under General Stewart attacked 
the French entrenchments in 
front of Cuddalore, and after 
hard fighting, drove the French 





into the town with a loss of 700 
men and 13 guns. The British 
lost 1,013 killed and wounded. 


A naval action was fought ofi 
Cuddalore June 30, 1783, be- 
tween a British squadron of 
17 sail under Sir Edward 
Hughes, and 12 French ships 
under Suffren. The French, as 
usual, declined to come to close 
quarters, and after a long range 
action, in which Hughes lost 
532 men, fighting was suspended 
at nightfall, leaving Sufiren in 
possession of the roads, and able 
to prevent the complete invest- 
ment of Cuddalore. 

Culloden (Rebellion of the Forty- 
Fought April 16. 1746. be- 
tween the Royal troops under 
the Duke of Cumberland, and 
the Highlanders under the 
Young Pretender. The rebels 
were completely routed by the 
English regulars, and in addition 
to heavy loss in the field, suf- 
fered terribly in the pursuit, 
being ruthlessly cut down by 
the cavalry. Cumberland's 

cruelty on this occasion earned 
for him the title of " Butcher." 
The RoyaUsts lost 309 killed 
and wounded. This battle is 
sometimes called the Battle of 
Drummossie Moor. 

Cunaxa (Eicpedition of Cyrus 
the Younger). 
Fought B.C. 401 between the 
Persians, about 400,000 strong, 
under Artaxerxes, and the army 
of his brother Cyrus, consisting 
of 100,000 Orientals, with 
14,000 Greek mercenaries, 
under Qearchus. The Greeks 
on the right wing drove back 
the Persian left, and Cyrus in 

the centre broke theking's body- 
guard, which fled in disorder. 
While pursuing his brother, 
however, he was struck down, 
and his Orientals at once took 
to flight. The Greeks refused 
to surrender, and were allowed 
to retain their arms and march, 
to the coast. This expedition 
of Cyrus forms the subject of 
Xenophon's " Anabasis." 

Curicta (Civil War of Caesar and 
Fought B.C. 49. when the 
Ca&sarian fleet under Dolabella 
was totally destroyed by the 
Pompeian fleet under Marcus 
Octavius. This victory cut off 
the Caesarian army under Caius 
Antonius, which was quartered 
on the island of Curicta, and 
Antonius was forced to sur- 

Curupayti (Paraguayan War). 

Fought September 22, 1866, 
between the troops of Brazil, 
Argentine and Uruguay, under 
General Flores, and the Para- 
guayans under Lopez. The 
allies were totally defeated, and 
Flores abandoned the army, 
returning to Montevideo. 

Custozza (Seven Weeks* War). 

Fought June 24, 1866, be- 
tween 60,000 Austrians under 
the Archduke Albert, and 
140,000 Italians under General 
La Marmora. La Marmora 
crossed the Mincio, and ad- 
vanced against the Archduke, 
who was covering Verona. The 
Italians having to pass through 
a hilly country, the columns 
were much broken up, and as 
they debouched into the plain 
of Custozza, they were beaten 
in detail, and driven back by 
the Austrians, who gained a 



signal victory. The Aostrians 
lost 4,650 killed and wounded ; 
the Italians. 720 killed, 3,112 
wounded, and 4,315 prisoners. 
La Marmora was compelled to 
recross the Mincio. 

Cuzco (Conquest of Peru). 

This city was besieged 1536, 
by 200,000 Peruvians, and was 
defended by 250 Spaniards 
under Juan and Gonzalo Piz- 
arro. After a siege of five 
months, Almagro, to whom cer- 
tain of the conquered territories 
had been assigned by the king 
of Spain, arrived with his troops, 
and attacked and totally routed 
the Peruvians. He then laid 
siege to the place on his own 
account, and shortly afterwards 
compelled Gonzalo Pizarro to 
capitulate. Juan died in the 
course of the siege. 


Fought B.C. 474, between the 
fleet of Hiero, tyrant of Syra- 
cuse, and the Etruscan fleet, 
which was investing the Greek 
colony of Cyme. The Etruscans 
were routed, and from this de- 
feat dates the rapid decUne of 
the Etruscan power. 


Fought July 364 B.C., be- 
tween the Thebans and Thessa- 
lians under Pelopidas, and the 
forces of Alexander, Despot of 
Pherae. Both armies made a 
forced march to seize the heights 
of CynoscephaUe, and reached 
the spot almost simultaneously. 
The Theban cavalry drove back 
Alexander's horse, but lost time 
in the pursuit, and his infantry 
made good their position on the 
heights. However, after very 
hard fighting, they were dis- 
lodged, and Alexander com- 

pletely routed, though Pelo- 
pidas fell in the battle. 

Cynoscephals (Second Mace- 
doman War). 
Fought B.C. 197. between the 
Romans, 26,000 strong, under 
Flamininus, and the Mace- 
donians, in about equal force 
under PhiUp. The Roman van- 
guard, coming unexpectedly 
u{>on the enemy, was repulsed, 
but Flamininus bringing up the 
legionaries, the battle became 
more equal. On the right 
Philip, with half his phalanx, 
drove back the Romans, but his 
left wing was utterly routed, 
and the victorious Roman right 
then turned and attacked the 
Macedonian right in flank and 
rear, and won a complete 
victory. The Macedonians lost 
13.000 killed and wounded 
The Roman losses were small, /f 

Cynossema (Pttloponnesian War). 
Fought 411 B.C. between 86 
Peloponnesian ships under Min- 
darus. and 76 Athenian triremes 
under Thrasybulus and Thra- 
syllus. The Athenian centre was 
broken, but, in the moment of 
victory, Thrasybulus fell upon 
the Peloponnesians with the 
right wing, and totally routed 
them, while Thrasyllus on the 
left also drove off his adver- 
saries, after hard fighting. 

Cyssus (War with Antiochus the 
Fought B.C. 191 between the 
Roman fleet of 105 triremes 
under Caius Livius, and the 
fleet of Antiochus, numbering 
70 sail, under Polyxenides. 
Polyxenides sailed out of Cys- 
sus to encounter the Romans, 
but was defeated with a loss of 



23 ships, and forced to seek 
refuge at Ephesus. 

Cyzicus (Peloponnesian War). 

Fought 410 B.C., when Alci- 
biades, with 86 Athenian ships, 
surprised the Peloponnesian 
Admiral Mindarus, who was 
besieging Cyzicus, and, after a 
hard fight, totally defeated him. 
Mindarus was slain, 60 triremes 
were taken or destroyed, and 
the Peloponnesian fleet was 
practically annihilated. 

Cyzicus (First imithridatic War). 
Fought B.C. 88, when the army 
of Mithridates, who was be- 
sieging Cyzicus, was hemmed by 
the Romans under LucuUus, 
and though the latter, with in- 
ferior forces, did not venture on 
apitched battle, he fought a series 
of minor engagements, in which 
he eventually destroyed the 
Pontic army, their losses 
amounting in the end to over 
200,000 men. 

Czarnovo (Campaign of Fried- 
Fought December 24, 1806, 
between the French under Na- 
poleon, and the Russians, 
about 1 5,000 strong, under Count 
Tolstoy. Napoleon, with Dav- 
oust's corps, crossed the Ukra, 
and made a night attack upon 
the Russians, driving them out 
of Czarnovo with a loss of i ,600 
and several guns. The French 
lost 700. 

Czaslau (War of the Austrian 
Fought 1742, between the 
Prussians under Frederic the 
Great, and the Austrians under 
Prince Charles of Lorraine. 
The Prussians were driven from 
the field, but the Austrians 

abandoned the pursuit to plun- 
der, and the king, rallying his 
troops, broke the Austrian main 
body, and defeated them with a 
loss of 4,000 men. 


Fought 603 between the 
Northumbrians under i^Ithel- 
frith, and the Picts and Scots 
under Aidan, King of the Scots. 
iCthclfrith was victorious, and 
extended his dominions as far 
as Chester. 

Dalmanutha (Second Boer War). 
Fought August 21 to 28, 1900, 
when the position of the Boers 
from Belfast to Machadodorp 
covering the Delagoa Bay Rail- 
way, and extending over aUne 30 
miles long, was attacked on the 
west by Lord Roberts, and on 
the south by Sir Red vers Buller. 
On the 28th Buller entered 
Machadodorp, by which time 
the Boers, who were under 
General Botha, had been driven 
from all their positions. Kruger 
at once fled to Delagoa Bay. 
The British loss in the four days 
amounted to about 500. 

Damascus (Moslem Invasion of 
This city was besieged by the 
Moslems under Khaled in 633, 
and was defended by a large 
garrison of Greeks and Romans. 
The city made an obstinate de- 
fence, and the defenders suc- 
ceeded in sending a demand for 
succour to Werdan, the general 
of Heraclius. Werdan's ap- 
proach drew Khaled away from 
the place, and as he was retiring 
he was attacked by the garrison, 
whom he defeated with enor- 



moos loss. He then marched 
against Werdan, defeated him, 
aiid returned to prosecute the 
siege. After a gallant defence, 
the city, 70 days later, was 
taken by storm. 

Damascus (Tartar Invasion of 
On January 25, 1401, Damas- 
cus was captured, through trea- 
chery, by the Tartars under 

Damme (Wars of Philip Augus- 
Fought April, 121 3, when an 
English fleet of 500 vessels under 
the Earl of Salisbury attacked 
and dispersed a large fleet of 
French ships designed to sup- 
port Philip Augustus' invasion 
of Flanders. The English cap- 
tured 300 and burnt 100 vessels, 
and PhiUp Augustus was forced 
to abandon his design. 

Dan-no-ura (Taira War). 

Fought 1 1 89, between the 

inUM lrf ***" Shdgun, Yoritomo, 

J brothers Noriyori and 

iUne, and the Taira Clan 

Munemori, when the 

A were routed and dispersed, 

JB defeat broke the power of 

iie clan, and the Minamoto 

became the dominant clan in 


Dantzig (Thirty Years' War). 

This fortress was besieged by 
the Swedes under Gustavus 
Adolphus in 1627, and was de- 
fended by a PoUsh garrison 
which successfully resisted all 
attempts to storm the place, 
until the truce of September 16, 
1629. In a night attack on 
May 27, 1627, the King of 
Sweden was severely wounded, 
while in the autumn of the same 
year a sally was made from the 

port by the Dantzig ships, 
which defeated the Swedish 
fleet under Admiral Stjems- 
kold, the Admiral being killed. 
I ship captured and i de- 

Dantzig (Campaign of Fried- 
On March 19, 1807, Marshal 
Lefebvre, with 18.000 French, 
laid siege to the city, which was 
defended by a garrison of 
14,000 Prussians, and 4.000 
Russians under Marshal Kalk- 
reuth. For complete invest- 
ment it was necessary for Le- 
febvre to encompass a circuit of 
about 17 leagues, for which 
purpose his numbers were too 
few, and he made little progress. 
Receiving reinforcements, how- 
ever, he opened his flrst parallel 
April I, while on the 12th an 
important outwork was carried. 
On the 23rd the batteries opened 
fire, and on May 15 a deter- 
mined effort to relieve the 
place was made by a force of 
8,000 Russians, who were re- 
pulsed with a loss of 2.000, the 
French losing 400 only. From 
this point the city was left to 
its fate, and an assault was 
ordered for* the 21st. Before 
this da te, however, Marshal Kalk- 
rcuth signified his readiness to 
parley, and on May 26 the place 
was surrendered, the garrison 
being then reduced to 7,000 

Dantzig (Campaign of Leipsic). 
After the Moscow retreat. 
General Rapp, with 30,000 
French, mostly Survivors of the 
Moscow campaign, was l>esieged 
in Dantzig, January 18 13, by 
the allies, 30,000 in number, 
under the Duke of Wurtemberg. 





Rapp made a strenuous defence, 
but his works were mastered 
one by one, and, finding his 
garrison dwindling rapidly from 
starvation and exposure, he sur- 
rendered November 29, 18 13, 
by which date the defenders 
numbered only 18,000 men. 

Dargai (Tirah Campaign). 

Fought October 20, 1897, 
when a British brigade, under 
General Yeatman Biggs, stormed 
the heights, which were held by 
a large force of Afridis. The 
actual storming was accom- 
plished by the Gordon High- 
landers, and the British loss 
amounted to 37 killed and 175 
wounded. Colonel Mathias' 

speech to the Gordons, before 
leading them to the charge was, 
" Highlanders, the General says 
the position must be taken at 
all costs. The Gordons will 
take it." 

Dazaifu (Chinese Invasion of 
In 1 28 1, Hwan Buako, the 
General ofKublai Khan, at the 
head of 100,000 Chinese, and 
10,000 Koreans, endeavoured 
to effect a landing at Dazaifu, 
The Japanese, however, kept 
them at bay for 60 days, at tne 
end of which time the Chinese 
fleet was wrecked and dispersed 
by a typhoon. The survivors, 
under Chang Pak, took refuge 
in the island of Takashima, where 
they were attacked and cut to 
pieces by the troops of the 
Daimiyo of Choshiu, under 
Shoni Kagasuke, only 3,000 out 
of the vast host msiking their 
way back to China. 

Deeg (First Mahratta War). 

Fought 1780 between the 
British, 6,000 strong under 

General Fraser, and the Mah- 
rattas under Holkar of Indore, 
with 14 battalions of infantry, 
a numerous cavalry, and 
160 guns. The Mahrattas were 
utterly routed, leaving 87 guns on 
the field. The British lost 643, 
including General Fraser, killed. 

Deeg (Second Mahratta War). 

The fortress, which was held 
by a garrison of Holkar' s troops, 
was besieged December 11, 1804, 
by the British under Lord Lake. 
After six days' bombardment, 
it was stormed on the 23rd, and 
the citadel captured on the 
following day. Over 100 guns 
were taken. 

Delhi ^First Mongol Invasion). 

Fought 1297, between 200,000 
Mongols under Kuttugh Khan, 
and 300,000 Delhi Mohammed- 
ans, with 2,700 elephants, under 
Ala-ud-Din. The Indian right 
wing, with a successful charge, 
broke the Mongols left, but car- 
ried the pursuit too far. Mean- 
while the right of the Mongol 
army assailed the Indian left and 
drove it from the field. Kuttugh 
Khan, however, had lost so 
heavily, that he was unable to 
follow up his advantage, and 
retreated with all speed from 

Delhi (Second Mongol Invasion). 
Fought 1398, between the 
Mongols under Tamerlane, and 
the Delhi Mohammedans under 
Mahmud Tughlak. Tamerlane, 
having crossed the Jumna to 
reconnoitre with an escort of 
700 horsemen, was attacked by 
Mahmud with 5,000 cavalry. 
Tamerlane repulsed the attack, 
and later, having brought his 
main bodv across the river, 
totally defeated Mahmud, and 



drove him into Delhi, which at 
once surrendered. The city was 
plundered, and Tamerlane with- 
drew laden with spoil. 

Delhi (Second Mahratta War). 

Fought September ii, 1803, 
between 4,500 British under 
General Lake, and 19,000 Mah- 
rattas of Scindiah's army under 
Bourguin. The enemy occu- 
pied a strong position with the 
Jumna in their rear, and Lake, 
feigning a retreat, drew them 
from their lines, and then turn- 
ing upon them drove them with 
the bayonet into the river, in- 
flicting enormous loss upon 
them. The British lost 400 

Delhi (Second Mahratta War). 

The city was invested October 
7, 1804, by 20,000 Mahrattas, 
with 100 guns, under Jeswunt 
Rao Hc^kar, and was success- 
fully defended for nine days by 
a small British garrison. At the 
end of this period, Holkar with- 
drew. So small was the garri- 
son, that they were on constant 
duty on the ramparts, through- 
out the siege, without reUef. 

Delhi (Indian Mutiny). 

After the outbreak at Meerut, 
Delhi became the rallying place 
of the mutineers, and on June 8, 
1857, Sir Harry Barnard com- 
menced the siege of the city. 
His force was too small for a 
complete investment, while the 
mutineers numbered 30,000, 
and could obtain continual re- 
inforcements, and ample sup- 
pUes. The garrison made con- 
stant sorties, and fighting was 
incessant at the outposts. On 
September 8 the breaching 
batteries opened fire, and on 

the 14th the final assault was 
made and the city entered. It 
was not, however, till the 20th 
that the Palace was taken, and 
all resistance at an end. Among 
those who fell was John Ni- 

Delium (Peloponnesian War), 

Fought B.C. 424 between the 
Athenians under Hippocrates. 
17,000 strong, and the Boeo- 
tians under Pagondas, 18,000 
strong. The armies met on a 
plain before Delium. and after 
an obstinate encounter, in which 
the Thebans on the right over- 
powered the Athenians, while 
their left attack was repulsed, 
the appearance of a large body 
of cavsdry on their flank alarmed 
the Athenians, who broke and 
fled. Hippocrates fell in the 

Delphi (Sacred War). 

Fought B.C. 355, between the 
Phocians, 5,000 strong, under 
Philomelus, and the Locrians. 
Philomelus. who had seized 
Delphi, attacked the Locrians 
on the heights above the sacred 
city, and routed them with heavy 
loss, many being driven over 
the precipice. 

Denain (War of the Spanish 
Fought 17 12, when the camp 
of the allies, held by 10 battal- 
ions under the Earl of Albe- 
marle, was attacked by 130 
French battalions under Marshal 
ViUiers. Prince Eugene made an 
effort to relieve the Earl, but 
was unable to cross the Scheldt, 
and the alUes were overwhelmed 
by superior numbers, only about 
4,000 making good their retreat. 
Five generals were killed or 



Dennewits (Campaign of Leip- 
Fought September 6, 1813, 
between the French army of 
the north under Ney, and the 
allies under the Crown Prince of 
Sweden. Ney had detached 
Bertrand's division to mask 
Dennewitz, while his main body 
marched past the position on 
the road to Berlin, but Bertrand 
delayed so long before Denne- 
witz, that what was intended 
for a demonstration became a 
serious action, in which the full 
force of both sides was engaged. 
The French were defeated with 
a loss of 10,000 men and 43 guns. 


Fought 577, when Ceawlin, 
King of Wessex, defeated the 
Welsh, and extended the bor- 
ders of Wessex to the Bristol 
Channel, thus severing the 
Welsh nation into two parts. 

Dessau (Thirty Years' War). 

Fought April 15, 1626, be- 
tween the German Protestants 
under Count von Mansfeldt, and 
the Imperialists, about 20,000 
strong, under Wallenstein. 
Mansfcldt was attacking the 
fort of Dessau, on the Elbe, 
when Wallenstein, approaching 
under cover of the woods, fell 
upon his flank, and totally 
routed him, killing or capturing 
nearly three-fourths of his army. 

Dettingen (War of the Austrian 
Fought June 27, 1743, be- 
tween the British, 40,000 strong, 
under George II, and 60,000 
French under the Due de 
Noailles. The British, who were 
retiring upon Hanau from Asch- 
affenburg. found their retreat 
cut ofi by the French, Dettingen 

being held by 23,000 men under 
de Grammont, while the main 
body was on the opposite bank 
of the Maine. De Grammont 
left his lines to attack the 
British, whereupon George II 
put himself at the head of his 
troops, and led a charge which 
broke the French and drove 
them headlong into the river. 
Their losses in crossing were 
heavy, and they left 6,000 killed 
and wounded on the field. This 
is the last occasion on which 
the Sovereign has led British 
troops in battle. 

Deutschbrod (Hussite War). 

Fought 1422 between the 
Taborite section of the Hussites 
under John Zisca. and the Ger- 
mans under the Emperor Sigis- 
mund. Zisca was completely 


This fortress, held for Pertab 
Singh by a garrison of the Tan- 
jore army, was captured in 1749, 
after a three days' bombard- 
ment, by a British force of 
2.300 men under Major Law- 
rence. An attack upon the 
breach, headed by CUve. was 
nearly disastrous, as the Sepoys 
hung back, and of the Euro- 
peans engaged, only Clive and 
three others escaped, but Law- 
rence arriving opportunely with 
the main column, the place was 


A faction fight, known as the 
battle of Diamond which took 
place September 21. 1795. at a 
village in Co. Armagh, between 
the Peep o' Day Boys and the 
Defenders. The former were 
victorious, killing 48 of their 



Diamond Hill (Second Boer 
Fought Jane ii and 12. 1900, 
when General Botha, with the 
main Boer army of 15,000 men, 
strongly entrenched about 15 
miles from Pretoria, was at- 
tacked by Lord Roberts with 
17,000 men and 70 guns, and 
driven from his position. The 
Boer Unes were so extended that 
three distinct actions were in 
progress at the same time. The 
british lost 25 officers and 137 
men killed and wounded. 

Dingaan's Day. 

Fought December 16, 1838, 
between the Boers of the Trans- 
vaal, and the Zulus under Din- 
gaan. The Zulus were totally 
routed, with heavy loss. The 
Boer losses were small. 

UipmsL (Arcadian War). 

Fought B.C. 471, between the 
Spartans and the Arcadian 
League. The Arcadians were 
tota&y defeated, and Tegea, the 
heaud of the League, shortly 
afterwards submitted to Sparta. 


This fortified Portuguese fac- 
tory was besieged early in Sep- 
tember, 1537, by a fleet of 76 
Turkish galleys, and 7,000 sol- 
diers under flyman. Pasha of 
Egypt, acting with whom was 
an army of 20,000 Gujeratis 
nnder Bahadur Shah, and Kho- 
Mk Zoiar, an Italian renegade. 
The ^[arrison of 600, under 
Antomo de Silveira, repulsed 
assault after assault, but were 
nearly at the end of their re- 
sources, when the false rumour 
of an approaching Portuguese 
fleet caused Soljrman to with- 


In 1545 Diu was again be- 
sieged by the Gujeratis, the 
garrison being commanded by 
Mascarenhas. Khojah Zofar, 
who led the besiegers, was killed 
in the course of the siege, and 
was succeeded by Rami Khan. 
The garrison, at the end of 
seversd months, was on the 
point of surrendering, owing to 
famine, when it was relieved by 
Juan de Castro, who signally 
defeated the Gujeratis, and 
raised the siege. 

Djerbeh (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought 1560, between the 
fleet of Solvman I, Sultan of 
Turkey, unaer Piyc&la Pasha, 
and the combined squadrons of 
Malta, Venice, Genoa and Flor- 
ence. The Christian fleet was 
utterly routed, the Turks secur- 
ing thereby the preponderance 
in the Meoiterranean. 

Dniester (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought September 9, 1769, 
between the Russians under 
Prince Gallitjdn, and the Turks 
under AU Moldovani Pasha. 
The Turks crossed the river in 
the face of the Russian army, 
and attacked their lines with 
great impetuosity. After 
severe fightmg, however, they 
were l>eaten ofi, and forced to 
withdraw from Choczim. 

Dodowah (First Ashanti War). 

Fought 1826, between the 
Ashanti army, which had in- 
vaded the Gold Coast, and the 
British under Colonel Purdon. 
The Ashantis fought bravely, but 
were routed with heavy loss. 

Dogger Bank (Dutch Wars). 

Fought Au^st 15, 1 78 1, be- 
tween a British fleet of seven 
battleships and six frigates. 




under Admiral Hyde Parker, 
and a Dutch fleet of equal 
strength under Admiral Zout- 
man. After a severe engage- 
ment, the Dutch bore away, 
and reached their port in safety, 
the British fleet being too 
crippled to pursue. The British 
lost 109 killed and 362 wounded ; 
the Dutch i ship, the Hoi- 
landia, 142 killed and 403 

Dollar (Danish Invasion). 

Fought 875, when the Danish 
invaders under Thorstem totally 
defeated the men of Alban under 
Constantine. The Danes sub- 
sequently occupied Caithness, 
Sutherlandshire, Ross and 

Dolni-Dubnik (Russo-Turkish 
Fought November i, 1877, 
when General Gourko, with two 
divisions of the Russian guard, 
dislodged the Turks from the 
redoubt of Dolni-Dubnik, and 
forced them to retire upon 
Plevna. There was little actual 
fighting, the Turks retiring 
without much resistance, but 
the action is important, because 
the capture of the redoubt made 
the investment of Plevna com- 


Fought April 12, 1782, be- 
tween the Bntish fleet of 36 sail 
of the line, under Rodney, with 
Hood second in command, and 
the French fleet of 33 sail under 
de Grasse. Rodney departed 
from the usual tactics of a ship 
to ship action, and broke the 
enemy's Une, gaining a com- 
plete victory, and capturing or 
destroying 5 ships, while 2 more 
were captured within the next 

few days. The British lost 
261 killed and 837 wounded. 
The French losses have been 
put as high as 15,000, but it is 
probable that they lost about 
3,000 killed and wounded, while 
7,980 were taken in the cap- 
tured ships. This action is also 
known as the battle of the 

Domokos (Greco-Turkish War). 
Fought May 17, 1879, be- 
tween five Turkish divisions of 
the army under Edhem Pasha, 
and the Greeks under the Crown 
Prince of Greece, about 40,000 
strong. The Greeks held their 
ground till late in the evening, 
when the right was outflanked, 
and forced to give ground, 
though, when the action ceased, 
the Turks had made no other 
advance. Edhem was prepared 
to renew the fight on the follow- 
ing day, but the Crown Prince 
found that the retirement of his 
right had rendered the position 
untenable, and retreated during 
the night. The Greeks lost 600 
killed and wounded ; the Turks 
about 1,800. 

Donabew (First Burmah War). 
Fought March 7, 1825, when 
General Cotton, with about 700 
troops, attacked three strong 
stockades held by 12.000 Bur- 
mans under Maha Bandoola. 
The smallest of the three was 
carried, but Cotton's force was 
too small, and it was not till the 
25 th that Sir Archibald Camp- 
bell arrived, and, shelling the 
stockade, forced the Burmans 
to evacuate the position. 
Maha Bandoola was killed. 

Donauwdrth (War of the Spanish 
Fought July 2, 1704, between 



the British and Imperialists 
under the Duke of Marlborough, 
and the French and Bavarians 
under Marshal Tallard. The 
Duke attacked the enemy's 
entrenched position at Schellen- 
berg, in front of Donauwdrth, 
and drove them out, forcing 
them to abandon the town. The 
victors lost 5.374 killed and 
wounded. The French losses 
are unknown, but were probably 


Fought 602. between the Neus- 
trians under Clothaire II. and 
Austrasians and Burgundians 
under Theodobert and Thierry. 
Clothaire was defeated with 
great slaughter. 

Dorylmim (First Crusade). 

Fought July 1097. between 
70«ooo Crusaders under Bohe- 
mond and Raymond of Thou- 
louse, and 250.000 Saracens 
under the Sultan Soliman. The 
Saracens drove back Bohe- 
mond's division on their camp, 
which they proceeded to plunder, 
and, while so engaged, were at- 
tacked by Raymond and totally 
routed with a loss of 30,000. 
The Crusaders lost 4.000. 

Douai Oyar of the Spanish Suc- 

This place was besieged by 
the allies under Prince Eugene. 
April 25. 17 10. and was defended 
by a French garrison, 8.000 
strong, under General d'Alber- 
gotti. The place was obstinate- 
ly defended, numerous sorties 
being made, but, the French 
army being unable to relieve it, 
d'Albergotti was forced to sur- 
render June 26. The besiegers 
lost 8,000 killed and wounded. 

Douro (Peninsular War). 

Fought May 12. 1809, when 
12.000 British under Wellesley 
(the Duke of Wellington) crossed 
the Douro and drove the French 
under Soult out of Oporto. 
The French numbered about 
24.000. of whom 5,000 were 
killed, wounded or captured, 
mainly during the pursmt. In 
the action itself, the French 
lost 500. the British, 116. 

Dover (Dutch Wars). 

Fought November 29. 1652. 
between a Dutch fleet of 95 
sail, under Van Tromp, and an 
English fleet of 40 ships, under 
Blake. The Dutch were vic- 
torious, the English fleet being 
much cut up. and two ships 

Downs, The (Dutch Wars). 

Fought June i, 2 and 3, 1666. 
between the English fleet under 
the Duke of Albemarle, and the 
Dutch under De Ruyter, Van 
Tromp and De Witt. After an 
obstinate fight. Albemarle, on 
the 3rd. retired, after setting 
fire to his disabled vessels, but 
the Dutch were too seriously 
crippled to pursue. 

Drepanum (First Punic War). 

Fought B.C. 249. during the 
siege of Lilybaeum. between 
the Roman fleet of 123 galleys 
under Publius Claudius, and 
the Carthaginians under Ad- 
herbal. Claudius was defeated, 
losing 93 ships. 8.000 killed and 
20.000 prisoners, while the 
victors did not lose a ship. 

Dresden (Campaign of Ldpsic). 
Fought August 27, 18 13, be- 
tween 130.000 French under 
Napoleon, and 200.000 Rus- 
sians. Prussians and Austrians. 



under Count ' Wittgenstein, 
Kleist, and Prince Schwartzem- 
berg, respectively. The Em- 
perors of Russia and Austria, 
and the King of Prussia, were 
present on the field. Napoleon, 
who was in possession of Dres- 
den, made his main attack up>on 
the Austrian left, which was 
separated from the centre by 
the ravine of Planen. This 
attack, which was entrusted to 
Murat, was completely success- 
ful, and the Austrians were 
driven with heavy loss into the 
ravine. Meanwhile, the centre 
and right of the allies had been 
attacked with equal success, 
and finally they were driven 
from the field with a loss of 
10,000 killed and wounded. 
15,000 prisoners, and 40 guns. 
The French lost about 

Dreux (First Civil War). 

Fought 1562, between the 
Huguenots under the Prince de 
Cond6, and the Catholics under 
the Constable, Montmorency. 
The Constable, heading a charge 
of the Catholic cavalry, was 
overthrown and captured by 
Coligny. The Catholics then 
fled, but the Huguenots, carrying 
the pursuit too far, were charged 
and routed by Fran9ois de 
Guise, and Cond6 made pri- 
soner. The victory thus rested 
with the Catholics. 

Driefontein (Second Boer War). 
Fought March 10, 1900, be- 
tween the Boer Army covering 
Bloemfontein, under de Wet, 
and the British under Lord 
Roberts. The Boers occupied 
a position about seven miles in 
extent, which was attacked in 
front by Kelly-Kenny's divi- 
sion, and on the left flank by 

that of Tucker. The Boers 
were driven out and the road 
to Bloemfontein opened, at a 
cost to the British of 424 killed 
and wounded. The Boers left 
over 100 dead on the field. 


This strong post on the Dan- 
ube was defended for fifty-five 
days in 973, by the Russians 
under their Duke Swatoslaus, 
against the Greeks under the 
Emperor John Zimisces. At 
the end of that time the Rus- 
sians were forced to surrender, 
thus ending their invasion of 
Byzantine territory. 

Drogheda (Great Irish Rebellion). 
Siege was laid to this town, 
which was held by an English 
garrison under Sir Henry Tich- 
borne, by the Irish rebels, under 
Owen Roe O'Neil, in December, 
1 64 1. The garrison held out 
successfully for three months, 
when O'Neil was compelled to 
raise the siege. 

Drogheda (Civil War). 

On September 3, 1649, siege 
was laid to the place by the 
ParUamentary army under 
Cromwell, the garrison of 2,500 
English regulars being under 
Sir Arthur Aston. An assault 
on the loth was repulsed, but 
on the 1 2th the town was storm- 
ed, and the garrison put to the 
sword. Four thousand soldiers 
and inhabitants, including As- 
ton, are said to have perished. 

Drumclog (Covenanters* Rising). 
Fought June 11, 1679, when 
a party of Covenanters, under 
Balfour of Burleigh, defeated the 
royal troops, under Claverhouse. 

Drummossie Moor. 
See Culloden. 



DublMt (Sdnde Campaign). 

Foaght Blarch 24, 1843, 
between 5,000 British troops, 
under Sir Charles Napier, and 
30.000 Beluchis. under the Amir 
Shir Mohamed. The enemy 
was strongly posted behind a 
double nullah, which was carried 
by the infantry with great 
gallantry, and the Beluchis 
were totsilly defeated. 

Duffindale (Kat's RebelUon). 

The scene of the defeat of the 
rebels under Kat, by the royal 
troops, under the Earl of War- 
wick, in 1549. 

Dunbar (Scottish Wars). 

Fought April 27. 1296, be- 
tween the English, under Ed- 
ward I. and the Scots under the 
Earl of Athol. The Scots were 
defeated, with a loss of 10.000 
men. This defeat led to the 
surrender of BalUol, and Ed- 
ward was proclaimed King of 

I>unl>ar (Scottish Wars). 

This town was besieged, 1339, 
by the English, under the Earl 
of Salisbury, and was defended 
by Agnes, Countess of March, 
known as Black Agnes of Dun- 
bar, whose husband, the Gover- 
nor, was absent at the time. So 
vigorous was the defence, that 
Ssdisbury was compelled to 
withdraw from the siege. 

Dunbar (Civil War). 

Fought September 3. 1650, 
between 14.000 Parliamentar- 
ians under Cromwell and Monk, 
and the Scottish Royalists. 
27,000 strong, under David 
Li»lie. Leslie left a strong 
position on the heights near 
Dunbar, to meet Cromwell, and 
was routed with a loss of 3,000 

killed and wounded, and 10,000 
prisoners. Cromwell's losses 
were small. 

Dundalk (Scottish Invasion of 
Fought October $, 1318, be- 
tween the Scots under Edward 
Bruce, 3,000 in number, and the 
Enghsh and Irish under John 
de Bermingham. The Scots 
were totally defeated, Bruce, 
with about 30 of his kinghts. 
and over 80 men-at-arms, being 
killed, and the invasion came to 
an end. 


See Talana Hill. 

Dunes (Wars of Louis XIV). 

Fought June 14, 1650, be- 
tween the Spaniards. 14,000 
strong, under Don John of Aus- 
tria and the Great Cond6, and 
the French in equal force under 
Turenne. A force landed from 
the English fleet commenced the 
attack on the Spaniards, which 
was vigorously supported by 
Turenne, and the Spaniards 
were totally defeated, with a 
loss of 4,000 killed, wounded 
and captured. Ten days later 
the town of Dunkirk capitu- 

DunganhiU (Great Irish Rebel- 
Fought August 8, 1647, be- 
tween the Irish rebels, and an 
English force under Colonel 
Michael Jones. The Irish were 
routed with a loss of 6,000. 

Dunkeld (Jacobite Rising). 

Fought August 21, 1689, be- 
tween the Highlanders under 
Colonel Cannon, and the Camer- 
onian Regiment under Colonel 
Cleland. The fight took place 
in the town of Dunkeld, where 




the Cameronians held a house 
belonging to the Marquis of 
Athole. The Highlanders were 
unable to dislodge them, and 
eventually retired. Cannon being 


Fought 1054, between the 
usurper, Macbeth, and the 
Anglo-Saxons under Siward, 
Earl of Northumberland, who 
was supporting Malcolm Can- 
more, the son of the murdered 
Duncan. Macbeth was de- 
feated, losing 10.000 men, and 
fled to the north. The Anglo- 
Saxons lost 1,500. 

Duplin (Bailors Rising). 

Fought August 12, 1332, be- 
tween the Scottish barons, under 
Edward Baliol, and the forces of 
David, King of Scotland. Though 
largely outnumbered Baliol was 

Dappel (Schleswig - Holstein 
This fortress, protected by an 
outer chain of ten redoubts, 
was invested by the Prussians, 
16,000 strong, under Prince 
Frederick Charles, and the first 

?arallel opened, March 30, 1864. 
he Damsh garrison numbered 
22.000. On April 17, after a 
heavy bombardment, the Prus- 
sians were launched at the first 
six of the chain of redoubts, and, 
after a brief resistance, they 
were captured and the place was 
immediately afterwards sur- 
rendered. The Prussians lost 
70 officers and 1,331 men, the 
Danes, including prisoners, 
5. 500. 

Durazzo (Norman Invasion of 
This fortress, which was de- 

fended by a garrison of Greeks 
and Macedonians under George 
Palaeologus, was besieged by 
the Normans, under Robert 
Guiscard, July 17, 108 1. On 
October 18, the besiegers, now 
reduced to 18,000, were attacked 
by a force of about 75,000 
Greeks, under Alexius Com- 
nenus, and after a terrible 
struggle, in which the Normans 
were almost overpowered, the 
victory rested with Guiscard. 
The Greeks lost about 6.000. 
On the Norman side, the Italian 
auxiliaries suffered heavily, but 
only 20 Norman knights were 
killed. Notwithstanding this 
disaster, the city still held out, 
and it was not till February 8, 
1082, that a night surprise 
rendered the Normans masters 
of the place. 

Dilrrenstein (Campaign of the 
Fought November 11, 1805, 
during Nap>oleon*s advance on 
Vienna, when Mortier, with one 
French division, was attacked 
by 30.000 Russians, and would 
have been overwhelmed but for 
the timely arrival of another 
division. The French lost 
3.000 ; the Russians about the 
same number. 

Dwina, The (Swede-Polish War). 
Fought 1 70 1, between 15.000 
Swedes under Charles XII, and 
12,000 Saxons under Marshal 
von Stenau. Charles, who was 
marching upon Riga, found the 
passage of the Dwina barred by 
von Stenau. Having the wind 
at his back, he set fire to a large 
quantity of straw, and under 
cover of the smoke, crossed the 
river unperceived. He then 
attacked the Saxons, who^ after 



an obstinate engagement, were 
defeated and dnven from the 

Djle (Norman Inyasion of 

Fought 896, between the 
N(»rman invaders, and the Ger- 
mans under Arnulph, Em- 
peror of Germany, The Nor- 
mans were totally routed with 
enormous loss. 

Dyrrachlum (Civil War of 
Car an d Pompey). 

Fought B.C. 48, between the 
Cssarians, under Julius Cxsar, 
and the Pompeians. under Pom- 
pey. The latter having formed 
an entrenched camp some dis- 
tance from Dyrrachium, Cxsar 
interposed his army between 
the camp and the town. This 
interrupted Pompey's com- 
munications, and he, in conse- 
quence, attacked the Caesarian 
lines, which he forced, at the 
cost of 1,000 men, and obUged 
Caesar to retire. 

Ebersberg (Campaign of Wag- 

Fought May 3, 1809, when 
Massena's corps stormed the 
bridge and castle of Ebersberg, 
which was held by about 30,000 
Austrians under the Archduke 
Charles. After the bridge was 
captured, a terrible conflict 
followed in the streets of Ebers- 
berg, and finally the Austrians 
were driven out, with a loss of 
about 3.000 killed and wounded, 
4.000 prisoners and many guns. 
The French admit a loss of 1.700 

Eckmtthl (Campaign of Wag- 
Fought April 22, 1809, be- 
tween 90,000 French, under 
Napoleon, and 76,000 Austrians, 
under the Archduke Charles. 
The Austrians occupied a posi- 
tion on the high ground above 
Eckmuhl, from which they were 
dislodged after severe fighting, 
but the approach of night en- 
abled the Archduke to draw off 
his troops in tolerable order 
towards Ratisbon, with a loss of 
about 5,000 killed and wounded, 
and 3,000 prisoners. The 
French loss is stated at 2,500. 
By this victory Napoleon cut 
the main Austrian army in two. 

Ecnomus (First Punic War). 

Fought B.C. 256, between 330 
Roman galleys, with crews of 
100,000 men, under L. Manlius 
Valso, and M. Attilius Regulus, 
and 350 Carthaffinian ships 
under Hanno. After a hard- 
fought battle, in which the 
Romans lost 24 vessels, they 
defeated the Carthaginians, with 
a loss of 30 ships sunk and 64 
captured, and drove the rest of 
the fleet to Carthage. 

Edessa (Persian Wars). 

Fought 259, between the Ro- 
mans under Valerian, and the 
Persians under Sapor I. The 
Romans were totsdly defeated, 
and Valerian taken prisoner. 

Edgeworth (Wars of the Roses). 
Fought July 26, 1469, between 
the Yorkists under Pembroke, 
and the troops of the revolted 
Nevilles. The Lancastrians at- 
tacked Pembroke, whose troops 
were chiefly Welshmen, and, 
notwithstanding a stubborn 
resistance, defeated them with 
heavy loss, no less than 168 




Welsh knights falling, besides 
rank and file. Edward IV, who 
was in the neighbourhood, 
though not present at the battle, 
was captured soon after. 

Edgehill (Civil War). 

The first battle of the Civil 
War, October 23, 1642, between 
the Royalists under Charles I, 
and the Parliamentarians, under 
Essex, each army being about 
20,000 strong. The victory was 
claimed by both sides, but the 
advantage rested with the King, 
as the ParUamentarians failed 
to face Prince Rupert's cavalry, 
and the Royalists were not 
prevented from continuing their 
march on London. 

Elandslaagte (Second Boer War). 
Fought October 21, 1899, be- 
tween a strong Boer force under 
General Koch, and 3 battalions 
and 5 squadrons of British 
troops, with 12 guns, under 
General French. The Boers oc- 
cupied a strong position, on 
high ground near the Lady smith- 
Dundee railway, from which 
they were driven by the infantry 
and Imperial Light Horse (dis- 
mounted) with a loss of 250 
killed and wounded, and 200 
prisoners, including Koch. The 
British lost 35 officers and 219 

Elands River (Second Boer War). 
On August 4, 1900, a force of 
400 Australians, under Colonel 
Hore, were surrounded by 2,500 
Boers, with 6 guns. The Aus- 
tralians occupied an exposed 
kopje, with no water nearer than 
the river half-a-mile away. Their 
maxim became unserviceable, 
an attempt by General Carring- 
ton to relieve them failed, and 
so severe was the Boer fire that, 

in 1 1 days, 1,800 shells fell within 
their lines. They held out, 
however, till August 15, when 
they were reUeved by Lord 
Kitchener, having lost 75 killed 
and wounded, and nearly all 
their horses. 

El Caney (Spanish-American 
Fought July I, 1898, when 
1 2,000 Americans, under General 
Shafter, captured from the 
Spaniards, after heavy fighting, 
the strong position of El Caney 
and San Juan Hill, commanding 
Santiago de Cuba. The Spani- 
ards made various attempts on 
the 2nd and 3rd to dislodge 
them, but without success. The 
American losses during the three 
days amounted to 115 officers 
and 1 , 570 men killed and wound- 

Elchingen (Campaign of Auster- 
Fought October 14, 1805, 
when Ney's corps, after repair- 
ing the bridge of Elchingen 
under fire, stormed and cap- 
tured the convent and village, 
driving out 20,000 Austrians. 
and taking 3,000 prisoners and 
a number of guns. 

Elena (Russo-Turkish War). 

Fought 1877, between the 
Russians under Loris MeUkoff, 
and the Turks under Muhktar 
Pasha, in which the former 
were victorious. 

Elinga (Second Punic War). 

Fought B.C. 206, between 
74,000 Carthaginians, under 
Hanno, and 48,000 Romans 
under Scipio Africanus. The 
battle was fought on the open 
plain in front of Hanno's camp, 
and resulted in a complete 



victory for the Romans. This 
battle, which is also known as 
the battle of Silpia, ended the 
Carthaginian domination in 

Elk Horn. 
See Pea Ridge. 


In this battle, fought 823, 
the Mercians under Beorwulf, 
were totally routed by the West 
Saxons under Egbert. 


Fought B.C. 389, between the 
Sicilians, 23,000 strong, under 
Dionysius of Sjrracuse, and the 
Italiots, 17,000 strong, under 
Heloris. Dionysius attacked 
the ItaUot vanguard, under 
Heloris himself, on the march, 
and the Italiot army, coming 
into action in detachments, was 
beaten piecemeal, and finally 
routed with heavy loss. The 
survivors, 10,000 in number, 
surrendered, and were allowed 
to go free. Heloris was slain. 

El Teb (Soudan Campaigns). 

Fought February 4, 1884, 
when a column of 3,500 Egyp- 
tian troops under Baker Pasha, 
marching to reUeve Sinkat, was 
overwhelmed, and practically 
annihilated by 12,000 Soudan- 
ese under Osman Digna. The 
Egyptians lost 2,360 killed and 

El Teb. 

See Trinkitat. 

Embate (Sodal War). 

Fought B.C. 356, when an 
Athenian fleet of 1 20 sail, under 
Chares, designed to attack the 
Chians, with 100 galleys, in the 
straits between Chios and the 
mainland. The day proving 
stonny, however, his coUeagues 

Iphicrates and Timoleon de- 
clined the enterprise as too 
hazardous, and Chares attacking 
alone, with a third of the fleet, 
was defeated with heavy loss. 

Emesa (Expedition to Palmyra). 
Fought 272, between the 
Romans under Aurehan, and 
the Palmjrrenians under Zen- 
obia. Zenobia was completely 
defeated, and forced to retire 
within the walls of Palmjrra, to 
which Aurelian at once laid 

Empingham (Wells' Rebellion). 
Fought March 12, 1470, when 
Edward IV totally routed the 
northern rebels, under Sir Ro- 
bert Wells. The battle is called 
" Loose-coat Field," from the 
precipitate flight of the rebels, 
who threw off their upper gar- 
ments to flee the faster. 

Engen (Wars of the French 
Fought May 3. 1800, between 
the French, 75,000 strong, under 
Moreau, and 110,000 Austrians 
under De Kray. Moreau had 
crossed the Rhine on the ist, and 
was advancing through the 
Black Forest, and the battle 
was in reality two distinct 
actions. Moreau's right, 25,000 
strong, under Lecourbe, over- 
took the Austrian rear-guard, 
and drove them into and tlurough 
Stokach, capturing 4,000 pri- 
soners, and a large depot of 
munitions and stores. Moreau 
in the centre was attacked at 
Engen by 40,000 Austrians, 
under De Kray, whom he re- 
pulsed with a loss of 2,000 
killed and wounded, and 5,000 
prisoners. The French lost 
a,ooo killed and wounded. 



Englefield (Danish Invasion ). 

Fought 871. the first of the 
series of battles between the 
West Saxons and the Danish 
invaders. The former, under 
their king, ^thelred. defeated 
the Danes. 

See Graspan. 

Entaw Springs (American War 
of Independence). 

Fought September 8, 1781, 
between the British garrison of 
Charleston, under Colonel 
Stewart, and the Americans, 
under General Greene. The 
British were attacked and at 
first driven back, but rally- 
ing carried the American 
positions, but with a loss of 700 
men, which so weakened their 
small force that they were un- 
able to profit by the victory. 

Entholm (Dano-Swedish Wars). 

Fought June 11, 1676, be- 
tween the Danish fleet, under 
van Tromp, and Swedes. The 
Swedes were defeated with very 
heavy loss in ships and men. 

See Sincheim. 

Ephesus (Ionian War). 

Fought 499 B.C., between the 
Athenians and lonians, under 
Aristagorus, and the Persians, 
under Artaphemes. The Greeks 
who were retreating to the 
coast after burning Sardis, were 
overtaken by the pursuing Per- 
sians, under the walls of Ephe- 
sus, and signally defeated. The 
Athenians thereupon withdrew 
their fleet, and took no further 
part in the war. 

Ephesus (Gallic Invasion of 
Fought B.C. 262, between the 
Syrians, under Antigonus. and 
the Gallic invaders. Antigonus 
was disastrously defeated. 

Erbach (Wars of the French 
Fought May 15. 1800, be- 
tween 15,000 French under 
Sainte-Suzanne, and 36.000 
Austrians under de Kray. The 
Austrians, who had 12.000 
cavalry, attacked vigorously, 
but the French, though driven 
back at certain points, were not 
routed, and held to their main 
positions for 12 hours, until the 
approach of St. Cyr's corps 
forced the Austrians to retire. 
Both sides lost heavily in the 

Erisa (South American War cf 
Fought December, 18 14, be- 
tween the Spanish royalists, 
under Bover, 8,000 strong, and 
the American patriots, under 
Ribas. Ribas was totally de- 
feated, and taken prisoner, and 
in revenge for the death of 
Bover. who fell in the battle, 
he was beheaded, and his head 
publicly exposed in Caraccas. 

Espinosa (Peninsular War). 

Fought November 10, 1808, 
between 18,000 French under 
Victor, and 30,000 Spaniards 
under Blake. The Spaniards 
were routed, and Blake's army 
scattered. The French lost 
about 1,100 men. 

See Aspem. 


Fought 604, between tb« 
Burgundians, under Queen 



bmnehilde, and the Neustrians 
under Clothaire II. The latter 
were totally defeated with 
heavy loss. 

Ethandun (Danish Inyasion). 

Fought 878, between the West 
Saxons, under Alfred, and the 
Danes, under Guthrum. The 
Danes were totally defeated, 
and Alfred's victory was fol- 
lowed by the Peace of Wed more, 
which lasted for fifteen years. 

Eurymedon, The (Third Persian 
Fought B.C. 470, between the 
Persian fleet and army, and the 
Athenians and Delians, under 
Cimon. The Greeks were vic- 
torious both by land and sea. 
defeating the Persian fleet with 
a loss of 200 ships, and routing 
the land army with great slaugh- 
ter. This victory secured the 
adhesion of the south of Asia 
Minor to the Athenian Con- 

Evesham (Barons* War). 

Fought August 4. 1265, be- 
tween the royalists under Prince 
Edward, and the Barons under 
Simon de Montfort. The 
Barons were taken by surprise, 
having at first mistaken Ed- 
ward's army for reinforcements 
under young de Montfort, and 
were totally defeated. Simon de 
Montfort falling. This defeat 
ended the Barons' War. 

Eylau (Campaign of Friedland). 
Fought February 8, 1807, be- 
tween 90,000 French imder 
Napoleon, and 80,000 Russians 
under Bennigsen. Napoleon 
attacked at daybreak, all along 
the line, but could at first make 
no impression on the Russian 
infantiy. Later in the day 

Davoust all but succeeded in 
turning the Russian left, but the 
opportune arrival of a Prussian 
corps under I'Estocq enabled 
the Russians to repulse him. 
and after a sanguinary engage- 
ment, which lasted till ten p.m., 
both armies retained their ori- 
ginal positions. On the follow- 
ing day the Russians retired 
unmolested. The French lost 
about 30,000 ; the Russians 
about 20.000 killed and 

Faenza (First Gothic War). 

Fought 541. between 20,000 
Roman legionaries, and the 
Goths under Totila. King of 
Italy. The Romans made no 
attempt to resist the onslaught 
of the Goths, but throwing 
down their arms fled igno- 
miniously. giving the Goths an 
easy victory. 

Fair Oaks (American Civil War). 
Fought May 31, and June i. 
1 862, between the Federals under 
General M'Clellan and the Con- 
federates under General John- 
ston. M'Clellan was advancing 
upon Richmond, and his left wing 
was attacked in the afternoon 
of the 31st. and notwithstand- 
ing the arrival of Sumner's corp 
in support, was driven back for 
two miles. On the ist the 
Federals recovered the ground 
they had lost, but made no 
further progress, and at the 
end of the day the Confederates, 
who were largely outnumbered, 
were permitted to retire un- 
molested. The Federals lost 
over 7,000 lolled and wounded, 
the Confederates about 4.500, 



including General Johnston. 
This is also called the Battle of 
Seven Pines. 

Falkirk (Scottish Wars). 

Fought July 23, 1298. between 
the English under Edward I, 
and the Scots under Sir William 
Wallace. The Scots, who were 
greatly inferior in numbers, 
were strongly posted behind a 
morass, which at first greatly 
hampered the English attack. 
In the end, however, the Eng- 
Ush archers overcame the Scot- 
tish defence, and a final charge, 
led by the king in person, utterly 
routed them. Wallace escaped 
from the field, but was a fugitive 
for the rest of his Ufe. 

Falkirk (Rebellion of tiie Forty- 
Fought August 17, 1746, be- 
tween the rebel Highlanders, 
8,000 strong, under the Young 
Pretender, and a force of 8,000 
British troops, with 1,000 Camp- 
bells under General Hawley. 
The charge of the Highlanders 
broke the British Une, and they 
were driven headlong from the 
field, with a loss of 600 killed 
and wounded, 700 prisoners, 7 
guns, and all tents and baggage. 
The rebels lost 120 only. 

Famagosta (Cyprus War). 

This place was besieged by 
the Turks under Mustaphia 
Pasha, in October, 1570, and 
was defended by 7,000 men, 
half Venetians, half Cypriotes, 
under Marcantonio Bragadino. 
The garrison held out until 
August I, 1 57 1, when it capi- 
tulated, marching out with the 
honours of war. After the sur- 
render, however, Mustapha 
murdered in cold blood, Braga- 
dino and four of his Ueutenants. 

The Turks lost 50.000 men in 
the course of the siege. 

Farquhar's Farm (Second Boer 
Fought October 29, 1899, 
between the main Boer army, 
under Joubert, and the garrison 
of Ladysmith, under Sir George 
White. The Boer position 
covered about eight miles, and 
White attacked in three columns, 
one of which, detached to the 
left to hold a position at Nichol- 
son's Nek, was overwhelmed 
and surrendered. The Boers 
meanwhile developed a strong 
attack against the British right, 
and White, having no guns 
capable of coping with the 
heavy Boer ordnance, ordered 
a retreat. This was effected in 
good order, and was greatly 
aided by the opportune arrival 
of two heavy naval guns, under 
Captain Hedworth Lambton. 
The British lost 317 killed and 
wounded, and i,cn58 missing. 
The Boer losses are unknown, 
but were certainly small. 

Farrington Bridge (Arundel's 
Fought July 27, 1549, be- 
tween a small force of Cornish 
rebels, and an equal number of 
Royal troops under Lord Rus- 
sell. The rebels were defeated 
and driven from the field, but 
there was no pursuit. Each 
side lost about 300. 

Faventia (Civil War of Marius 
and Sulla). 
Fought B.C. 82, between the 
consular army of Norbanus. 
and the Sullans under Metellus. 
Norbanus attacked with his 
army wearied by a long march, 
and his force was totally broken 



up, only 1,000 remaining with 
the eagles after the battle. 

FehrbelUn (Swedish Invasion of 
Fought June 28, 1675, be- 
tween the Swedes, under 
Charles XI, and the Branden- 
burgers, 15,000 strong, under 
the Elector, Frederick WilUam. 
The Swedes were totally de- 
feated, and forced to evacuate 

Ferkeh (Soudan Campaigns). 

Fought June 7, 1896, between 
9,500 Egyptian troops, with a 
British horse battery, under 
Sir Herbert Kitchener, and 
4,000 Mahdists under the Emir 
Hamada. Kitchener, by a 
night march, surprised the Mah- 
dists in their camp, and after 
two hours' fighting, drove them 
out with a loss of 1,500 killed 
and 500 prisoners. Of 62 Emirs 
present in the camp, 44 fell and 
lour were captured. The Egyp- 
tians lost 20 killed and 81 

Ferozeshah (First Sikh War). 

Fought December 21, 1845, 
between 50,000 Sikhs, with 108 
guns, under Lai Singh, and 
16,700 British and native troops, 
under Sir Hugh Gough. An 
attempt was made to carry the 
Sikh entrenched camp by a 
night attack, but this was un- 
successful. When the attack 
was renewed at dawn, dissen- 
sions among the Sikh leaders 
enfeebled the resistance, and 
the Sikhs were defeated with a 
loss of about 7,000. The Brit- 
ish losses were 694 killed, 
1,721 wounded. 

Ferrara (Hundred Days). 

Fought April 12, 18 15, when 

Murat, with 50,000 ItaUans, 
endeavoured to force the pas- 
sage of the Po in the face of an 
Austrian army, under General 
Bianchi. He was repulsed with 
heavy loss, and forc^ to retreat 

Ferrybridge (Wars of the Roses). 
Fought 1 46 1, shortly before 
the battle of Towton, when a 
force of Lancastrian cavalry, 
under Lord Clifford, defeated 
the Yorkists, under Lord Fitz- 
walter, who was endeavouring 
to secure the passage of the Aire 
at Ferrybridge. Lord Fitz- 
walter was killed. 


Fought 584, between the 
West Saxons, under Ceawlin, 
and the Britons under Cutha. 
The Britons were defeated. 

Fish Creek (Kiel's Second Re- 
Fought April 24, 1885, when 
General Middleton, with 400 
Canadians, attempted to drive 
the rebels, 280 strong, from a 
strong position near Fish Creek, 
After losing 50 men, Middleton 
withdrew. The rebels lost 29 
killed and wounded. 

Fisher's Hill (American Civil 
Fought September 21. 1864, 
between 40,000 Federals, under 
General Sheridan, and 12,000 
Confederates, under General 
Early. The Confederates were 
defeated and driven from their 
position with a heavy loss in 
prisoners and 11 guns. 

Fleurus (Thirty Years' War). 

Fought August 29, 1622, 
between the Spaniards, under 
Spinola, and the Palatinate 



troops, under Count von Mans- 
feldt and Christian of Bruns- 
wick. The Germans were en- 
deavouring to retreat into Hol- 
land after their defeat at Hoechst 
and were intercepted by the 
Spaniards, through whom they 
tried to fight their way. In 
this effort the infantry was al- 
most entirely cut to pieces, 
but about 7,000 cavalry reached 
Breda with the two generals. 


Fought July I, 1690, between 
the French, under Marshal 
Luxembourg, and the Germans 
and Dutch under the Prince of 
Waldeck. The French gained 
a signal victory, the allies being 
driven from the field in disorder 
with a loss of 14,000 killed and 
wounded, and 49 guns. 

Fleurus (Wars of the French 

Fought June 16, 1794, be- 
tween the Austrians, 80.000 
strong, under the Duke of Co- 
burg, and an equal force of 
French, under Jourdan. The 
Austrians attacked, and after a 
severe engagement, were repuls- 
ed and compelled to fall back in 
the direction of Brussels to 
cover that city. 

Flodden (Scottish Wars). 

Fought September 9, 15 13. 
when the English, under the 
Earl of Surrey, attacked the 
Scots, under James IV, in a 
strong position on the hill of 
Flodden. The position was 
turned by the English left wing, 
under Stanley, and the Scots 
totally defeated with heavy 
losses. James and all his prin- 
cipal nobles fell. 

Florence (German Invasion of 
This city was besieged in 406, 
by the German invaders under 
Radagaisus, and was almost on 
the verge of starvation, when 
the approach of Stilicho at the 
head of a large Roman army, 
encouraged the defenders to 
further resistance. The be- 
siegers, in fact, now became the 
besieged, for StiUcho surround- 
ed their camp, and starved the 
Germans into surrender. 

Flushing (Walcheren Expedi- 
This town was besieged by 
the British under Lord Chatham 
and surrendered after a feeble 
defence, August 16, 1809. 

Foksani (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought July 21, 1789, be- 
tween the Turks, under Yusuf 
Pasha, and the Russians and 
Austrians under Suwaroff and 
the Prince of Saxe-Coburg. 
The allies stormed the Turkish 
entrenched camp and drove out 
the Turks with a loss of 2,000 

Fontenoy (War of the Austrian 
Fought May 1 1, 1745, between 
50,000 British, Dutch and Aus- 
trian troops, under the Duke of 
Cumberland, and the French, 
under Marshal Saxe. The 
Duke endeavoured to relieve 
Toumay, which the French were 
besieging, and the British troops 
captured the heights on which 
the French were posted. The 
Prince of Waldeck, however, 
who commanded the Dutch, 
failed to support the Duke, 
and the French being reinforced, 
the trenches were retaken, and 



the British beaten back. Tour- 
nay fell shortly afterwards. 

Formisny (Hundred Years' 

Fought April 15, 1450, when 
the newly landed EngUsh rein- 
f(»rcements under Kyriellewere 
totally defeated, and almost 
annihilated, by the French 
under the Comte de Clermont. 
This defeat practically put an 
end to the English dommation 
in the north of France. 

Fomham St Generieye (Re- 
bellion of the Princes). 

Fought 1 173, between the 
supporters of the rebel princes 
under Robert de Beaumont, and 
the forces of Henry II under 
the Justiciary, Richard de Lucy. 
The rebels were defeated. 

Fomovo (Italian Wars). 

Fought July 6, 1495, between 
34,000 Venetians and Mantuans 
under Francisco de Gonzaga of 
Mantua, and 8,000 French and 
Swiss under Charles VIII. 
The French were attacked as 
they were retiring, but suc- 
ceeded in repulsing the Italians 
at a cost of only 100 of all ranks, 
while the assailants lost 3,500 
killed and wounded. 

Fort Frontenac (Seven Years' 

This place, held by about 1 10 
French troops, under Noyan, 
was captured by Colonel Brad- 
street with 3,000 Colonials, 
August 27. 1758. The capture 
was of extreme importance, as 
it robbed the French of the 
control of Lake Ontario, and 
severed their communications 
with their posts on the Ohio. 

Fort St David (Seven Yean' 
This fortress was besieged. 
May 14, 1758, by a French 
force under Lally Tollendal, 
and defended by a garrison of 
800 British and 1,600 native 
troops. The defence was not 
energetically conducted, and, on 
the arrival in the roads of a 
French fleet under Comte d'Ach^, 
the garrison surrendered, June 2. 

Fort St David (Seven Years' 
A naval action was fought off 
this place, April 29, 1758, be- 
tween 7 British ships under 
Admiral Pococke, and a squad- 
ron of 9 French vessels under 
Comte d'Ach6. After a short 
and indecisive engagement, the 
French sheered off. but the 
British were too severely damag- 
ed in the ringing to give chase. 
The French lost one ship, driven 

Fort William Henry (Seven 
Years' War). 
This fort, held by 2,200 Brit- 
ish and Colonial troops under 
Colonel Monro, was besieged, 
August 4. 1757, by Montcalm, 
with 6,000 French and Cana- 
dians and 1 .600 Indians. Mont- 
calm's batteries opened on the 
6th. and on the 9th, having lost 
300 killed and wounded, and 
nearly all his guns being dis- 
abled. Monro surrendered. He 
was to be permitted to retire 
unmolested to Fort Edward, but 
the French were unable to 
control their Indian allies, who 
attacked the unarmed column 
as it retired. Before order was 
restored, some 50 had been 
killed, and 400 carried off pri- 
soners by the Indians. 



Forum Terebronii (First Gothic 
Invasion of the Empire). 
Fought 251, between the 
Romans under Decius, and the 
Goths under Cuiva. The 
Gothic army was drawn up in 
three lines, and the legionaries 
overthrew the two first, but, in 
attacking the third, they be- 
came entangled in a morass, 
and were utterly routed. Decius 
and his son were slain. 

Frankenhausen (Peasants* War). 
Fought May 15, iS^S. be- 
tween the troops of Saxony, 
Hesse and Brunswick, and the 
revolted peasants under Thomas 
Munzer. The peasants were 
utterly routed, and Munzer 
captured and hanged out of 
hand. This entirely put an end 
to the rising. 

Frankfort - on - Oder (Thirty 
Years* War). 
This place was taken by storm 
by Gustavus Adolphus, at the 
head of 15.000 Swedes, April 2, 
1 63 1. Schaumberg and Monte- 
cuccuU, who were in the town, 
escaped with a portion of the 
cavalry, but 1.800 of the Im- 
perialist garrison were killed, 
and 800 captured, with 30 
standards and 18 heavy guns. 

Franklin (American Civil War). 
Fought June 30. 1864, be- 
tween 30,000 Federals under 
General Schofield, and 40.000 
Confederates under General 
Hood. Schofield occupied a 
strong position covering Nash- 
ville, where he was attacked by 
Hood, who penetrated his lines. 
The Federals, however, rallied, 
and recaptured the lost posi- 
tions, and after nightfall, Scho- 
field was enabled to cross the 
Harpeth in good order, and 

effect a junction with General 
Thomas. The Confcxlerates lost 
about 4.500 ; the Federals, 
1,500 killed and wounded and 
1,000 prisoners. 

Frastenz (Suabian War). 

Fought April 20, 1499, when 
the Swiss, under Heinrich Wol- 
leb, attacked the Austrians who 
occupied a strongly entrenched 
position, and drove them out 
with a loss of 3 ,000 killed. Wol- 
leb, who led the charge, was 
the first to fall on the Swiss 

Fraubrunnen (Invasion of the 
Fought January, 1376, be- 
tween the Bernese, and the 
** Guglers," French and English 
mercenaries, under Baron Ingel- 
ram von Coucy, who claimed 
the Canton of Aargau in right 
of his mother. The " Guglers " 
were totally routc^l, and com- 
pelled to retire from Switzer- 

Frauenstadt (Russo - Swedish 
Fought February 12, 1706, 
between 10,000 Swedes under 
Marshal Reinschild, and 20,000 
Russians and Saxons under 
General Schulemburg. The 
battle did not last a quarter of 
an hour, for the alUes fled with- 
out making any resistance. No 
less than 7,000 loaded muskets 
were picked up on the battle- 

Fredericksburg (American Civil 
Fought December 13, 1862 
between 1 50.000 Federals under 
General Burnside, and 80,000 
Confederates under General 
Lee. The Confederates, who 



occupied a range of heights 
fringing the Massaponax River, 
were attacked by the Federals, 
whom they repulsed after hard 
fighting, with a loss of 13,771 
kuled and wounded. The Con- 
federates lost 1,800 only, but 
Lee, owing to his inferior num- 
bers, did not feel strong enough 
to push his victory home, and 
allowed Bumside to evacuate 
Fredericksburg unmolested. 

Fredericshall (Dane - Swedish 
This fortress, the strongest in 
Norway, was besieged by the 
Swedes, under Charles XII, 
early in December, 17 18. On 
the nth, as he was inspecting 
the advanced batteries, the king 
Was struck by a round shot, and 
fell dead. The Swedes at once 
raised the siege. 


Fought 1194* between the 
English under Richard Coeur 
de Lion, and the French under 
Philip Augustus. Richard 
gained a complete victory. 

Fribourg (Thirty Years' War). 

Fought August 3, 5 and 9, 
1644, between 30,000 French 
under the Great Cond6 and 
Turenne. and 15.000 Bavarians 
under the Comte de Mercy. 
On the 3rd, Turenne, after a 
long flank march, attacked the 
Bavarians on the flank, while 
Cond6 assailed their front, at 

kp.m. When night fell, the 
varians were giving way, 
and during the night de Mercy 
retired to a fresh position. Here 
be was attacked on the 5th. but 
hdd his ground throughout the 
day. The French losing twice 
as many men as their opponents. 
Three days later de Mercy 

found it necessary to retreat, 
and on the 9th he was attacked 
while retiring by a force of 
cavalry. This he repulsed, but 
Cond6, coming up, rescued his 
cavalry, and drove the Bavar- 
ians headlong before him. cap- 
turing all their artillery and 

Friedland (Campaign of Fried- 
Fought June 14, 1807, be- 
tween 80,000 French under 
Napoleon, and 70,000 Russians 
under Bennigsen. The battle 
began at 3 a.m.. at which time 
only Lannes' corps was on the 
field. Bennigsen at first con- 
tented himself with an artillery 
duel, and did not attack in force 
till 7 a.m.. when 26,000 French 
were in position. These held 
their ground till the arrival of 
Napoleon, who with his fresh 
troops launched an attack 
against the Russian columns 
massed in a bend of the river 
AUe. drove large numbers 
of them into the river, and 
occupied Friedland after hard 
fightmg. It was 10 p.m. before 
the Russians were finally driven 
from the field, having lost 15.000 
killed and wounded and 10.000 
prisoners. The French lost be- 
tween 9.000 and 10.000. This 
victory was followed by the 
signature of the Peace of Tilsit. 

Fuentes d'Onoro (Peninsular 
Fought May 5, 181 1, in the 
course of Manna's attempt to 
relieve Almeida. Wellington, 
with 34.000 men, occupied a 
position behind Fuentes 
d'Ofioro, which was attacked by 
Mass^na with 34.000 troops and 
36 guns. He failed to capture 




the position, and finally retired, 
in good order. The British lost 
1,200 killed and wounded, and 
300 prisoners. The French 
losses are variously estimated, 
but were certainly heavier. 

Fulford (Norse Invasion). 

Fought 1066, between the 
Norsemen under Harold Hard- 
rada. King of Norway, the 
English under Earls Edwin and 
Morcar. The EngUsh were de- 

Furruckahad (Second Mahratta 
Fought November 14, 1804, 
between a small British force 
under Lord Lake, and an 
army of 60.000 Mahrattas under 
Jeswunt Rao Holkar. Holkar 
was signally defeated with 
heavy loss. The British casual- 
ties were only 2 killed and 20 

Fushimi (Japanese Revolution). 
Fought 1868, between the 
troops of Aizu and Kuwana, 
under the Shogun. Yoshinobu. 
and the forces of Satsuma and 
Choshu, who gained a complete 

Futteypur (Indian Mutiny). 

Fought July 12, 1857, be- 
tween a strong force of rebels, 
and the British troops under 
Havelock, who was marching 
to the relief of Lucknow. The 
rebels were completely defeated, 
losing II guns, while not a 
single European in the British 
force was killed. 

Gadebesk (Dano-Swedish Wars). 

Fought December 20, 17 12, 

between the Swedes, ia,ooo 

strong, under General Steinbock. 
and 24.000 Danes and Saxons. 
The allies occupied a position 
protected by marshy ground, 
where they were attacked by 
the Swedes, and, after three 
hours' hard fighting, driven from 
their entrenchments with heavy 

Gaines* Mill. 

See Seven Days' Battles. 

Gangud (Russo-Swedish Wars). 
Fought 1 7 14, between the 
Russian fleet under Peter the 
Great, and the Swedish, under 
Admiral Ehrenskidld. The 
Swedes were utterly routed and 
Ehrenskiold and the whole of 
his squadron captured. 

Garigliano (Italian Wars). 

Fought November 8, 1503, 
between the Spaniards, 12.000 
strong, under Gonsalvo de 
Cordova, and the French, in 
greatly superior force, under 
Francisco de Gonzaga of Man- 
tua. Gonzaga. wishing to pass 
the Garigliano, had thrown a 
bridge over it, and proceeded 
to cross in face of the Spanish 
army. After very severe fight- 
ing, the French drove back the 
Spaniards, and made good the 
passage of the river. 

Garigliano (Italian Wars). 

Fought December 29, 1503, 
between the Spaniards, about 
15,000 strong, under Gonsalvo 
de Cordova, and the French, 
slightly superior in number, 
under the Marquis of Saluzzo. 
Gonsalvo crossed the GarigUano 
at two points, and fell upon the 
French, who were retiring on 
Gasta. After hard fighting, in 
which the Chevalier Bayard 
bore a notable part, the French 



were utterly routed, leaving 
4,000 dead on the field, and all 
their artillery and baggage. 
The Spanish loss is unknown. 

10 (Italian Rising). 
Fought October, 1850, be- 
tween the Italian patriots under 
Cialdini, and the Neapohtans 
under Francis II of Naples. 
The patriots were victorious. 

Gate Pah (Maori War). 

Fought April 27, 1864. when 
1,700 British soldiers and blue- 
jackets, under General Cameron, 
attacked the Maori stockade 
known as the Gate Pah. After 
a short bombardment, 600 men 
forced their way into the stock- 
ade, but were repulsed. On the 
following day it was found that 
the stockade had been evacuat- 
ed. The British lost 14 officers, 
and 98 men killed and wounded. 
Only 30 dead and wounded 
Maories were found in and near 
the Pah. 

Gaulault (Indian Mutiny). 

Fought May 22, 1858, between 
a British column under Sir 
Hugh Rose, and 20,000 rebels 
under Tantia Topi, the Ranee of 
Jhansi, and other rebel leaders. 
The overwhelming numbers of 
the rebels at first gave them 
the advantage, but a bayonet 
charge broke them, and they 
fled in disorder with heavy loss. 
This victory was followed by 
the recovery of Calpi. 

Gaxa (Alexander's Asiatic Cam- 
This city, defended by a Per- 
sian garrison, under Batis. was 
besieged by Alexander the Great 
October, 332 b.c. Utilizing the 
engines he had employed against 
Tyre, he succeed^, after some 

weeks, in breaching the walls, 
. and, after three unsuccessful 
assaults, carried the city by 
storm, the garrison being put to 
the sword. 

Gaza (Wars of Alexander's Suc- 
Fought B.C. 312, between the 
Sjoians and Egyptians under 
Seleucus and Ptolemy Soter, 
25,000 strong, and an equal 
force of Macedonians under 
Demetrius PoUorcetes. The 
Macedonians were routed, losing 
5,000 killed, 8,000 wounded, 
and all their treasure and bag- 

Gebora (Peninsular War). 

Fought February 19, 181 1, 
between 8,000 French, under 
Marshal Soult, and 12,000 
Spaniards, under Mendizabal. 
The Spaniards were routed with 
a loss of 2,000 killed and wound- 
ed, 5,000 prisoners and all their 

Gelt, The. 

Fought February. 1570. be- 
tween the rebel Borderers under 
Leonard Dacre, and the royal 
troops under Lord Hunsdon 
The rebels were completely 

Gemblours (Netherlands War of 
Fought January 31. 1578, 
between the Netherlands 
patriots, 20.000 strong, under 
General Goignies. and the 
Spaniards, in about equal force, 
under Don John of Austria. 
The patriots, who were retiring 
from Namur. were followed by 
Don John, who sent forward a 
picked force of i .600 men. under 
Gonzaga and Mondragon in 
pursuit. They attacked the 



rearguard, under Philip Eg- 
mont, and dispersed it, and then, 
falling suddenly upon the main 
body, utterly routed it, with a 
loss, it is said, of 10,000 killed 
and prisoners. The Spaniards 
lost ten or eleven at most. 

^ Genoa. 

In 1746, the Genoese, in- 
censed by the license of the 
soldiery, rose against the Aus- 
trian garrison, under General 
Botta.and after five days* street 
fighting, lasting from December 
6 to 10, drove them out of the 
city, with a loss of 5,000 men. 

Genoa (Wars of the French 

Fought March 13, 1795, be- 
tween a British fleet of 14 sail 
of the line under Admiral 
Hotham. and a French fleet of 
15 sail. The action lasted 
throughout the day, and on the 
following morning the French 
retired, leaving two line-of- 
battle ships in the hands of the 
British. The British lost 74 
killed and 284 wounded. 

Genoa (Napoleon's Italian Cam- 

In April, 1800, Genoa, held by 
the French, under Mass6na, was 
besieged by the Austrians under 
General Melas, and later in the 
siege under General Ott. The 
city had for some time been 
blockaded on the seaward side 
by the British fleet, under Lord 
Keith. Provisions were con- 
sequently scarce, and notwith- 
standing some successful sorties, 
Mass^na was forced to capitu- 
late, June 5, the garrison march- 
ing out without laying down 
their arms. 

Geok Tepe (Russian Conquest 
of Central Asia). 

This place, the stronghold of 
the Tekke Turcomans, defended 
by a garrison of 15,000, was 
besieged, September 9, 1878, by 
the Russians, under Greneral 
Lomakine. After a short bom- 
bardment, an attempt was made 
to storm the fortress, which was 
repulsed with a loss of 500. The 
breaching guns were with diffi- 
culty saved, and the Russians 
retired on the following day. 
About 4,000 Turcomans were 
killed by shell fire. 

In 1 88 1, a second attempt 
was made by Skobeloff, with 
10.000 Russians, the garrison 
being now nearly 30,000 strong. 
After a regular siege, lasting 
from the 8th to the 17th of 
January, the place was stormed, 
6,500 Turcomans falling in the 
assault, and 8.000 in the sub- 
sequent pursuit. 


Fought 1080, between the 
troops of William the Conqueror, 
and those of his son Robert, who 
claimed the Dukedom of Nor- 
mandy, and was receiving aid 
from PhiUp I of France. Robert 
was defeated and made prisoner, 
and, obtaining his father's for- 
giveness, resigned his claim to 
the Dukedom. 

Gergovia (Gallic War). 

Fought B.C. 52, between the 
Romans under Julius Caesar, 
and the Gauls under Vercinge- 
torix. Caesar was besieging the 
town, but was compelled to 
retreat. Before retiring, how- 
ever, he deUvered an assault 
which was repulsed by the Gauls, 
the Romans leaving over 700 



legionaries, and 46 centurions 
d«ul on the field. 


Genghis Khan's first battle, 
fought 1 193, when with 6.000 
men he defeated the army of 
his father-in-law, Ung Khan, 
under Sankun, 10.000 strong, 
surprising them in a narrow 
pass, and inflicting heavy loss 
upon them. 

Gennantown (American War of 
Fought October 4, 1777, be- 
tween the Americans under 
Washington, and the British 
under Sir WiUiam Howe. The 
Americans attacked the British 
entrenchments, and were re- 
pulsed with heavy loss. 

Gerona (Peninsular War). 

This fortress, held by 3.000 
Spanish regulars, under Mariano 
Alvarez, was besieged, June 4, 
1809, by General Verdier, with 
18,000 French. Though ill- 
provided with food, medicines, 
and money, and receiving but 
little assistance from outside, 
Alvarez held out gallantly till 
December 10, when he capitu- 
lated, and the garrison marched 
out with the honours of war. 

Gettysburg (American Civil War). 
Fought July I. 2 and 3, 1863, 
between the army of the Poto- 
mac under General Meade, and 
the army of Virginia under 
General Lee. On the ist, 
Meade's position in front of 
Gettysburg was attacked by 
A. P. Hills' corps, and the 
Federals driven in confusion 
into the town. On the 2nd, 
Meade took up a fresh position 
behind Gettysburg, where he 
repulsed all the Confederate 

attacks, though at a heavy cost 
On the 3rd. Meade succeeded in 
driving back the Confederate 
left, but Lee's main attack 
succeeded in driving the Fede- 
rals from the ridge. Thev rallied 
and retook it, but had lost too 
heavily to assume the offensive. 
Lee again offered battle on the 
4th, but the Federals decUned 
it, and Lee retired unmolested, 
having lost about 20,000 men 
in the three days. The Federal 
losses were about the same. 


Fought August 2, 1763, be- 
tween the army of Mir Cossim, 
the deposed Nawab of Bengal, 
and the British under Major 
Adams. A severe engagement, 
lasting four hours, ended in a 
signal victory for the British. 

Ghoaine (First Afghan War). 

Fought August 30, 1842, be- 
tween GenersJ Nott's force, on 
its march from Kandahar to 
Ghuzni, and the Afghans, un- 
der Shems-ud-din, Governor of 
Ghuzni. The Afghans were 
totally defeated, losing all their 
guns, tents and baggage. 

Ghuzni (First Afghan War). 

This fortress, garrisoned by 
3,000 Afghans, under Haidar 
Khan, was captured, January 
21, 1839, by the British. The 
besiegers having no breaching 
guns, it was found necessary to 
blow in the main gate, and the 
place was then stormed, at a 
cost of 18 officers and 162 rank 
and file, killed and wounded. 
The garrison lost 500 killed. 

Gibbel Rutts (Irish Rebellion). 

Fought May 26, 1798, when 
the regulars, under Sir James 
Duff, attacked the camp of the 



rebels on the Curragh, and dis- 
persed them at the point of the 
bayonet, with a loss of 350 

Gibraltar (War of the Spanish 
This fortress was captured, 
July 24, 1704, by a combined 
British and Dutch fleet, under 
Sir George Rooke, from the 
Spaniards under the Marquis 
de Salinas. The resistance of 
the garrison lasted 2 days only, 
during which the alUes lost 12 
officers and 276 men killed and 


From 1779 to 1783. Gibraltar 
sustEiined a siege at the hands 
of a combined French and Span- 
ish force, who, though provided 
with powerful floating batteries, 
were unable to make any im- 
pression on the defences. In 
the course of the siege, the 
garrison, under General Elliot, 
were several times reinforced 
and revictualled by British 
fleets, which ran the gauntlet 
of the blockade. 

Gihon, The. 

Fought 1362, between the 
Getes under their Khan, and the 
Tartars under Tamerlane. The 
Tartars were defeated, and the 
Getes marched upon Samar- 
cand, but sickness robbed them 
of nearly all their horses, and 
they were forced to retire. 

Gingi (Mogul Invasion of the 
This place was besieged by 
the Moguls in 1689, and was 
defended by Rajah Ram. The 
siege was carried on in desultory 
fashion, first by Zulfikar Khan, 
then by Kambaksh. son of 

Aurungzebe. and then again by 
Zulfikar Khan. After three 
years had been wasted, Aurung- 
zebe took command in person, 
and after conniving at the 
escape of Rajah Ram, carried 
the place by storm. 

Gislikon (War of the Sonder- 
Fought November 2^, 1847, 
when the Federals, under 
General Dufour, attacked the 
troops of the Sonderbund, under 
Colonel SaUs-Soglio, strongly 
posted at Gislikon, near Lake 
Zug, and drove them from their 
position. The losses were very 
small. On the following day 
the Federals entered Lucerne, 
and the Civil War, which had 
lasted 20 days only, came to 
an end. 

Gitschin (Seven Weeks* War). 

Fought June 29 and 30, 1866, 
between the Prussians, 16,000 
strong, under Prince Frederick 
Charles, and the Austrians and 
Saxons, 30,000 strong, under 
Count Clam Gallas. The Aust- 
rians were defeated, and driven 
from all their positions with a 
loss of 3,000 killed and wounded, 
and 7,000 prisoners. 


See Prestonpans. 

Glen Fniin. 

Fought 1604, between the 
royal troops under the Duke of 
Argyll, and the Macgregors and 
other clans, when the High- 
landers gained a complete vic- 

Glenlivet (Huntly's Rebellion). 

Fought October 4, 1594, be- 
tween the troops of James VI, 
10,000 strong, under the Earl 
of Argyll, and the rebel Earls 



of Errol and Huntly. Though 
inferior in numbers, the rebels 
gained a complete victory, driv- 
ing ofi the royal troops with a 
loss of 500 men. 

Glen Malone. 

Fought 1580, between the 
EngUsh settlers under Lord 
Grey de Wilton, and the Irish 
septs. The EngUsh suffered a 
serious defeat, among the slain 
being Sir Peter Carew. 


Fought 638, when the Scots 
under Donald Bree, King of 
Dalriada, utterly routed the 
invading Angles. 

Glorious First of June. 
See Ushant. 

Goits (Italian Rising). 

Fought May 30, 1848, be- 
tween the Piedmontese under 
Charles Albert of Savoy, and 
the Austrians under General 
Radetsky. The Austrians were 
completely defeated, and Radet- 
sky compelled to take refuge 
behind the Une of the Adige. 

Golden Rock (Seven Years* War). 
Fought August 7, 1753, be- 
tween 1,500 British under Major 
Lawrence, together with 5,000 
Tanjore troops under Monakji, 
and a detachment of French 
and Mysoris, forming part of 
the army besieging Trichin- 
opoly. The Golden Rock was 
taken by assault, and the enemy 
driven off in confusion, but the 
victory would have been more 
decisive had the Tanjore horse 
pursued with more vigour. 

Goodwins, The (Dutch Wars). 

Fought July I, 1666, between 
a British fleet of 60 sail, under 

the Duke of Albemarle, and a 
Dutch fleet of 71 sail-of-the- 
line, and 30 smaller vessels, 
under van Tromp and de Ruy ter, 
The action lasted two days, and 
was desperately contested, but 
the Dutch being reinforced in 
the morning of the 3rd, Albe- 
marle bore away. On the 4th, 
having been joined by Prince 
Rupert's squadron, he renewed 
the attack, but without success. 
The English lost 10 ships, while 
most of the others were disabled. 
The killed and wounded amount- 
ed to 1.700, while 2,000 were 
taken prisoners. 

Goraria (Indian Mutiny). 

Fought November 23 and 24, 
1857, between a British column, 
about 3,000 strong, under Briga- 
dier Stuart, and a body of 5,000 
rebels. The mutineers occupied 
a strong position, and the Brit- 
ish were unable to dislodge 
them on the 23rd. On the 
following day the attack was 
renewed, and the rebels were 
driven out and dispersed, with 
a loss of over 1,500. 

Gomi-Dubnik (Russo-Turkish 
Fought October 24, 1877, be- 
tween the 2nd Division of the 
Russian Guard, under General 
Gourko, and the Turks, who 
were holding the redoubt of 
Gomi-Dubnik, under Achmet 
Hefzi Pasha. After very heavy 
fighting, the Russians succeeded 
in dislodging their opponents, 
with a loss of 1,500 killed and 
wounded, and 53 oflicers sind 
2,250 men captured, including 
the Pasha. The Russians lost 
3,300 killed and wounded, in 
eluding 116 officers of the Guards. 



Gorodecmo (Campaign of Mos- 
Fought August 12, 1812, be- 
tween 36,000 French and Aus- 
trians, under General Rejmier 
and the Prince of Schwartzem- 
berg, and the Russians, in equal 
force, under General Tormazoff. 
The Russians were defeated and 
driven from their positions, with 
a loss of 4,000 men. The French 
and Austrians lost about 2,000. 


In 1 5 1 1 . Goa, held by a Portu- 
guese garrison, under Albuquer- 
que, was invested by Kumal 
Khan. General of the Rajah of 
Bijapore, at the head of 60,000 
men. After a siege of 20 days 
Albuquerque found his com- 
munication with his fleet threat- 
ened, and withdrew the garrison. 
In the same year, however, hav- 
ing collected a force of 1,500 
men with 23 ships at Cananore, 
he attacked Goa. and at once 
forced an entrance. After 
severe fighting in the streets, 
the Deccanis fled in confusion 
to the mainland, with a loss of 
6,000. The Portuguese lost 50 


This fort, which was held by a 
Portuguese garrison of 700, 
under the Viceroy. Luis de 
Ataida. was attacked by AU Adil 
Shah, Rajah of Bijapore, with 
135,000 men and 350 guns, in 
1570. Aided by the civiUans. 
and 1.300 monks, the garrison 
made so strenuous a defence, 
that the Rajah was beaten ofi, 
after losing 12.000 men. 

Grampians, The (Roman Inva- 
sion of Scotland). 
Fought 84, probably on the 
Moor of Ardoch, between the 

Romans under Agricola, and 
the Caledonians, 30,000 strong, 
under Galgacus. The Cale- 
donians attacked with great 
bravery, but were beaten by 
the superiority of the Roman 
discipUne, and retired with a 
loss of 10,000 men. The Ro- 
mans also lost heavily. 

Granada (Moorish Empire in 
Fought 1 3 19. when a Spanish 
army, under the Regents Pedro 
and John of Castile, appeared 
under the walls of Granada. A 
sortie of 5,000 picked Moors, 
under Said Othman took place, 
and the Christians were utterly 
routed, both the Regents being 

Granada (War of Granada). 

On April 26. 1491, Ferdinand 
the Catholic, with an army of 
50,000 Spaniards, sat down be- 
fore Granada, the last strong- 
hold of the Moors in Spain. The 
siege was carried on in some- 
what desultory fashion, and in 
the early days one serious sortie 
was made by the inhabitants 
and garrison, who were, how- 
ever, defeated, with a loss of 
2,000 killed. The city held out 
until November 25, when Ab- 
dallah. the last king of Granada, 

Grandella (Italian Wars). 

Fought 1266. between the 
troops of the Two SiciUes. under 
Manfred, son of the Emperor 
Frederick II. and the French, 
under Charles of Anjou. Man- 
fred was defeated, and fell in 
the battle, Charles seizing the 
crown of the double kingdom. 

Grandson (Burgundian Wars). 
Fought March 2, 1476, be- 




tween the Swiss, 18,000 strong, 
and the Borgundians, number- 
ing 36,000, under Charles the 
Bold. Charles endeavoured to 
entice the Swiss into the plain, 
and to that end ordered a re- 
treat. He was followed by the 
Swiss, and his rearguard being 
attacked, was seized with panic, 
and fled, and in the end Charles 
was completely defeated and 
his camp captured. 

Granicus, The (Alexander's 
Asiatic Campaigns). 
Fought May, 334 B.C.. be- 
tween 35,000 Macedonians, 
under Alexander the Great, and 
40.000 Persians and Greek mer- 
cenaries, under Memnon of 
Rhodes, and various Persian 
satraps. Alexander crossed the 
Granicus in the face of the Per- 
sian army, leading the way him- 
self at the head of the heavy 
cavalry, and having dispersed 
the Persian Ught horse, he 
brought up the phalanx, which 
fell upon and routed the Greek 
mercenaries. The Persians lost 
heavily, while the Macedonians' 
loss was very slight. 

Grant's HUl (Seven Years' War). 
Fought September 14, 1758, 
when Major Grant, with 800 
Highlanders, and Provincials, 
attacked a body of Indians in 
the French service near Fort 
Duquesne. He was repulsed, 
and in turn attacked by the 
garrison of the Fort, 3.000 
strong, under M. de Ligneris. 
Grant was totally defeated, 
losing 273 in killed, wounded 
and prisoners, and was himself 

Graspan (Second Boer War). 

Fought November 25, 189Q, 
between Lord Methuen's divi- 

sion, with a naval brigade. 400 
strong, and a Boer commando 
of about 2,500 men. The Boers 
occupied a strong position, the 
key of which, a high kopje, was 
attacked in front and flank, and 
carried, with a loss of 9 officers 
and 185 men. The marines, 
who numbered 200, lost 3 officers 
and 86 men of this total. The 
Boers lost about 100. This is 
also called the battle of EnsUn. 


Fought July 13. 1538. between 
8.500 French and Germans, 
under Marshal de Thermes.and 
about 10,000 Spanish, Germans 
and Flemings, under Count Eg- 
mont. De Thermes' right rest- 
ed on the sea, and a cavalr>' 
charge, headed by Egmont, 
broke his Une, after severe 
hand-to-hand fighting, and the 
French fled in confusion, leaving 
1,500 dead on the field, while as 
many more were driven into the 
sea, and drowned. Large num- 
bers were cut down in the pur- 
suit, and de Thermes was cap- 

Gravelotte (Franco-GermanWar). 
Fought August 18. 1870, be- 
tween the French, under Ba- 
zaine, and the combined German 
army under the supreme com- 
mand of WilUam of Prussia. 
The battle was most hotly con- 
tested, but while the French 
held their ground in the neigh- 
bourhood of Gravelotte. the 
Germans turned their right 
flank at St. Privat, and they 
were eventually obUged to aban- 
don all their positions, and retire 
into Metz, where they were 
subsequently blockaded. The 
German losses amounted to 899 
officers and 19,260 men killed 



and wounded. The French 
losses were somewhat less. This 
battle is also known as the battle 
of St. Privat. 

Great Meadows (Seven Years' 
Fought July 3, 1752, between 
350 Virginians, under Washing- 
ton, and 700 French, under 
Coulon de VilUers. The Vir- 
ginians occupied a square log 
enclosure, known as Fort Neces- 
sity, where they resisted the 
French attack for nine hours, 
till lack of ammunition forced 
Washington to surrender. The 
Virginians lost 60 killed and 
wounded ; the French consider- 
ably less. 

Grenada (American War of In- 
Fought July 3, 1779, between 
a British fleet of 24 sail, under 
Admiral Byron, and a French 
fleet of 20 sail-of-the-Une. and 
10 frigates, under the Comte 
d'Estaing. Admiral B3rron at- 
tacked the French with a view 
of recapturing Grenada, but 
was unsuccefssul, though he 
inflicted upon them a loss of 
1,200 killed and 1,500 wounded. 
The British lost 183 killed and 
346 wounded. 

Grangam (Russo-Swedish Wars). 
Fought 1 72 1, between the 
Swedes, and the Russian fleet 
under Admiral Golitshin. The 
Swedes were completely de- 
feated, losing foiu: Une-of-battle 
ships captured. 

Grochow (Second Polish Rising). 
Fought February 25, 1831, 
between the Poles, 90,000 strong 
under Prince Michael Kadziwill, 
and 120,000 Russians, under Gen- 
eral Dubitsch. After a sanguinary 

engagement, the Russians were 
defeated, with a loss of 10,000 
killed and wounded. The Poles 
lost about 5,000. 

Gross-Beeren (Campaign of 
Fought August 23, 181 3, be- 
tween the French army of the 
north, under Oudinot, and the 
alUes, 80,000 strong, under the 
Crown Prince of Sweden, who 
was covering the road to Berlin. 
Regnier, whose corps formed 
the centre of Oudinot's army, 
captured Gross-Beeren, which 
was retaken by the Prussians 
under von Bulow, and again 
recovered by Foumier's and 
Guilleminot's divisions, but Ou- 
dinot was not sufiiciently strong 
to press his advantage, and 
retired with a loss of 1,500 men, 
and 8 guns. 

Gross-Jagersdorf (Seven Years* 
Fought August 30, 1757, be- 
tween 28,000 Prussians, under 
Marshal Lehwaldt, and a largely 
superior force of Russians, under 
General Apraxine. The Prus- 
sians were defeated, but Aprax- 
ine failed to follow up his vic- 
tory, and recrossed the frontier. 

Grozka (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought 1739, between the 
Austrians, under Count Neip- 
perg, and the Turks, under the 
Grand Vizier. The Austrians 
were defeated, with heavy loss. 


Fought 1404, between the 
Poles, under Vladislas IV, and 
the Teutonic Knights, under 
their Grand Master. The Poles 
gained a complete victory, and 
it is said that 50.000 knights 
perished, though it is more than 



doubtful whether their whole 
army amounted to so many. 

Guadeloupe (Wars of the French 
This island was taken by a 
British force under Sir John 
Jervis, July 3, 1794, with a loss 
of 3 officers and 33 men killed 
and wounded. It was recap- 
tured by the French, on Decem- 
ber 10, of the same year. 

Guad-el-Ras (Moroccan War). 

Fought March 23, i860, when 
2 5 ,000 Spaniards, under Marshal 
O'Donnell, routed a large force 
of Moors, entrenched in a very 
strong position behind the 
Guad-el-Ras. This victory end- 
ed the war. 

Guastalla (War of the Polish 
Fought September 19, 1734. 
between the Imperialists, under 
the Prince of Wiirtemberg, and 
the French, under Marshal de 
Coligny. The Imperialists were 
defeated with a loss of about 
4,000, including the Prince of 
Wiirtemberg. The French loss- 
es were about the same. 


See Abu Klea. 

Guildford Court House (Ameri- 
can War of Independence). 
Fought March 16, 178 1, be- 
tween the British, under Lord 
ComwalHs, and a largely su- 
perior force of Americans, under 
General Greene. The Americans 
occupied a strongly entrenched 
position in and round Guildford, 
and the battle consisted of a 
series of independent actions, 
in which the British were uni- 
formly successful, driving out 
the Americans with heavy 
casualties, and the loss of all 

their guns and ammunition. 
The British lost 548 killed and 
wounded, but the victory served 
little purpose, as Lord Com- 
wallis was too weak to pursue 
his advantage. 


Fought August 16, 1 5 13, when 
a body of French cavalry, who 
aimed at relieving Terouenne, 
which was besieged by the Eng- 
Ush, under Henry VIII, and the 
Imperialists, under Maximilian I, 
were put to flight by the allies 
without striking a blow. The 
French fled so precipitately that 
the action was dubbed the 
Battle of the Spurs. 

Gujerat (Second Sikh War). 

Fought February 22, 1849, 
between the British, 25,000 
strong, under Lord Gough, and 
50,000 Sikhs, under Shir Singh. 
The British artillery, numbering 
84 pieces, broke the Sikh lines, 
and after resisting for over two 
hours, they fled, and were prac- 
tically annihilated in the pur- 
suit. Fifty-three guns were 
taken. The British lost only 
92 killed and 682 wounded. 

Gunzburg (Campaign of the 
Fought October 9, 1805, when 
Ney's corps carried the three 
bridges over the Danube, at or 
near this town, driving off the 
Austrians with a loss of 300 
killed and wounded, and 1,000 

Gwalior (First Mahratta War). 
This strong fortress was 
captured from the Mahrattas, 
August 3, 1780, by a British 
force of about 2,000 men, mostly 
sepoys, under Captain Popham. 
The wall was scaled by two^com- 



panies of sepoys, under Cap- 
tain Bruce, supported by 20 
Europeans, and followe4 by two 
battalions. The garrison was 
completely surprised, and an 
entrance effected without oppo- 
sition, whereupon the place was 
surrendered to the assailants, 
who had not lost a man. 

Gwalior (Indian Mutiny). 

Fought June 17, 18 and 19, 
1858, between a British column 
under Sir Hugh Rose, and a 
large body of rebels, led by the 
Ranee of Jhansi in person. On 
the 17th the mutineers were 
driven out of the cantonments 
with heavy loss, while on the 
following days the important 
positions in the town were cap- 
tured in succession, imtil by the 
evening of the 19th, the British 
were in undisputed possession 
of Gwalior. The Ranee was 
known to be amongst the slain, 
though her body w^as never 


Haarlem (Netherlands War of 

This city was invested by the 
Spaniards, 30,000 strong, under 
Don Francisco de Toledo, De- 
cember II, 1572. It was held 
by a garrison of 4,000, under 
RLpperda, including a corps of 
Amazons.led by a widow named 
Kenau Hasselaer. The bat- 
teries opened on the i8th, and 
on the 2ist an assault was re- 
pulsed, the assailants losing 
400, the garrison three or four 
only. A second assault, on 
January 31, 1573, was also re- 
pulsed, while a brilliant sortie, 

on March 25, captured a large 
and welcome convoy of provi- 
sions. On May 28, however, 
the patriot flotilla of 1 50 vessels 
under Martin Brand, on the 
lake, was defeated by 100 Span- 
ish ships, under Count Bossu. 
From this point the reduction 
of the city by famine was in- 
evitable, and the place was 
surrendered, July 12, 1573. 
The garrison, reduced to 1,800, 
was massacred, with the excep- 
tion of 600 Germans, and alto- 
gether 2,300 persons perished 
after the capitulation. The 
Spaniards lost 12,000 men in the 
course of the siege. 


Fought B.C. 344, between 
Timoleon, the deliverer of Sicily, 
with 2,000 followers, and Hike- 
tas, Tyrant of Leontini, with 
10,000 men. The two had been 
summoned to the assistance of 
the rival factions in Hadranum. 
and Hiketas, who arrived first, 
was resting his men under the 
walls, when he was surprised by 
Timoleon, and totally routed, 
This was Timoleon's first ex- 
ploit, and Hadranum became 
his headquarters. 

Hadrianople (War of the Two 
Fought July 3, 323, between 
Constantine, Emperor of the 
West, with 120,000 troops, and 
Licinius, Emperor of the East, 
with 165,000. Licinius, by the 
skilful manoeuvring of Constan- 
tine, was enticed from his en- 
trenched camp into the open 
plain, and his raw levies being 
powerless against the Western 
veterans, he was totally de- 
feated, It is said that 34,000 
perished in the battle. 



Hadrianople (Second Gothic In- 
vasion of the East). 
Fought August 9, 378, be- 
tween the Romans, under the 
Emperor Valens, and the Goths, 
under Fritigern. The Roman 
cavahy fled from the field, and 
the legionaries were surrounded 
and ridden down by the over- 
whelming masses of the Gothic 
horse. Two thirds of the legion- 
aries, and .-9 great officers and 
tribunes perished. Valens was 
carried off the field wounded, 
but the hut in which he was 
lying was fired, and he perished 
in the flames. 

Hahozaki (Tartar Invasion of 

Fought 1274, between the 
troops of the province of Kiushiu 
and the Tartars forming the 
expedition, despatched by Kub- 
lai Khan, under Lin Fok Heng. 
After severe fighting, in which 
the Japanese suffered heavily, 
Lin was severely wounded, and 
withdrew to his ships. A heavy 
gale destroyed a large number 
of the Tartar and Korean vessels, 
and finally the remnant of the 
invading force made good its 


Fought B.C. 395, when Ly- 
sander, at the head of a Spartan 
force, without waiting as had 
been arranged to effect a junc- 
tion with Pausanius, attacked 
the town of Haliartus. The 
Haliartians, seeing from the 
battlements that a body of 
Thebans was approaching, made 
a sortie, and the Spartans, at- 
tacked simultaneously in front 
and rear, were routed, and 
Lysander slain. 

Halidon HUl (Scottish Wars). 

Fought 1383, in the course of 
an attempt by Archibald Doug- 
las, the Regent, to relieve Ber- 
wick, which was besieged by 
Edward III. The Scots were 
powerless against the English 
archers, and were defeated with 
a loss of 30,000, including the 
Regent, and four Earls. This 
defeat resulted in the submission 
of Scotland, and Edward placed 
Balliol upon the throne. 


Fought B.C. 459, between the 
Athenians, and the combined 
forces of Corinth and Epidam- 
nus. The Athenians were vic- 

Hallue (Franco-German War). 

Fought December 23 and 24, 
1870, between 40,000 French, 
under General Faidherbe, and 
22,500 Germans, under Man- 
teuffel. The French lost heavily 
in the village lying in front of 
their position, but the Germans 
were unable to carry the en- 
trenchments on the heights. 
After their attack had been 
repulsed, the French assumed 
the offensive, but with no de- 
cisive result. The Germans lost 
927 killed and wounded ; the 
French over 1,000, besides 1,300 

Hampton Roads (American Civil 
Fought March 8 and 9, 1862, 
between the Confederate ar- 
moured frigate, Merrimac, and 
S gunboats, under Captain Bu- 
chanan, and 5 Federal warships, 
under Captain Marston. On the 
8th, the Merrimac destroyed 
two Federal vessels, and drove 
one ashore, but on the 9th« the 



Federals were reinforced by 
the arrival of the turret-ship 
Monitor, and after an indecisive 
action, the Merrimac drew off. 
In the two days, the Confeder- 
ates lost only lo killed and 
wounded, but the Federal losses 
were far heavier, the Cumber- 
land alone losing 150 out of a 
crew of 400. 

Hanau (Campaini of Leipsic). 

Fought October 30 and 31, 
181 3, between 80,000 French, 
the survivors of Leipsic, under 
Napoleon, and 45,000 Austrians 
and Bavarians, under General 
Wrede, who had occupied a 
position at Hanau, barring Na- 
poleon's retreat to France. On 
the 30th, Napoleon attacked 
Wrede's left, which was astride 
of the road, and driving it back 
continued his retreat with the 
main body, leaving three divi- 
sions, under Marmont, to secure 
his rearguard. On the 31st, the 
rearguard, under Mortier, at- 
tacked^Hanau, and Wrede being 
dangerously wounded, his suc- 
cessor, Fresnel, drew off, leaving 
the road clear. The French lost 
6,000, the allies 10,000 men in 
the two days. 

Hardenberg (Netherlands War 
of Independence). 
Fought June 15, 1580, be- 
tween the Dutch Patriots, under 
Count Philip Hohenlo, and the 
Royalists, under Martin Schenck, 
Fatigued by a long march, the 
Patriots were no match for 
Schenck's fresh troops, and after 
an hour's fighting, were broken 
and almost annihilated. 


Fought July 24, 141 1, be- 
tween the rebel Highlanders, 
under Donald, Lord of the Isles, 

and the Lowland Scots, under 
the Earl of Mar, together with 
the town militia of Aberdeen, 
led by their Provost. After a 
most sanguinary battle, the 
Lowlanders were utterly routed. 
Among the slain were the Pro- 
vost, many knights, 500 men-at- 
arms, and the majority of the 
burghers forming the militia. 
The Highlanders lost 500 only. 

Harper's Ferry (American Civil 

Fought September 16, 1862, 
when the Confederates, three 
divisions, under General" Stone- 
wall " Jackson surrounded the 
Federal garrison of Harper's 
Ferry, 11,000 strong, with 73 
guns, and forced them to sur- 

Hashin (Soudan Campaigns). 

Fought March 20, 1885, when 
8,000 British troops, under 
General Graham, defeated a 
detachment of Osman Digna's 
army, inflicting upon them a 
loss of about 1,000 killed. The 
British lost 48 killed and wound- 

Haslach (Campaign of the 

Fought October 11, 1805, 
when General Dupont, with 
6,000 French, marching upon 
Ulm, was suddenly confronted 
with an army of Austrians. 
60,000 strong, strongly posted 
on the Michelberg. Dupont at 
once seized and entrenched the 
village of Hanau, which he held 
until dark against 25,000 Aus- 
trians, under the Archduke 
Ferdinand. After nightfall he 
withdrew, carrying off 4,000 



Hastenbech (Seven Years* War). 
Fought July 26, I7S7. be- 
tween 50,000 Hanoverians and 
others, under the Duke of Cum- 
berland, and 80,000 French, 
under Marshal d'Estr^es. The 
Duke, who had taken post on 
the Weser, to protect Hanover, 
was overpowered by d'Estr6es, 
and driven back to Slade, on the 
Elbe, with a loss of several 
hundred men. This defeat was 
followed by the signature of the 
Convention of Closter-Seven. 

Hastings (Norman Conquest). 

Fought October 14, 1066, a 
fortnight after the landing of 
William the Conqueror. The 
English, under Harold, fought 
entirely on the defensive, at first 
with success, but were at last 
lured from their position by a 
feigned flight of the Normans, 
and were then totally routed. 
Harold was among the fallen. 
This battle is also known as the 
Battle of Senlac. 

Hatvan (Hungarian Rising). 

Fought April 2, 1849, when 
the Austrians, 15.000 strong 
under Marshal Schhck, attacked 
the 7th Hungarian corps, of 
about equal strength, and after 
a severe engagement, were to- 
tally defeated. 

Havana (War of the Austrian 
Fought October 12, 1748, be- 
tween a British squadron of 
seven ships, under Admiral 
Knowles, and a Spanish squad- 
ron of equal strength. The 
action was fought with little 
determination, and though the 
British captured one ship, the 
result was far from decisive. 
The Spaniards lost 298, the 
British 179 killed and wounded. 

Havana (Seven Years* War). 

In June, 1762, the Earl of 
ClanwilUam, with 11,000 Brit- 
ish troops, supported by a 
squadron, under Admiral Po- 
cocke, laid siege to Havana. 
Moro Castle, the key of the 
defences, was taken by storm, 
and after a siege of two months 
and eight days the city was 


Fought 633. between the 
Mercians, under Penda. and 
the Northumbrians, under Ed- 
win. The latter were defeated 
and Edwin slain. 


Fought 634. between the 
Anglo-Saxons, under the Bret- 
walda, Oswald of Northumbria, 
and the Britons, under Cad- 
wallon. The Britons were 
totally routed. 

Hedgeley Moor (Wars of the 
Fought April 25. 1464. be- 
tween the Lancastrians, under 
Margaret of Anjou and Sir 
Ralph Percy, and the Yorkists, 
under Lord Montague. The 
Lancastrians were totally de- 
feated, Percy falling in the 

Heiliger-Zee (Netherlands War 
of Independence). 
Fought May 23. 1568, be- 
tween the '"Beggars." under 
Louis of Nassau, and 5,000 
veteran Spaniards, under Arem- 
berg. Louis occupied a very 
strong position on a wooded 
height, near the monastery of 
the Holy Lion, his front being 
protected by a morass crossed 
by a narrow causeway. The 
Spanish infantry traversed this 




to the attack, but were repulsed, 
and Count Aremberg, leading a 
charge of horse, in the hope of 
restoring the day, fell mortally 
wounded. Upon this the 
Spaniards broke and fled, hav- 
ing suffered a loss of i,6oo men. 

Heilsberg (Campaign of Fried- 
Fought June lo, 1807, be- 
tween 30,000 French, under 
Marshal Soult, and 80.000 Rus- 
sians, under General Bennigsen. 
The Russians occupied the 
heights on both sides of the Alle, 
and the plains below, being in 
greater force on the left bank. 
The French attacked and drove 
the Russians into the entrench- 
ments, but could make no 
further progress, and night put 
an end to an obstinate but in- 
conclusive conflict, in which the 
Russians lost about 10,000, the 
French, 8,000 killed and wound- 

Hekitai-Kan (Invasion of Korea). 
Fought 1595, between the 
Japanese, under Kobayagawa 
Takakagc. and the Chinese, 
under Li Chin. The Chinese 
were utterly routed, Li's army 
being almost annihilated, and 
he himself escaping with diffi- 
culty from the field. 

Heligoland (Napoleonic Wars). 

This island was captured, 
August 31,1 807, from the Danes, 
by a small British squadron, 
under Admiral Thomas Russell. 

Heliopolis (French Invasion of 
Fought March 20, 1800, be- 
tween 10,000 French, under 
K16ber, and about 70,000 Turks, 
under Ibrahim Bey. The Turks 
were utterly routed, with a loss 

of several thousand men, while 
the French only lost about 300 
killed and wounded. 

Hellespont (War of the Two 
Fought 323, between the 
fleet of Constantine the Great, 
consisting of 200 small galleys, 
under Crispus, and that of 
Licinius, numbering 350 sail, 
under Amandus. After two 
days* hard fighting, Crispus 
forced the passage of the Helles- 
pont, and totally routed the 
Eastern fleet, with a loss of 130 
ships and 5.000 men. 


Fought B.C. 492, between 
Hippocrates, Tyrant of Gela, 
and the Syracusans, The Syra- 
cusans were totally routed, and 
were so weakened by this defeat, 
that Syracuse fell an easy prey 
to Gelon, Hippocrates' suc- 
cessor, in the following year. 

Helsingborg (Dano - Spanish 
Fought 1710, between 20,000 
Swedes, of whom 12,000 were 
raw recruits, under General 
Steinbock, and the Danish in- 
vading army. The Swedes won 
a signal victory, and the in- 
vaders were compelled to take 
refuge under the walls of Hel- 
singborg, and a few days later 
to embark for Denmark. Be- 
sides killed, they left 4,000 
wounded prisoners in the hands 
of the Swedes. 

Hemushagu (Invasion of Korea). 
Fought 1595, between the 
Japanese, under Konishi Yuki- 
naga, and the Chinese, under Li 
Chin. The Japanese were de- 
feated, and forced to retire upon 
the capital. 



Hengestesdua (Danish Inva- 
Fought 835, when the men of 
Wessex. under Egbert, totally 
defeated the Danes and Cornish 

Hennersdorf (War of the Aus- 
trian Succession). 
Fought November, 1745, be- 
tween 60.000 Prussians, under 
Frederick the Great, and 40,000 
Austrians and Saxons, under 
Prince Charles of Lorraine. 
Frederick surprised Prince 
Charles on the march, and 
utterly routed his vanguard, 
comprised of Saxons, with enor- 
mous loss. The Austrians were 
compelled in consequence to 
retire into Bohemia. 

Heradea (Pyrrhus* Invasion of 
Fought B.C. 280. between the 
Epirots, 30,000 strong, under 
Pyrrhus, and about 35,000 Ro- 
mans, under P. Laverius Lae- 
vinus. The Romans crossed 
the Sirisin the face of the enemy, 
when they were attacked by 
Pyrrhus, and after a furious 
conflict, were at last broken by 
his elephants, and fled in dis- 
order, losing about 7,000 men. 
The Epirots lost 4,000. 


Fought 313, between the 
Ill)rrians, under Licinius, after- 
wwls Emperor of the East, and 
the troops of the reigning Em- 
peror Maximinus. Licinius was 
marching with 30,000 men to 
the reUef of Heraclea, when he 
was attacked by Maximinus, 
with 70,000. Licinius was at 
first chiven back by weight of 
numbers, but his skill, and the 
steadiness of his troops, enabled 
him to rally, and eventually 

Maximinus was defeated with 
heavy loss. 

Herat (Tartar Invasion of Af- 
Tlus city was captured, 1220, 
by 20,000 Tartars, under Sudah 
Bahadur. The Governor, Emin 
Malek, was entirely unprepared 
to stand a siege, and surrendered 
when the Tartars appeared be- 
fore the walls. Having mean- 
while been retaken by a coup-de- 
main, by Shems-ed-din, who 
held it as an independent chief- 
tain, Herat was again besieged 
by the Mongols, under TuU 
Khan, in 1221. After a brief, 
but resolute resistance, during 
which Shems-ed-din fell, the 
inhabitants opened the gates 
to the besiegers, and the garrison 
was put to the sword. 

Herat (Perso-Afghan Wars). 

On November 22, 1837, Mo- 
hamed. Shah of Persia, laid 
siege to the city, which was held 
by an Afghan garrison, under 
Yar Mohamed. After a some- 
what desultory siege, an attempt 
was made to storm the place, 
June 24, 1838, when the Persians 
were repulsed with a loss of 
1,700 men. From this time a 
tacit armistice existed till Sep- 
tember 9, when the Shah with- 
drew his army. 

Herdonea (Second Punic War). 
Fought B.C. 210, when the 
Carthaginians, under Hannibal, 
defeated, and practically des- 
troyed an army of 25,000 Ro- 
mans, under Cnaeus Fulvius. 
Fulvius was among the slain. 

H^icourt (Burgundian Wars). 

Fought November 13, 1474. 
between the Swiss, 18,000 
strong, and the Burgundians, 



lo.ocx) in number. The Bur- 
gundians were totally defeated, 
the town of H6ricourt taken. 

Hermanstadt (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought 1442, and notable as 
being the first appearance of 
John Huniades in arms against 
the Turks. With an army of 
Hungarians he totally defeated 
Mejid Bey, who was besieging 
Hermanstadt, inflicting on the 
Turks a loss of 20,000 men, and 
relieving the place. The Hun- 
garians lost 3,000. 

Hernani (First Carllst War). 

Fought August 29, 1836, be- 
tween the British legion, under 
General Evans, and the Carlists. 
Evans was defeated. 

Hernani (First Carlist War). 

Fought March 15 and 16, 
1837, between the British legion, 
and a small contingent of Cris- 
tinos, under General Evans, and 
about 17,000 Carlists, under 
Don Sebastian, strongly posted 
on the Hernani road. On the 
15 th, Evans attacked the Car- 
lists on the Venta heights, and 
after five hours* fighting occupied 
the position. On the i6th, 
when the conflict was resumed, 
the Carlists retired into Hernani, 
but reinforcements arriving, 
they took the offensive, and 
forced Evans to retreat. 

Herrera (First Carlist War). 

Fought August 23, 1837, be- 
tween the Carlists, under Don 
Carlos, with General Moreno in 
actual command, and the Cris- 
tinos, under General Buerens. 
Don Carlos, who was marching 
upon Madrid, attacked Buerens 
before he could effect a junction 
with Espartero, and severely 

defeated him, the Cristinos los- 
ing 50 officers, and 2,600 men 
killed, wounded and missing. 
Don Carlos, after this victory, 
advanced to within twelve miles 
of Madrid, when the appearance 
of Espartero, at the head of 
20,000 troops, obliged him to 

Herrings, The (Hundred Years* 

Fought at Roncray-St. -Denis, 
February 12, 1429. Sir John 
Fastolfe was in charge of a 
convoy of salt fish for the Eng- 
lish army before Orleans, and 
hearing of the approach of a 
French force, under the Bastard 
of Orleans, intrenched himself 
at Roncray. Here the French 
attacked him, and were repulsed 
with heavy loss, the Bastard 
being severely wounded. 

Hexham (Wars of the Roses). 

Fought May 15, 1464, when 
the Yorkists, under Montague, 
surprised the Lancastrians, under 
Somerset, in their camp at 
Linnels, near Hexham. The 
Lancastrians were practically 
in a trap, and had no option but 
to surrender. Somerset and 
many other important leaders 
were taken, and promptly exe- 
cuted. This success secured 
Edward IV on the throne. 

Himera (First Carthaginian In- 
vasion of Sicily). 

Fought 480 B.C., between the 
Syracusans and Agrigentines, 
557,000 strong, under Geion, 
Tjrrant of Syracuse, and the 
Carthaginians, said to number 
300,000, under Hamilcar. The 
Carthaginians were totally 
routed, and Hamilcar slain. 



Himera (Second Carthaginian 
Invasion of Sicily). 
This place was besieged by 
the Carthaginians, under Hanni- 
bal, B.C. 409. A first assault 
was repulsed, and Diocles arriv- 
ing in the harbour with 25 ships, 
rescued half the inhabitants. 
Three days later he returned 
for the remainder, but too late, 
for before he could reach the 
harbour the breach was stormed. 
The town was sacked, and 3,000 
prisoners were sacrificed to ap- 

Eease the shade of Hamilcar, who 
ad fallen in the battle of 480. 

Hippo (Invasion of the Vandals). 
Siege was laid to this city in 
May, 430, by the Vandals, under 
Genseric. It was defended by 
Boniface, Count of Africa, who 
having command of the sea, was 
able to keep the city well pro- 
visioned, and after fourteen 
months Genseric retired. A- 
mong those who died during the 
siege was St. Augustine. 

Hochkirchen (Seven Years* 
Fought October 14, 1758, 
between the Prussians, under 
Frederick the Great, and the 
Austrians, under Count Daun. 
Frederick, who was encamped 
on the heights of Hochkirchen, 
was surprised in the early morn- 
ing by the Austrians, who broke 
into his camp and seized his 
artillery. He succeeded, how- 
ever, in forming up his troops, 
and descending into the plam, 
made good his retreat to Baut- 
zen. The Prussians lost 9,000 
men, including the Prince of 
Brunswick and Marshal Keith, 
all their tents and baggage, and 
1 01 guns. The Austrians lost 
8,000 killed and wounded. 

Hochstett (Wars of the French 
Fought June 19, 1800, be- 
tween 70,000 French, under 
Moreau, and about 80,000 Aus- 
trians, under de Kray. Moreau 
crossed the Danube with the 
object of cutting off the Aus- 
trians from their base, and forc- 
ing them to evacuate Ulm. In 
a battle which lasted 18 hours, 
he succeeded in establishing 
himself upon the left bank, and 
making Ulm untenable. The 
French took 5,000 prisoners 
and 20 guns, but the losses on 
both sides in killed and wounded 
were small for the numbers 

Hoechst (Thirty Years* War). 

Fought June 10, 1622, be- 
tween 20,000 Palatinate troops, 
under Christian of Brunswick, 
and 33,000 Imperialists, under 
Tilly. Christian having failed 
to join forces with Mansfeldt, 
was in retreat, and was engaged 
in holding a bridge over the 
Main. While thus employed 
he was overtaken by Tilly, and 
though a village covering the 
bridge was held gallantly for 
five hours, he was at last over- 
powered, losing about 12,000 
in killed, wounded and prisoners. 
The Imperialist loss was com- 
paratively small. 

Hogland (Russo-Swedish Wars). 

Fought 1789, between the 
Russian fleet, under Admiral 
Greig, and the Swedes, under 
the Duke of Sudermanland. 
Each side lost a ship, but strate- 
gically the affair was a Russian 
victory, for the Swedes were 
compelled to seek the protection 
of the forts of Sveaborg. 



Hohenfriedberg (War of the 
Austrian Succession). 
Fought June 3, 174$, between 
the Austrians and Saxons, under 
Charles of Lorraine, and the 
Prussians, under Frederick the 
Great. The Saxons, who were 
encamped at Strigau. were at- 
tacked in the early morning, 
and defeated before the Aus- 
trians could come to their aid. 
Frederick then turned upon the 
Austrians, and routed them, 
after desperate fighting. The 
Austrians and Saxons lost 4,000 
killed and wounded, 7,000 pri- 
soners, including 4 generals, and 
66 guns. The Prussians lost 

Hohenlinden (Wars of the French 
Fought December 3, 1800, 
between the French, 60,000 
strong, under Moreau, and 
70,000 Austrians, under the 
Archduke John. Moreau occu- 
pied the small clearing of Hohen- 
linden, and the surrounding 
forest, while the Austrian army 
marched by five distinct routes 
to rendezvous at HohenUnden. 
The Archduke's attack on the 
village was repulsed, and mean- 
while Moreau had fallen upon 
his advancing columns atvarious 
points, and after severe fighting 
defeated them. The Austrians 
lost 7,000 killed and wounded, 
12,000 prisoners and 87 guns. 

Hollabrunn (Campaign of the 
A rearguard action to protect 
the retreat of the main Russian 
army, under Kutusoff, No- 
vember 16, 1805, between 7,000 
Russians, under Prince Bagra- 
tion, and the French, under 
Lannes. Bagration did not 

retire until he had lost half his 

Homildon Hill (Scottish Wars). 
Fought September, 1402, when 
the Percies lay in wait for 
a Scottish force, under Murdach 
Stewart, and Archibald, Earl of 
Douglas, who were returning 
from a foray into England. 
The Scots were totally routed, 
losing Stewart, 4 Scottish 
peers, and 80 gentlemen of 


Fought 629, between 12,000 
Moslems, under Mohammed, 
and a force of pagan Arabs, 
4,000 strong. The Moslems were 
lured into the valley of Honain, 
and were assailed by slingers 
and archers from the surround- 
ing heights. They were, how- 
ever, rallied by the Prophet, and 
totally routed the Pagans, who 
submitted to the rule of Mo- 

Hondschook (Wars of the French 
Fought September, 1793, be- 
tween the Austrians, under 
Freytag, and the French, under 
Houchard. The Austrians occu- 
pied a strong position from 
which they were driven in dis- 
order, and with heavy loss 
As a consequence of this victory, 
the siege of Dunkirk was raised. 

Hooghly, The. 

Fought November 24, 1759, 
between three British ships, 
under Commodore Wilson, and 
a Dutch squadron of seven sail. 
After two hours' fighting, the 
Dutch were completely defeated, 
and all their ships captured. 
Meanwhile a force of 700 Euro- 
peans and 800 Sepoys landed 



from the Dutch fleet, was de- 
feated with heavy loss by 330 
British troops and 800 Sepoys, 
under Colonel Forde. 

Huesca (Mohammedan Empire 
in Spain). 
Fought 1 105, when the Moors, 
under AU attacked the Spaniards, 
who, under Alfonso VI of Cas- 
tile, were besieging Huesca. 
AU was utterly routed, losing 
10,000 killed in the battle. 

Huesca (First Carlist War). 

Fought May 23, 1837, be- 
tween 20,000 Carlists, under 
Don Carlos and Don Sebastian, 
and 12,000 Cristinos and British 
under General Irribarreu. The 
British legion behaved un- 
steadily and the Cristinos were 
driven from the field, though 
the pursuit was checked by a 
brilUant cavalry charge, in 
which Irribarreu fell. The 
Cristinos lost over 1,000 killed 
and wounded, of which number 
the British legion lost 277. 

Humaita (Paraguayan War). 

Fought May, 1866, between 
the Paraguayans, under Lopez, 
and the Argentinians, under 
Mitre. Mitre attacked the Para- 
guayan entrenchments, but was 
repulsed with heavy loss. 

Humaita (Paraguayan War). 

Fought February, 1868, be- 
tween the Paraguayan batteries, 
and a flotilla of BraziUan gun- 
boats, endeavouring to force the 
passage. Their attempt was a 
complete failure, and the whole 
flotilla was sunk. 

Humaita (Paraguayan War). 

Fought September, 1868, be- 
tween the Paraguayans, under 

Lopez, and the allied armies of 
Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay. 
The alUes largely outnumbered 
Lopez's forces, and forced him 
to abandon his entrenchments 
at Humaita, and retire to Te- 

Humblebeck (Dane-Swedish 
Fought 1700, when Charles 
XII, with a small force of Swedes, 
landed in face of the Danish 
army, which was strongly en- 
trenched close the shore, and 
drove them headlong from their 
position with heavy loss. 

Hydaspes, The (Alexander's 
Campaigns in Asia). 
Fought B.C. 327, between 
65,000 Macedonians and 70,000 
Asiatics, under Alexander the 
Great, and the army of the 
Indian king Porus, numbering 
30,000 infantry, with 200 ele- 
phants and 300 war chariots. 
Alexander crossed the river a 
few miles above Poms' entrench- 
ments, and utterly routed him. 
with a loss of 12,000 killed and 
9,000 prisoners, including Porus 
himself. The Macedonians lost 
1 ,000 only. 

Hyderabad (Conquest of Sonde). 
Fought March 24, 1843, ^^' 
tween 6,000 British troops, under 
Sir Charles Napier, and 20,000 
Beluchis, under Shir Moham- 
med. The latter was strongly 
entrenched behind the FuUali, 
but the Beluchis, being thrown 
into disorder by a heavy artil- 
lery fire, were overthrown by a 
charge of cavalry on thefr ex- 
posed flank, and a frontal attack 
by the 22nd Regiment. This 
defeat put an end to the resist- 
ance of the Scinde Emirs. 






Fought, approximately, 668 
B.C., between the Spartans and 
the Argives. The former were 
totally defeated, and Argos was 
left in undisputed possession of 
the supremacy of the Pelopon- 


Ichinotani (Taira War). 

Fought 1 1 89, between the 
troops of the Shogun Minamoto- 
no-Yoritomo, under his brothers 
Norigoris and Yoshitsune, and 
the forces of the Taira clan. 
The Taira were signally defeated. 

Iclistavisus (Germanic Wars). 

Fought 16, between 8 Roman 
legions, under Germanicus, and 
the Germans, under Arminius. 
The Germans attacked the Ro- 
mans in the open plain, but 
failed against the superior dis- 
cipUne of the legionaries, and 
were routed with enormous loss. 
Arminius with difficulty cut his 
way out of the press and es- 

Immac (Revolt of Elagabalus). 

Fought June 7, 218, between 
the Syrian legions, under Elaga- 
balus, and the Imperial troops 
and Pretorians, under the Em- 
peror Macrinus. The Pretor- 
ians, by their superior valour 
and discipUne, broke the legions 
opposed, and the victory would 
have been theirs, but at the 
crisis of the fight, Macrinus fled, 
and this so discouraged his 
troops, that in the end they 
were totally defeated. 

Imola (Napoleon's Italian Cam- 
Fought February 3, 1797, 

when 8,000 French and ItaUans, 
under Victor, defeated the Papal 
troops, 7,000 strong, under 
General Colli. Victor took the 
Papal army in the rear, and 
routed them with a loss of a few 
hundred only, as no stcind was 

Indus, The (Tartar Invasion of 
Fought B.C. 1 22 1, between 
300,000 Tartars, under Genghis 
Khan, and the army of Jellalla- 
din. Sultan of Kharismia, 30,000 
strong. Jellalladin fought with 
his back to the river, and after 
an obstinate conflict, in which 
he inflicted heavy loss on his 
assailants, was driven across 
the Indus, having lost 19,000 
men killed and drowned. The 
Tartars lost 20,000. 


Fought November 18, 1841, 
between the Bolivians, under 
BalUvian, 3,800 strong, and the 
Peruvians, 5,200 strong, under 
Gamarra. The Peruvians were 
utterly routed, and their army 
dispersed, Gamarra being among 
the killed. 

Ingogo (First Boer War). 

Fought February 8, 1881 
when a small British column, 
consisting of 5 companies of 
infantry, 4 guns, and a small 
mounted force, attacked the 
Boer position, and were repulsed 
with a loss of 139 killed and 
wounded. The Boers admitted 
a loss of 14 only. 

Inhlobane Mountain (Zulu War). 
Fought March 28, 1879, when 
a British force of 1,300 men, 
under Colonels BuUer and Rus- 
sell, attacked a strong Zulu 
kraal, and after severe fighting. 



were repulsed with considerable 

Inkerman (Crimean War). 

Fought November $, 1854, 
when 50,000 Russians, under 
Prince Mentschikoff, attacked 
the British position at Inker- 
man, held by about 8,000 troops. 
There was a dense fog, and the 
battle was chiefly a series of 
detached hand-to-hand combats 
some of the most serious fighting 
being round the Sandbag Bat- 
tery, where the Russians lost 
1,200 killed. At 10 o'clock, the 
French arrived on the scene, 
and the Russians were soon in 
full retreat, having suffered very 
heavy loss. 

Inverlochy (Civil War). 

Fought February 2, 1645, 
when Montrose, with 1,500 
Royalist Highlanders, defeated 
3,000 Campbells and Lowland 
Covenanters, with a loss of i ,700 
men. Argyle left the command 
of his forces to Campbell of 
Auchinbrech, taking refuge in a 
vessel on Loch Linnhe. This 
defeat broke the power of the 
Campbells in the Highlands for 
many years. 

nverkelthing (Scottish Wars). 

Fought 1 317, between the 
English invaders, and the Scots, 
under the Earl of Fife. The 
first onslaught of the EngUsh 
drove the Scots from their 
positions, but they were rallied 
by William Sinclair, Bishop of 
Dunkeld, and forced the English 
to retire to their ships. 

Inverary (Scottish Wars). 

Fought 1 5 10, between the 
Scots, under Robert Bruce, and 
the English, under Sir John 
Mowbray, with whom was a 

small force of Scottish sym 
pathisers with the English 
claims, under the Earl of Buchan. 
The English were totally de- 
feated and driven from the field 
with heavy loss. 

Ipsus (Wars of Alexander's 
Fought B.C. 302, between the 
Syrians, 32,000 strong, under 
Seleucus, and the Macedonians, 
30,000 in number, under Anti- 
gonus. Seleucus utterly routed 
the Macedonians, Antigonus 
being among the slain. Deme- 
trius Poliorcetes, who now took 
command, only succeeded in 
rallying 8.000 men, after fleeing 
for 200 miles. 

Irun (First Carlist War). 

This fortress was captured. 
May 18, 1837, by 10,000 Cris- 
tinos and British, under General 
Evans. Evans appeared before 
the place at noon, and sum- 
moned it to surrender. On the 
Carlists refusing, an assault was 
ordered ; by 1 1 p.m. the fortress 
was taken, with very small loss 
to the assailants. 

Isandhlwana (Zulu War). 

Fought January 22, 1879, 
when six companies of the 24th 
Regiment, with two guns and a 
small force of Natal volunteers, 
under Colonel Dumford, were 
overwhelmed and massacred by 
the Zulus, under Matyana. Of 
the regulars, 26 officers and 600 
men were killed, in addition to 
24 officers, and a large number 
of men in the Colonial force. 

Isara, The (Third Gallic Inva- 


Fought August 8, 121 B.C., 

between the Arvemi and Allo- 

broges, under Betuitdus, and the 



Romans, under Q. Fabius Maxi- 
mus. The Gauls were totally 
defeated, and a bridge breaking 
down under the press of the 
fugitives, they suffered enormous 

Isaszcq (Hungarian Rising). 

Fought April 6, 1849, bt-twcen 
the Hungarians, 42,000 strong, 
under Gorgey, and the Croats, 
under Jellachich. The Hun- 
garian First Corps, under Klap- 
ka. was put to flight, but the 
rest stood their ground, and 
repulsed the Croat attack. Both 
armies bivouacked for the night 
on the ground they held, but 
early on the following morning 
Jellachich retired, the Hun- 
garians thus being entitled to 
claim a victory. 

Isle de France (Napoleonic Wars). 
This island, now known as 
Mauritius, was captured from 
the French, December 3, 1810, 
by a fleet of 19 ships, under 
Admiral Bertie, convoying a 
number of transports, carrying 
10,000 troops, under Genersd 
Abercromby. The British lost 
167 killed wounded and 
missing. Seven frigates and 
ten sloops were taken, as well as 
21 French and 3 captured Brit- 
i sh merchantmen. 

Isly (Abd-el-Kader's V bellion). 
Fought August 14, 1844, be- 
tween 8,000 French, under 
Marshal Bugeaud, and 45,000 
Algerines, chiefly cavalry, under 
AM-el-Kader. The French in- 
fantry repulsed all the charges 
of the Algerine Horse, and aided 
by the artillery, inflicted heavy 
loss upon them; when suffi- 
ciently shaken, a charge of the 
French cavalry completed the 
rout, and the Algerines fled, 

leaving 1,500 dead on the field. 
Abd-el-Kader was captured. 

Ismail (Ottoman Wars). 

This fortress was taken by 
assault by the Russians, under 
Suwaroff, December 22, 1790. 
The Russians lost enormous 
numbers in the storm, and in 
revenge they massacred the 
garrison and inhabitants without 

Issus. (Alexander's Asiatic Cam- 
Fought B.C. 333, between 
35,000 Macedonians, under 
Alexander the Great, and a vast 
horde of Asiatics, with 30,000 
Greek mercenaries, under 
Darius, King of Persia. The 
Persians were drawn up on the 
right bank of the Pinarus, which 
crosses the plain of Issus. Alex- 
ander, led his heavy cavalry to 
the attack on the left, crossing 
the river, and routing the Per- 
sian cavalry. The phalanx in 
the centre was opposed to the 
Greek mercenaries, and after 
heavy fighting, the Macedonians 
made g(xxi their footing on the 
right bank. Alexander mean- 
while led his squadrons against 
the bodyguard of Darius, who 
fled from the field, followed by 
the whole of the Asiatics, and 
the victory was complete. 

Issus (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought 1488, between the 
Turks, under Bajazet II, and 
the Egyptians, under the Sultan 
of Egypt. The Turks were 


Fought October, 740, between, 
the Japanese rebels, under Hirot- 
suke, 13,000 strong, and the 
troops of the Emperor Shommu 



onder Ono-no-Atsuma. The 
Imperial troops, who were only 
8,000 in number, attacked the 
rebels as they were crossing the 
river, and routed them with 
heavy loss. Hirotsuke was 

Ivry (Eighth Civil War). 

Fought March 14, 1590, be- 
tween the Huguenots, under 
Henri IV, and the Catholics, 
under the Due de Mayenne. 
Henri gained a complete victory, 
and marched forward to invest 


Jalula (Moslem Invasion of 
Fought 637, between the 
Moslems, under Said, and the 
Persians, under Yezdegerd. 
Yezdegerd fled from the field, 
and his troops discouraged, 
were totally routed with heavy 


This island was captured 
from the Spaniards, May, 1655 
by a combined EngUsh naval 
and miUtary force, under Ad- 
miral Penn and General Ven- 

Jamac (Third CivU War). 

Fought March 13, 1569, be- 
tween the Catholics, under the 
Marshal de Tavannes, and the 
Huguenots, under the Prince de 
Cond6. The brunt of the action 
was borne by the Huguenot 
cavalry, who were overpowered 
by the Catholics, and Cond6 

Jassy (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought September 20, 1620, 
between the Poles under Grati- 

ani, and the Turks, under 
Osman II. The Poles were 
completely defeated. 

JeUalabad (First Afghan War). 

This fortress was besieged by 
the Afghans, under Mohsunmed 
Akbar Khan, March 11, 1842, 
after the destruction of General 
Elphinstone's force in the 
Khoord Cabul pass. It was 
defended by a small British 
garrison, under General Sale. 
Akbar led his whole army to 
the assault, but was gallantly 
repubed, and then sat down to 
besiege the place in form. An 
attempt to relieve it by Briga- 
dier Wyld, in January, 1843, 
failed, Wyld being defeated in 
the Khyber Pass by the Khy- 
beris. The garrison mean- 
while made several successful 
sorties, and on April 7, drove 
Akbar Khan out of his entrench- 
ments, with a loss of all his guns, 
and many men, forcing him to 
raise the siege. All chance of 
a renewal of the investment 
was ended by the arrival on 
the 1 8th, of a strong relieving 
force, under General Pollock. 

Jemappes (Wars of the French 
Fought November 6, 1792, 
between the Austrians, under 
the Archduke Albert, and the 
French, under Dumouriez. The 
Austrians occupied a very strong 
position on the heights above 
Jemappes. from which they 
were driven with heavy loss, 
the French gaining a signal 

Jena (Campaign of Jena). 

This name is generally given 
to the two battles fought Oc- 
tober 14, 1806, by the two wings 
of the French army under Na- 



poleon, at Auerstadt and Jena. 
At Auerstadt the Prussian left, 
70,000 strong, under the Duke 
of Brunswick, was encountered 
by the French right, under Da- 
voust, with sUghtly inferior 
numbers, and after very severe 
fighting, were defeated, the 
Duke of Brunswick being killed. 
Napoleon, on the left, with 
100.000 men, attacked the Prince 
of Hohenlohe with 70,000 
Prussians, and after a sternly 
fought engagement, drove him 
from the field. The two de- 
feated armies, retiring by con- 
verging routes upon Weimar, 
the retreat became a rout, and 
Napoleon's pursuing cavalry 
caused them further heavy 
losses. The Prussians in the 
two actions lost 22,000 killed 
and wounded, 18,000 prisoners 
and 300 guns. Twenty generals 
were killed, wounded or cap- 
tured. The French lost 11,000 
killed and wounded, 7.000 of 
whom fell at Auerstadt. 


Fought 1 5 50, when an English 
squadron, under Sir WilUam 
Winter, attacked a French fleet, 
which was besieging St. Heliers. 
The French were completely 
routed, losing 1,000 killed and 
wounded, and the siege was 

Jerusalem (Jewish War). 

This city was besieged by 
Titus, with 60,000 Romans, in 
March, 70A.D. It was defended 
with the utmost heroism by the 
Jews, who were led by the Zealot 
faction. At the end of six weeks 
Titus gained possession of the 
suburb of Bezetha, and then by 
hard fighting, captured position 
after poation, until on Sep- 

tember 8, the resistance of the 
defenders was finally overcome. 
Josephus says that 1,100,000 
persons perished in the siege, 
but this is doubtless an exag- 
geration. The Romans after 
the capture sold 97,000 into 

Jerusalem (Moslem Invasion of 
Early in 637 Jerusalem was 
besieg^ by the Moslems, at 
first, under Abu Obeidah, and 
later by the KhaUf Omar. After 
a defence of four months, during 
which scarcely a day passed 
without a sortie or an assault, 
the city was surrendered by 
the Patriarch Sophronius. 

Jerusalem (First Crusade). 

The Crusaders, under Godefroi 
de Bouillon, laid siege to the 
city, June 7, 1099, and on 
July 15, it was taken by assault, 
and for three days was the scene 
of a promiscuous massacre, in 
which 70.000 Moslems perished. 


On October 2, 1187, the Holy 
City was besieged by the Sara- 
cens, under Saladin, and after a 
siege lasting fourteen days, in 
the course of which several deter- 
mined sorties were repulsed, the 
Moslems forced an entrance, 
and Guy de Lusignan, the last 
King of Jerusalem, surrendered. 
The Christians were given forty 
days to evacuate the city. 

Jhansi (Indian Mutiny). 

This place, which fell into the 
hands of the mutineers in June, 
1857, was recaptured by Sir 
Hugh Rose, who invested it in 
March, 1858, and carried the 
city by assault, April 2. 



Jidballi (Somali Expedition). 

Fought January 10, 1904, 
between the Somalis, $,000 
strong, and a small British and 
native force, under Sir Charles 
Egerton. The Somalis' camp 
was attacked, and after a brisk 
action they were driven out and 
pursued by the cavalry for 
twelve miles, losing 1,000 killed 
in the fight and pursuit. The 
British losses were very small. 


Fought February 28, 1829, 
between the Peruvians, under 
Lamar, and the Colombians, 
under Sucre. The battle was 
indecisive, both sides claiming 
the victory, and it was followed 
by the signature of peace, Sep- 
tember 23. 

Jitgurh (Gurkha War). 

Fought January 14, 181 5, be- 
tween 4,500 British troops, under 
General Wood, and 1.200 Gurk- 
has, occupying a strong stockade. 
The British were led unex- 
pectedly into the zone of fire by 
a treacherous guide, and though 
Wood fought his way to a 
position from which he could 
nave carried the stockade, he 
retired, having suffered con- 
siderable loss, just when the 
Gurkhas were about to abandon 
their works. 

Jotapata (Jewish War). 

This place was besieged by 
Vespasian, with 60,000 Romans. 
December, 67. and was defended 
by the Jewish army under 
" Josephus. The fortress held out 
for 47 days, when it was stormed 
and sacked. Josephus gave him- 
self up to Vespasian. 

Jugdulluck (First Afghan War). 
At this place the remnant of 

General Elphinstone's army 
made their last stand, January 
12. 1842. against the Afghans 
and Ghilzais. Of the few who 
escaped the massacre at this 
point, only one. Dr. Brydon, 
succeeded in reaching Jellala- 

Julian's Defeat by the Persians 
(Persian Wars). 
Fought June 28, 363, between 
the Romans, under JuUan, and 
the Persians, under Sapor II. 
JuUan had advanced against 
Ctesiphon, the Persian capital, 
but finding himself too weak to 
attack it, was retreating along 
the left bank of the Tigris. In 
the course of the retreat he was 
attacked by the Persians, and 
worsted in an action unimport- 
ant in itself, but resulting in the 
death of Julian, who was mor- 
tally wounded in the skirmish. 
The election of Jovian as Em- 
peror was followed by a peace 
which restored to Sapor almost all 
the Roman conquests in Persia. 

Jimin (South American War of 
Fought 1824. between the 
Spanish RoyaUsts. under General 
Cauterac. and the Colombian 
Patriots, under Sucre. The 
Spaniards were completely de- 


Kaiping (Chino- Japanese War). 
Fought January 10, 1895, 
when a Chinese force in a strongly 
entrenched position was at- 
tacked and driven out by a 
Japanese brigade xmder General 
Nogi. The fighting lasted three 
hours, the Chinese showing 
more steadiness than usual. 

,^-^f'Nfi.r.TS^^ji '_jl:.jC.V: 

1 20 


and inflicting on the assailants 
a loss of 300 killed and wounded. 

Kagoshima (Satsuma Rebel- 

On August 18, 1876, the 
rebels, who were closely be- 
sieged in their lines at Enotake, 
succeeded in passing through the 
Imperial troops, and malung a 
forced march, under Saigo 
Takamori, seized the city of 
Kagoshima. They were quickly 
followed by the Imperial army, 
under Prince Taruhito, and an 
engagement followed which 
lasted for ten days, at the end of 
which time the insurgents were 
driven out and retired to 
Shirogama, both sides having 
suffered heavy loss. 

Kagul (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought August 3, 1770, be- 
tween 17,000 Russians, under 
Roumiantsofl, and 1 50.000 
Turks, under Halil Pasha. The 
Russian rear was threatened by 
a force of 80,000 Tartars, under 
the Khan of Crim Tartary, but 
Roumiantsoff boldly attacked 
the Turkish lines, and after 
severe fighting drove the Turks 
out of their entrenchments in 
headlong flight, capturing all 
their artillery and baggage. 

Kalisch (Russo-Swedish War). 

Fought 1706, between 10,000 
Swedes, under General Meyer- 
feld, and 30,000 Russians and 
Poles, under Prince Mentschikofif. 
The Swedes were defeated with 
considerable loss. 

Kalunga (Gurkha War). 

This place was attacked by 
the British under General 
Gillespie, in October, 18 14, and 
was defended by the Gurkhas 

under Bulbuddur Singh. An 
unsuccessful assault cost the 
besiegers 260 officers and men, 
and after waiting a month for 
the arrival of heavy guns, a 
breach was made, and a general 
assault ordered. This also 
failed, 680 men being killed and 
wounded. The fortress was then 
shelled for three days, at the 
end of which time the survivors 
of the garrison, 70 only out of 
600, made their escape, and 
the place was captured. 

Kalpi (Indian Mutiny). 

This town, which had fallen 
into the hands of the mutineers, 
was besieged by Sir Hugh Rose, 
May 19, 1858. The garrison 
made two ineffectual sorties, in 
which they were repulsed with 
heavy loss, and on the 23rd the 
town was entered without fur- 
ther resistance, the mutineers 
having fled. 

Kamarut (First Burmah War). 

Fought July 8, 1824, when a 
small British force, under Sir 
Archibald Campbell, stormed a 
series of stockades held by 
10,000 Burmans, under Tuamba 
Wangyee. The Burmans left 
800 dead on the field, including 
their leader. 

Kambula (Zulu War). 

Fought March 29, 1879, when 
Colonel Wood, with 2,000 
British and native auxiliaries, 
was attacked in his lager by 
three Zulu impi. The Zulus 
were repulsed with very heavy 
loss, and pursued for seven 
miles. The British lost 81 
killed and wounded. The defeat 
practically broke Cetewayo's 



Kandahar (Tartar Invasion of 
This city was besieged by the 
Tartars, under TuU Khan, in 
1 22 1. The Tartars possessed 
themselves of the city, and were 
investing the citadel, when 
Jellalladin, Sultan of Kharismia, 
fell upon them with a large 
force and cut them to pieces. 


Siege was laid to Kandahar in 
March. 1545, by the Moguls, 
under Humayun. The place, 
which was defended by an 
Afghan garrison under Mirza 
Askari, held out for five months, 
when, weakened by famine and 
desertion, the garrison was 
forced to surrender. 

Kandahar (Perso-Afghan Wars). 
In the autumn of 1648 the 
Persians, under Abbas II, laid 
siege to the city, which was 
defended by a Mogul garrison. 
An attempt to reUeve it was 
made by Aurungzebe, but he 
arrived to find it already in the 
hands of the Persians. He in 
turn laid siege to it, but was un- 
successful, and after four months 
was compelled to retire. Subse- 
quent attempts to recapture the 
city were made by Said Ullah, 
the Vizier, and Dara Sheko, 
the eldest son of Shah Jehan, 
but without success. 


Fought July 29, 1834, when 
Shah Sujah, the expelled Amir 
of Afghanistan, attempted to 
take the city. His successor. 
Dost Mahomed, and Kohandil 
Khan sallied forth at the head 
of their troops, and totally 
defeated Shah Sujah, dispersing 
his followers. 

Kandahar (Second Afghan War]. 
Fought September i, 1880, 
between the British, xmder Lord 
Roberts, and the Afghans, under 
Ayub Khan, immediately after 
the completion of the famous 
march from Kabul. Ayub was 
completely defeated, with a loss 
of 2,000 men, and his army dis- 
persed. The British losses were 
only 248 killed and wounded 

Kapolna (Hungarian Rising). 

Fought February 26 and 27, 
1849, between four Hungarian 
divisions, under Dembinsla, and 
the Austrians, under Windisch- 
gratz, of whom only Schlick's 
corps, 15,000 strong, was 
seriously engaged. The Hun- 
garians held their own on the 
26th, but on the evening of the 
27th SchUck captured the key 
of the position at Kapolna. 
whereupon the Hungarians re- 
tired, though unpursued. 

Kappel (Second War of Kappel). 
Fought October 10, 1531, be- 
tween the army of the Swiss 
Catholic Cantons, 8,000 strong, 
and 1,300 Zurichers, under 
George Gdldli, reinforced later 
in the day by a similar number 
under Rudolf Lavater. Gdldli 
attacked in defiance of orders, 
and was totally defeated, 
among those who fell being 

Kara Burur (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought August II, 1 79 1, 
when the Russian fleet, under 
Admiral Ouschakofi, totally de- 
feated the Turks after a san- 
guinary engagement. 


Fought during the winter of 
1225, between 300,000 Tartars 
under Genghiz Khan, and 




500,000 Turks, Chinese and 
others under Shidasker of Tan- 
gat. Shidasker was totally 
routed, with a loss, it is said, of 
300,000 men. 

Karaku (Tartar Invasion of 

Fought 1 21 8, between the 
Tartars, 700,000 strong, under 
Genghiz Khan, and 400,000 
Khahsmians under the Sultan 
Mehemed. At nightfall the 
battle was undecided, and the 
armies withdrew to their camps, 
but Mehemet, who had lost 
140,000, refused to renew the 
conflict on the following day, 
and Genghiz Khan, having 
suffered too severely to attack 
his entrenchments, withdrew. 

Karee (Second Boer War). 

Fought March 29, 1900, when 
a Boer force holding a line of 
hills about eighteen miles north 
of Bloemfontein. were driven 
from their entrenchments by 
a British division under General 
Tucker. The British lost 10 
officers and 172 men killed and 

Kargaula (Cossack Rising). 

Fought 1774, between the 
insurgent Cossacks of the Don, 
under Ikkelman Pugatchefif, and 
the Russians, under Prince 
Gallitzin. The insurgents were 
routed with great slaughter, and 
Pugatcheflf fled to the moun- 

Kars (Crimean War). 

This fortress, held by a 
Turkish garrison under General 
Williams, was besieged by the 
Russians in the course of the 
Crimean war. The place was 
most gallantly defended but 

was finally forced by famine to 
capitulate, November, 1855. 

Kars (Russo-Turkish War). 

This fortress, garrisoned by 
24.000 Turks under Hussein 
Pasha, was stormed by the 
Russians under Loris Mehkoff 
on the night of November 17, 
1877. The attacking force was 
led by Lazareff, and after severe 
fighting captured all the eastern 
forts. Hussein then endeavoured 
to cut his way through to the 
west, but the bulk of his force 
was driven back, and only he 
and a few of his officers suc- 
ceeded in the attempt. The 
Russians lost 2,273, l^Ued and 
wounded ; the Turks 2,500 
killed, 4,500 wounded, 17,000 
prisoners, and 303 guns. 

Kashgal (Soudan Campaigns). 

On November 3, 1883, an 
Egyptian force, 1 1,000 strong, 
under Hicks Pasha, with several 
British officers, was led by a 
treacherous guide into a defile, 
where they were attacked by 
the Mahdists, and after fighting 
for three dajrs, were massacred 
almost to a man. 

Kassassin (Arabics Rebellion). 

Fought August 28, 1882, be- 
tween the British, under General 
Graham, and the Egyptians, 
under Arabi Pasha. Arabi at- 
tacked the British position, 
Graham remaining on the de- 
fensive throughout the day, but 
towards evening he launched 
his heavy cavalry, under Sir 
Baker Russell, against the 
enemy, who broke and fled. 
The British losses were only 1 1 
killed and 68 wounded. 



KatxlMch (Campaign of Leip- 
Fought August 22, 18 1 3, be- 
tween 130,000 French, under 
Napoleon, and 100,000 Prus- 
sians, under Blucher. Blucher, 
who had on the previous day 
retired behind the Ha)mau, was 
pressed hard by Napoleon, and 
driven across the Katzbach, 
with considerable loss. 

Katzbach (Campaign of Leip- 
Fought August 26, 1813, be- 
tween the French, under Mac- 
donald, and the Prussians, under 
Blucher. Macdonald crossed 
the Katzbach, and while waiting 
for his left wing and cavalry 
under Souham, was attacked by 
Blucher, and driven back. As 
Macdonald was retiring Souham 
appeared on the field, but before 
he could deploy he was attacked 
and routed with great slaugh- 
ter, while the centre under 
Lauriston also suffered severely 
in recrossing the river. The, 
French lost 15,000 killed and 
wounded, and over 100 guns. 

Kazan (Cossack Rising). 

Fought 1774, between the 
rebel Cossacks, under Pugat- 
cheff, and the Russians, under 
General Michelson. The Cos- 
sacks were utterly routed. 

Kemendine (First Burmah War). 
Fought June 10, 1824, when 
3.000 British troops, under Sir 
Archibald Campbell, stormed a 
series of stockades, occupied by 
a large force of Burmans, and 
drove out the defenders with 
heavy loss. 

Keresztes (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought October 24 to 26, 
1 596, between the Turks, under 

Mohammed III, and the Im- 
perialists and Transylvanians, 
under the Archduke MaximiUan 
and Prince Sigismund of Tran- 
sylvania. The battle at first 
went badly for the Turks, and 
Mohammed would have fled but 
for the remonstrances of the 
Grand Vizier. In the end, how- 
ever, they gained the upper 
hand, and the Archduke was 
totally defeated. 

Kharisme (Tartar Invasion of 
This city, the capital of 
Kharismia, was besieged by the 
Tartars under the three sons of 
Genghiz Khan, in the summer 
of 1220. It was most obsti- 
nately defended for a period of 
seven months by the inhabit- 
ants, under Himartekin, but 
in February the Tartars mas- 
tered the place, massacring 
100,000 persons. 

Khartoum (Soudan Campaign). 
This city, defended by an 
Egyptian garrison under General 
Gordon, was invested by the 
Mahdi in the early part of 1884, 
and, after a gallant defence, 
was stormed January 26, 1885. 
The forerunners of the relieving 
force, consisting of the river 
gunboats under Lord Charles 
Beresford, arrived off the city 
on the 28th, two days too late, 
and after a brief engagement 
with the Mahdist batteries, re- 
turned down the river. 

Khelat (First Afghan War). 

This place, which was de- 
fended by a garrison of Beluchis, 
under Mehrab Khan, was cap- 
tured by a British force, 1,000 
strong, under General Willshire, 
November 13, 1839. The de- 
fenders lost 400 killed, includ- 


u. •.r-t=«t*?--- - ■■■'—■ 



ing their leader and 2,cxx> 
prisoners. The British lost 37 
killed and 107 wounded. 

KhojahPassrFirst Afghan War). 
Fought March 28, 1842. when 
General England, in an en- 
deavour to relieve General Nott 
in Kandahar, marched into the 
pass with 500 men only, without 
waiting for the rest of his 
brigade, and was defeated by 
the Afghans with a loss of 100 
killed and wounded, and com- 
pelled to retire to Quettah. 

Khoord Kabul Pass (First Afghan 
While passing through this 
defile, the British force, under 
General Elphinstone, retreating 
on Jellalabad, was attacked by 
the Afghans, January 8, 1 842, and 
lost 3,000, including followers. 

Killiecrankie (Jacobite Rising). 
Fought July 27, 1689, be- 
tween 4,500 Royal troops, under 
General Mackay, and 2,500 
Highland Jacobites, under Dun- 
dee. Dundee allowed Mackay 
to enter the plain below the pass 
of Killiecrankie, and then des- 
cending from the heights, fell 
upon and utterly routed the 
Royalists, with a loss of over 
2,000 killed and 500 prisoners. 
The Jacobites lost about 900, 
but amongst them was Dundee. 
Mackay on reaching Stirling 
had only 400 men with the 

KUsyth (Civil War). 

Fought August 15, 1645, be- 
tween the Royalists, under 
Montrose, and the Covenanters, 
under Baillie. The Royalists 
won a signal victory, Baillie's 
infantry, 6,000 in number, being 
cut down almost to a man. 

Kimberlej (Second Boer War). 
This town, defended by a 
garrison of 4,000 (including 
armed townsmen) under Colonel 
Kekewich, was besieged Octo- 
ber 15, 1890, by the Boers, 
under Commandant Wessels, 
and later under General Cronje. 
It withstood a severe and con- 
tinuous bombardment till Feb- 
ruary 15, 1900, when it was 
reUeved by a force of cavalry. 
5,000 strong, under General 
French. The losses of the 
garrison during the siege a- 
mounted to 18 officers and 163 

Kin-chau. See Naushan. 

Kineyri (Second Sikh War). 

Fought June 18, 1848, be- 
tween 8,000 Bhawalpiuis, under 
Futteh Mohammed Khan, aided 
by 3,000 Sikh irregulars, under 
Lieutenant Edwardes, and the 
Sikhs, 8,000 strong, under Rung 
Ram. The Bhawalpuris were 
repulsed in an attack on the 
Sikh positions, but the arrival 
of Lieutenant Edwardes' guns 
turned the scale, and at a 
second attempt the entrench- 
ments were stormed and cap- 
tured, with a loss to the victors 
of 300 men. The Sikhs lost 500 
killed in the action, and many 
more during their flight to 

Kinloss (Danish Invasion of 
Fought 1009, between the 
Danes under Sweyn of Den- 
mark, and the Scots, under 
Malcolm II. The Danes were 
besieging Nairne, and Malcolm 
attempting to raise the siege, 
they attacked and defeated 
him after hard fighting, in which 
Malcolm was wounded. 



JOnnenaw Mountain (American 
QtU War). 
Fought June 27, 1864, be- 
tween 90,000 Federals, under 
General Sherman, and 50,000 
Confederates, under General 
Johnston. Sherman attacked 
Johnston in a strong position 
and was repulsed with a loss 
of about 3,000, the Confederates 
losing 500 only. 

Kinsale (O'Neirs RebelUon). 

This town, which had been 
seized in September, 1601, by 
5,000 Spaniards, under Juan 
d'Aguila, sent to support the 
rebels, was besieged by the 
Royal troops, under Lord 
Mount] oy and the Earl of 
Thomond. On December 23 an 
attempt by Sir Hugh O'Neil to 
relieve the place was defeated, 
whereupon d'Aguila surrendered 
and was permitted to ship for 

Kidge (Dano-Swedish Wars). 

Fought July, 1677, between the 
Danish fleet, under Admiral 
Juel, and the Swedes, under 
Admiral Horn. The Swedes 
suffered a disastrous defeat, 
losing eleven ships of the Une 
sunk or captured. 

Kirbekan (Soudan Campaigns). 
Fought February 10, 1885, 
when the British, about 1,000 
strong, under General Earle, 
stormed the heights of Kirbekan, 
which were held by a strong 
Mahdist force.and totally routed 
them, with heavy loss. The 
British lost 60, among whom 
was General Earle, killed. 

Kirch-Denkem (Seven Years' 

Fought July 16, 1 76 1, between 
the Russians, under Prince 

Ferdinand, and the French, 
under Soubise and the Due de 
Broglie. The French attacked 
the strong Prussian position in 
and around Kirch-Denkem, and 
after severe fighting were re- 
pulsed with a loss of 4,000 killed 
and wounded. 

Kirkee (Third Mahratta War). 

Fought November 5, 18 17, 
between the Mahrattas under 
Bajee Rao, and a British force 
of one European and three 
native regiments, under Colonel 
Burr. On moving out of his 
entrenchments, the flanks of 
Burr's force were attacked by 
the Mahratta horse, but their 
charge was repulsed, and the 
British advancmg drove ofi the 
enemy with a loss of over 500. 
The British loss was 75 killed 
and wounded. 

Kiso (Taira War). 

Fought September, 1 1 80, be- 
tween the adherents of the 
Minamoto clan, under Yoshi- 
naka, and the troops of Taira- 
no-Kiyomori. The Taira men 
attacked the position of Yoshin- 
aka at Kiso, but were defeated 
and driven from the field with 
heavy loss. 

Kissingen (Seven Weeks' War). 
Fought July 10, 1866, between 
the Prussians, under General 
Falkenstein. and the Bavarians, 
under General ZoUer. The 
Bavarians were defeated and 
driven out of Kissingen with 
heavy loss. 

Kiu-lien-cheng (Russo-Japanese 
Fought May i, 1904, between 
40.000 Japanese, under Marshal 
Kuroki, and the Russians, about 
30,000 strong, under General 

- - --'"— 

vs^AVifi^M^^-' ■>.-•*••- ■rr-.-jTL^r^ 



Sassulitch. After four days of 
skirmishing, the Japanese 
crossed the Yalu, April 30, 
and on the following day at- 
tacked the Russian position at 
Kiu-lien-Cheng, driving out the 
defenders with a loss of 4,000 
killed and wounded, 30 officers 
and 500 men prisoners, and 48 
guns. The Japanese lost 898 
killed and wounded. 

KlziMepe (Russo-Turklsh War). 
Fought June 25, 1877, be- 
tween the Russians, under 
Generad Loris Meliko£f, and the 
Turks, in superior numbers, 
under Mahktar Pasha. The 
Russians were defeated, and 
forced to raise the siege of Kars. 

Klausenburg (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought May, 1660, between 
the Turks, under the Grand 
Vizier, Mahomet Koprili, and 
the Transylvanians, under the 
Voivode, George Ragotski II. 
The Turks gained a complete 
victory, Ragotski being mortally 


Fought July 4, 1 610, between 
the Russians, under Choniski, 
aided by a contingent of 5,000 
Swedes, under James de la 
Gardie. and the Poles, under 
Sigismund III. The Russians 
were totally defeated, and, as a 
result, the usurper, Basil Cho- 
niski, was deposed. 

Koeniggratz (Seven Weeks' 
Fought July 3, 1866, between 
200,000 Austrians, with 600 guns» 
under Marshal Benedek, and 
the Prussian armies of Prince 
Frederick Charles and the Crown 
Prince, together about equal to 
the Austrians in number. The 

Austrians, who occupied a very 
strong position, were attacked 
in the early morning by Prince 
Frederick Charles, who, how- 
ever, made Uttle impression 
upon them, and it was not till 
the arrival of the Crown Prince 
on their right flank at 2 p.m. 
that any advantage was ob- 
tained. Then, however, the 
Prussians succeeded in piercing 
the Austrian lines, and seized 
the key of the position, after 
which further resistance being 
hopeless, the Austrians retired, 
with a loss of 20,000 killed and 
wounded, 20,000 prisoners, and 
174 guns. The Prussians lost 

Koenigswartha (Campaign of 
Fought May 19, 181 3, when 
General Peyri's Italian division, 
about 8,000 strong, was at- 
tacked and defeated by 15,000 
Russians, under Barclay de 
Tolly, with a loss of 2,000 killed 
and wounded. The opportune 
arrival of the cavalry of Ney's 
corps saved the division from 

Kojende (Tartar Invasion of 
This fortress was besieged in 
1 2 19, by the Tartars, under 
Tuchi Khan, and defended by a 
Kharismian garrison, under 
TimarMalek. After an obstinate 
resistance, Timar, finding he 
could hold out no longer, em- 
barked with his officers and his 
best troops, and sailed down the 
Jaxartes, pursued by the Tar- 
tars, whom, however, after 
heavy fighting, he succeeded 
in escaping. The city surren- 
dered the day after Timar's 



Kokein (First Burmah War). 

Fought December 12, 1824, 
when 1 ,800 British troops, under 
Sir Archibald Campbell, stormed 
and captured two large stock- 
ades, garrisoned by about 20,000 
Burmans, under Maka Bandula. 

Kolin (Seven Years' War). 

Fought June 18, 1757, be- 
tween 34,000 Prussians, under 
Frederick the Great, and 54,000 
Austrians, under Marshal Daun. 
Daun occupied the heights be- 
tween Kohn and Chotzewitz, 
where he was attacked by 
Frederick, who had nearly sue* 
ceeded in turning his right 
flank when the Pnissian right 
broke and fled. The Prussian 
cavalry charged gallantly six 
times, but could make no im- 
pression on the Austrian de- 
fence, and Frederick was beaten 
back with a loss of 14.000 men 
and 43 guns. The Austrians 
lost 9,000. 

Komatsu (Nine Years' War). 

Fought September 5, 1062, 
between the Japanese rebels, 
under Sadatoki, and the Im- 
perial troops, under Yoriyoshi. 
Sadatoki, who was besieged in 
his camp, made a vigorous sortie 
at the head of 8,000 men, but 
after a severe conflict was re- 
pulsed. The fighting was re- 
newed on subsequent days, and 
on the 1 6th Sadatoki was 
slain, and the rebellion came to 
an end. 

Komom (Hungarian Rising). 

An action fought by Gdrgey, 
April 26, 1849, for the relief of 
Komom, which was besieged by 
the Austrians. In the early morn- 
ing two Hungarian corps, under 
Klapka and Damjanics, sur- 

prised the Austrian entrenched 
camp, taking 6 guns and 200 
prisoners. The Austrians re- 
tired, though not energetically 
pursued, and the fortress was 

Koniah (Mehemet All's First 
Fought 1 83 1, between the 
Turks, under Reschid Pasha, 
and the Egyptians and Syrians, 
under Ibrahim Pasha. After a 
severe engagement, the Turks 
were totally defeated, and fled 
in disorder. Reschid was severely 
wounded, and captured. 

Komspruit. See Sauna's Post. 

Korygaom (Third Mahratta 
Fought January i, 18 18, 
when a small British force of 
under men. chiefly native 
troops, under Captain Staun- 
ton, was attacked by 25,000 
Mahrattas. under the Peshwa, 
Baji Rao. The British held 
their ground gallantly all day, 
and the approach during the 
night of large reinforcements 
under General Smith determined 
the Peshwa to retreat, with a 
loss of 600. The British lost 275, 
including 5 out of 8 British 

Kossova (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought June 15, 1389. be- 
tween the Turks, under Murad I, 
and the combined army of the 
Servians, Bosnians, and Al- 
banians, under Lazar, Despot 
of Servia. The Turks gained a 
signal victory, though Murad 
was mortally wounded in the 
battle. This success secured 
the Turkish domination over 
Servia and the neighbouring 




.1 ». .« '"■ ■-' 



Kossova (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought October 17, 1747, and 
two following days, between the 
Hungarians and Wallachians, 
80,000 strong, under John 
Hunniades, and a vastly superior 
Turkish army, under Murad II. 
The Hungarians left their en- 
trenchments to attack the 
Turks, and throughout the day 
the battle was evenly con- 
tested. On the 1 8th, however, 
the Wallachians deserted to 
the Turks, and the Hungarians, 
assailed in front and rear, were 
hard pressed, while on the 19th 
they were unable to maintain 
their position, and were forced 
to retire, defeated, with a loss of 
17,000 killed and wounded. The 
Turks are said to have lost 
40,000 men in the three days. 

Kotah (Indian Mutiny). 

This place, which had been 
seized by the rebeUious troops 
of the Rajah of Kotah, 5,000 
in number, was besieged by 
General Roberts, March 22, 
1858. The Rajah, who held the 
citadel, joined forces with the 
British, and after a short 
bombardment the town wais 
stormed, March 30. 

Kotzim (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought September 22, 1622, 
between the Poles, 60,000 
strong, under Chodkiewicz, and 
the Turks, 300,000 in number, 
under Osman II. Chodkiewicz, 
old and worn out by fatigue, 
was forced to retire to his tent 
in the middle of the battle, and 
on his death-bed handed over 
the command to Labomirski, 
by whom the Turks were totally 
routed, with a loss of 30,000 men. 

Kotzim (Ottoman Wars). 
Fought November 11, 1673, 

between 40,000 Poles and 
Lithuanians, under John So- 
bieski, and 80,000 Turks, under 
Hussein Pasha. The Turks 
occupied a strongly entrenched 
position, which was stormed 
by the Poles, and the Turks 
driven into the river, losing 
over 40,000 killed. In conse- 
quence of this signal victory, 
Kotzim capitulated, and Caplan 
Pasha, who was approaching 
with a large army, recrossed 
the frontier. 

Krakovicz (Ottoman Wars). 

On January 17, 1475, 40,000 
Moldavian peasants, aided by 
7,000 Hungarian and PoUsh 
regulars, under Stephen of 
Moldavia, fell upon Suleiman 
Pasha, with 100,000 Turks, in 
an untenable position near Lake 
Krakovicz, and totally defeated 
them, driving them into the 
lake. Very few of the Turks 
escaped death, either by the 
sword or by drowning. 

Krasnaoi (Moscow Campaign). 
Fought November 17, 18 12, 
when the Russians, 50,000 
strong, under Kutusoff, after a 
series of combats on the two 
preceding days, during which 
they had inflicted heavy losses 
on the retreating French army, 
were defeated by the corps of 
Davoust and the Young Guard. 
The French losses amounted to 
5,000 killed and wounded, and 
about 8,000 missing. 

Kringellen (Dane-Swedish Wars ). 
Fought August 29, 161 2, 
when a force of Scots in the 
Danish service, under Colonel 
George Sinclair, were ambushed 
in the mountains by the Nor- 
wegians, and massacred, not- 
withstanding a strenuous re- 



sistance. Only two of the Scots 
succeeded in escaping. 

Kronia (O^oman Wars). 

Foup;ht 1738. between the 
Impenalists under Counts Wal- 
lis and Neipperg, and the 
Turks. The latter were defeated, 
but at very heavy cost, and the 
Imperial army "was so weakened 
that it was unable to prevent 
the Turks capturing Semendaia, 
Orsova. and other important 

Krotzka (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought July 23, 1739, be- 
tween 56,o<3o Austrians, under 
Count Wallis, and over 100,000 
Turks, under El Hadj Moham- 
med Pasha. The Austrian 
vanguard was attacked by the 
Turks when approaching Kotzin 
and driven back, but the main 
body withstood the Turkish 
onslaught from 5 a.m. to sunset, 
when Wallis retired, with a loss 
of 5,700 killed and 4,500 
wounded, including 9 generals. 
The Turkish loss is unknown, 
but was very heavy. 

Kulevtcha (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought 1829, between the 
Russians, under General Die- 
bitsch, and 40,000 Turks, 
under Reschid Pasha. The 
Russians were lying in wait for 
Reschid in the Kalevtcha defile, 
and after a severe struggle, 
totally routed the Turks, with a 
loss of 5,000 killed and wounded, 
and all their guns. The Pasha 
himself escaped with difficulty. 

Kulm (Campaign of Leipsic). 

Fought August 29 and 30. 1 8 1 3, 
between the French, under 
Vandamme, and the Austrians, 
and Russians, with a small force 
of Prussians, under the Prince of 

Schwartzenberg. who were re- 
treating after their defeat at 
Dresden. To check the pursuit 
they occupied Kulm, from which 
they were driven by Vandamme 
on the 29th. On the 30th. how- 
ever, not having received his 
expected reinforcements, Van- 
damme was compelled to re- 
main on the defensive, and 
being attacked in front by the 
Austrians and Russians, and in 
the rear by the Prussians, he 
was totally routed, with a loss 
of 6,000 killed, 7,000 prisoners, 
and 48 guns, being himself 
wounded and captured. The 
allies lost about 5,000. 


Fought February, 1355, be- 
tween the troops of the Emperor 
Gomarakami, under Yoshmori, 
and the rebel Japanese, under 
Moronoshi and Tokiushi. The 
rebels were defeated, and 
Moronoshi severely wounded. 

Kumamoto (Satsuma Rebellion). 
The castle in this town was 
besieged February 22, 1876, by 
the Satsuma rebels, 15,000 
strong, under Saigo. The place 
was gallantly defended by the 
garrison under General Tani 
Tateki. though many Samurai 
deserted to the rebels, and 
strenuous efforts were made by 
the Imperial army under Prince 
Taruhito to come to its reUef. 
In the course of March Saigo was 
attacked in the rear by a force 
under General Kuroda. but still 
maintained the siege, and it was 
not till April 14, when the garri- 
son was on the verge of starva- 
tion, that Kuroda, bringing up 
every available man, succ^ded 
in driving off the rebels and 
raising the siege. 



Kiinersdorf (Seyen Years' War). 
Fought August 12, 1759, be- 
tween 40,000 Prussians, under 
Frederick the Great, and 80,000 
Austrians and Russians, under 
Generals Landon and Soltyko£f. 
Frederick first attacked the 
Russians in flank, driving them 
out of their entrenchments, and 
capturing 180 guns. Then, 
against the advice of SeidUtz. he 
attacked the Austrian position 
on the left of the aUies, and, 
though deserted by the Rus- 
sians, the Austrians held their 
ground, and, bringing all their 
artillery to bear on the Prus- 
sians at close quarters, totally 
routed them, with a loss of 
20,000 men. The alUes lost 

Kiinobitza (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought 1443, between the 
Turks, under Amurath II, and 
the Hungarians, under John 
Hunniades. The Turks were 
utterly routed, and in conse- 
quence Amurath concluded with 
them a ten years' truce. 


Fought March 11, 1795, be- 
tween the army of the Mahratta 
Confederacy, under the Peshwa, 
Madhao Rao II, and Hari Pant, 
and the forces of the Nizam of 
Hyderabad. The troops of the 
Nizam gained an advantage in 
the fight, but the Nizam being 
persuaded to leave the field, his 
troops followed him, and were 
soon in headlong flight. The 
Nizam was captured a few days 


La Belle FamiUe. See Niagara. 

Lade (Ionian War). 

Fought B.C. 494, between a 
Persian fleet of 600 sail, which 
was blockading Miletus under 
Artaphemes, and 353 Lesbian, 
Chian and Samian ships, which 
attempted to raise the siege. 
The Samians, bribed by the 
Persians, deserted at the be- 
ginning of the action, with the 
exception of 1 1 vessels, and the 
Greeks were totally defeated, 
with heavy loss. The Chians 
made a specially gallant fight. 


Fought B.C. 201, between the 
Rhodian fleet, under Theo- 
philiscus, and the Macedonians, 
under HeracUdes. The Mace- 
donians had rather the better 
of the encounter, though both 
sides claimed the victory. 

Ladysmith (Second Boer War). 
Sir George White, with about 
12,000 troops, was shut up in 
Ladysmith by the invading 
army, under General Joubert, 
November 2, 1899. The Boers, 
who were well provided with 
heavy guns, contented them- 
selves in the main with a con- 
tinuous bombardment. On 
January 6, 1900, however, a 
picked force, under Command- 
ant de Villiers, supported by 
several thousand Boer marks- 
men posted on the heights, made 
attempt to force the British lines 
at Waggon Hill and Caesar's 
Camp. The battle lasted 
throughout the day, and more 
than once the defenders were 
very hard pressed, but they held 
their ground till nightfall, when 
the Boers withdrew, having lost 
about 800 men. From this date 
the Boers again contented them- 
selves with bombarding the 



town, until it was finally re- 
lieved by Sir Redvers Buller. 
February 27. In addition to 
deaths by disease, the garrison 
lost during the siege 89 officers 
and 805 men, more than half 
of whom fell in the battle of 
January 6. 

La Favorita (Napoleon's Italian 
Fought January 16, 1797, 
between the French, under 
Napoleon, and the Austrians, 
under Provera. Provera moved 
upon Mantua to succour the 
beleaguered garrison, and was 
aided by a sortie in force. 
Napoleon, making a forced 
march from the field of Rivoli, 
fell upon Provera and totally 
routed him, while the sortie 
was repulsed by the French 
besieging force at the point of 
the bayonet. Provera sur- 
rendered, with 5,000 men. 

La F^e Champenoise (Allied 
Invasion of France). 
Fought March 25, 1814, be- 
tween Marmont's and Mortier's 
corps, 30,000 strong, and the 
alUed army marching on Paris. 
The French were defeated and 
forced to retire, with a loss of 
about 5,000 men and many 
guns. This was the last action 
fought in the north before the 
first abdication of Napoleon. 

Lagos (War of the Revolution). 
Fought June 17, 1693, when 
a SGuadron of 23 Dutch and 
English ships, under Sir George 
Rooke, was attacked by a 
French fleet of 71 sail, whilst 
convoying 400 merchantmen to 
the Mediterranean. The French 
destroyed 90 merchant ships, 
and one EngUsh and two Dutch 

warships. The skilful manceuv- 
ring of Rooke, however, saved 
the rest of the convoy from 

La Hogue (War of the Revolu- 
Fought May 19 and 20, 1692. 
between a combined Dutch and 
English fleet of 96 sail, under 
Admirals Russell and Allemande, 
and a French fleet of 64 sail of 
the Une and 47 smaller vessels, 
under de TourviUe. After heavy 
loss on both sides, the French 
fleet was dispersed, with a loss 
of three ships. On the 22nd 
Admiral Rooke destroyed 16 
sail of the line and a number of 

Lahore (First Tartar Invasion 
of India). 
Fought 1296, between the 
Mongols, 100,000 strong, under 
Amir Daood, and the army of 
Ala-ud-Din, King of Delhi, 
under his brother, Alaf Khan. 
The Mongols were routed, with 
a loss of 12,000 men. 

Lake Erie (Second American 
Fought September 10, 181 3, 
between the EngUsh flotilla of 
six schooners, under Commodore 
Barclay, and a largely superior 
American squadron, under 
Commodore Perry. The whole 
British flotilla was destroyed, 
with a loss of 134 killed and 
wounded. The Americans lost 
27 killed and 96 wounded. 

Lake George (Seven Years' 
Fought September 8, 1755, 
between 1,500 French and In- 
dians, under Baron Dieskau, 
and 2,500 New England militia, 
under Colonel William Johnson. 



A small force sent by Johnson 
to the relief of Fort Lyman was 
ambushed by the French and 
driven back to camp, but 
Dieskau pursuing, was repulsed 
in his attack upon the camp, 
with a loss of about 400. Dies- 
kau himself was wounded and 
captured. The loss of the New 
England men during the day 
was 216 killed and 96 wounded, 
most of whom fell in the ambush 

Lake Kerguel (Tartar Invasion 
of Russia). 
Fought July, 1 39 1, between 
300,000 Russians, under Tokat- 
mich, and an equal force of 
Tartars, under Tamerlane. The 
battle began at daybreak, and 
by mid-day the Russians were 
utterly routed, and fled in dis- 
order, leaving their camp in the 
hands of Tamerlane. 

Lake Regillus. 

Fought 497, the first authen- 
tic date in the history of Rome. 
The details handed down, how- 
ever, belong to the domain of 
legend rather than to that of 
history. According to the 
chroniclers, this was the last 
attempt of the Tarquinian 
family to recover the throne of 
Rome. They were, however, 
totally routed by the Romans, 
under Aulus Postumius, and all 
the sons of Tarquinius, and his 
son-in-law, Mamilius, were slain 
in the battle. The legend avers 
that the Romans, when victory 
was trembling in the balance, 
found at their head two young 
men on white horses, whom 
they claimed to be Castor and 

Lake Vadimon (Gallic Invasion 
of Italy). 
Fought B.C. 283, between the 

Romans, under P. Cornelius 
Dolabella, and the Gauls and 
their Etruscan allies. Dolabella 
attacked the Etruscans as they 
were crossing the Tiber dose to 
the lake, and destroyed the 
flower of their army. He then 
fell upon the Gauls, whom he 
also defeated with heavy loss, 
with the result that in the 
following year they made peace 
and withdrew from Italy. 

Landau (War of the Spanish 
This fortress, held by a French 
garrison under M. de Melac, was 
besieged by the Imperialists, 
under Prince Louis of Baden, 
June 19, 1702. The garrison 
made a gallant defence, but was 
forced to surrender, September 
10. The Comte de Soissons, 
elder brother of Prince Eugene, 
fell during the siege. 

Landen. See Neerwinde. 

Landskrone (Dano - Swedish 
Fought July 14, 1676, be- 
tween the Swedes, under Charles 
XI, and the Danes, under 
Christian V, in which the Danes 
suffered a serious defeat. 

Langensalza (Seven Weeks' 
Fought June 27, 1866, be- 
tween 12,000 Prussians, under 
General Flics, and the Han- 
overians, in about equal strength, 
under George, King of Hanover. 
The Prussians attacked the 
Hanoverian position, and after 
severe fighting were repulsed 
with a loss of about i .400 killed 
and wounded, and 900 prisoners. 
The Hanoverians lost 1,392. 
The victory, however, was fruit- 
less, as the Prussians in the 



neighbourhood were in over- 
whelming numbers, and the 
King was compelled to surrender 
on the 29th. This is the last 
appearance of Hanover in his- 
tory as an independent state. 

Ungport (CivU War). 

Fought July 10, 1 645, between 
the Parhamentarians, under 
Fairfax, and the Royalists, 
under Lord Goring. The Roya- 
lists were routed, and driven 
by Cromwell's horse nearly into 
Bridgwater, with a loss of 300 
killed and i ,400 prisoners. 

Ung*8 Nek (First Boer War). 

Fought January 28, 1881, 
when a British column, 1,100 
strong, under General CoUey, 
attacked the Boers in a strong 
position at Lang's Nek. The 
British were repulsed with a loss 
of 198 killed and wounded. The 
Boers lost 14 killed and 27 


Fought May 13, 1568, when 
the ^rmy of Mary Queen of 
Scots, 6,000 strong, was de- 
feated and dispersed by the 
forces of the Regent, Murray. 
The Queen's troops were broken 
by a cavalry charge, in which 
they lost 300, while only one 
man of the victorious horse was 
killed, and fled in confusion 
from the field. Mary escaped 
to England. 

Lannoy (Netherlands War of 
Fought January, 1567, be- 
tween 3,000 Flemish Protestants, 
under Pierre Comaille, and a 
small force of the Duchess of 
Parma's troops, under Novi- 
cannes. The Flemings, mostly 
hall-armed peasants, were cut to 

pieces by the Spaniards, 2,600 
being killed in one hour's 

Lansdown (Civil War). 

Fought July 5, 1643, between 
the RoyaUsts, under Sir Ralph 
Hopton, and the Parliamen- 
tarians, under Waller, who was 
endeavouring to prevent Hop- 
ton's advance upon Bath. The 
Royalists stormed Waller's en- 
trenchments and forced him to 
retreat, though at a heavy cost 
to themselves. 

Laon (Allied Invasion of France). 
This fortress, held by the 
allies under Blucher, was at- 
tacked May 9, 1814, by the 
French under Ney and Marmont. 
Ney seized two of the suburbs, 
but Marmont, failing to support 
him as promised, he could not 
make good his footing. During 
the night the aUies attacked and 
routed Marmont, and on the 
loth Ney, after hard fighting, 
was forced to yield the ground 
he had gained. The French lost 
about 6,000 men ; the aUies 

La Paz. 

Fought January, 1865, be- 
tween the partizans of General 
Belza and those of Colonel 
Melgarejo, each of whom had 
proclaimed himself Provisional 
President of Bolivia. Belza's 
forces were totally defeated, and 
himself slain. 

La Placilla (Chilian CivU War). 
Fought August 28, 1 89 1, be- 
tween 10.000 Congressists, under 
General Del Canto, and 14,000 
Balmacedists, under General 
Barbosa. The latter were 
routed with a loss of 3,363 
killed and wounded, including 




Barbosa, while thousands laid 
down their arms on the field. 
The Congressists, who lost i ,609, 
at once occupied Valparaiso, 
and a few days late Balmaceda 
committed suicide. 

La Puebla (Franco-Mexican 
Fought May 5, 1862, between 
the French, 7,500 strong, under 
General Lorencez, and about 
12,000 Mexicans, under General 
Zarag09a. The French endea- 
voured to carry the ridge of the 
Cerro de Guadalupe, command- 
ing the town, but were repulsed 
by General Negreti, with 1,200 
men, losing 456 killed and 
wounded, and forced to retire 
from La Puebla. The Mexicans 
lost 215 only. 

La Puebla (Franco-Mexican 
On May 4, 1863, the French 
army, 25,000 strong, under 
General Forey, laid siege to 
La Puebla, which was held by 
a Mexican garrison under Gene- 
ral Ortega. Forey 's force was 
too small for a complete invest- 
ment, and he began opera- 
tions against the Fort of San 
Xavier. On the 29 th this 
post was taken by storm, the 
French losing 230, the defenders 
600 men. From this point the 
French obtained foothold in the 
town, and then proceeded to 
capture the houses block by 
block. So determined was the 
resistance, however, that their 
progress was very slow, and by 
April 7 they had made next to 
no advance, though they had 
lost a further 600 men. Later in 
the month an attack on the 
Convent of Santa Cruz was re- 

pulsed with a loss of 480. On 
May 8 a reUeving force of 
10,500 men, under General 
Comonfort, was defeated by 
a small French column under 
Bazaine, losing 8 guns and 
1. 000 prisoners, and from this 
point further resistance was 
useless. Ortega, therefore, after 
a most gallant defence, surren- 
dered with 1,455 officers and 
11,000 men, May 17, 1863. 

Larcay (Chilian Reyolution). 

Fought December, 1829, be- 
tween theFederaUsts, or Govern- 
ment Party, under General 
Zastera, and the Pelucones, or 
Unitarians, under General Pri- 
eto. The Pelucones gained a 
signal victory, following which 
they drove out the Government 
and abrogated the constitution 
of 1828. 

Largs (Norse Invasion of Scot- 
Fought October 2, 1263, be- 
tween the Norsemen, under 
Haco, and the Scots. The Norse 
fleet of 160 ships was driven 
ashore o£f Largs by a violent 
storm, and many of them 
wrecked, and Haco landed a 
force to protect the shipwrecked 
crews. This force was attacked 
by the Scots and utterly routed, 
and Haco was forced to with- 
draw, and abandon the project 
of invasion. The only name on 
the Scottish side which has come 
down to us as taking part in the 
battle is that of Sir Pierce Curry. 

Larissa (Third Macedonia War). 
Fought 171 B.C., between the 
Romans, 40,000 strong, under 
P. Licinius Crassus, and 43,000 
Macedonians, under Perseus. 
The Romans were defeated with 



a loss of 2,200 killed and 600 

Larissus, The (Wars of the 
Achaean League). 
Fought B.C. 209, between the 
Achaeans, under Philopoemen, 
and the iEtolians and Eleans. 
The allies were defeated and 
cut to pieces, the Elean general 
being among the slain. 

La Rochelle (Hundred Years' 
Fought June 22, 1372, when 
an English fleet, under the 
Earl of Pembroke, intended for 
the relief of La Rochelle, was 
intercepted by a greatly superior 
Spanish fleet, under Don Am- 
brosio Bercenegra, and after 
very hard fighting was entirely 
destroyed or captured. 

La Rochelle (Huguenot Re- 
This fortress, the principal 
Huguenot stronghold in France, 
was besieged by the Royal 
troops, under RicheUeu, in 1627. 
The garrison, under the mayor, 
Guiton, made a gallant defence, 
but the assassination of Bucking- 
ham prevented the arrival of 
the promised EngUsh succours, 
and the town surrendered, after 
holding out for fourteen months. 

La Rothi^e (Allied Campaign 
in France). 
Fought February i, 18 14, 
between 32,000 French, under 
Napoleon, and 100,000 Prussians 
sians, Russians, and Wurtem- 
bergers, under Blucher. Napo- 
leon held a strong position, 
where he was attacked by 
Blucher, whom he succeeded in 
holding at bay till late in the 
afternoon, when Bucher cap- 

tured the village of La Rothidre. 
Napoleon with the Young Guard 
retook the village, and the 
battle ended with the French in 
possession of the field. The 
French lost 5,000, the allies 
about 8,000, and Napoleon was 
enabled to continue his retire- 
ment without molestation. 

Las Navas de Tolosa (Moorish 
Empire in Spain). 
Fought July 10, 12 1 2, be- 
tween a huge army of Moors, 
said by the chroniclers to have 
amounted to 600,000, under 
Mohammed al Nasin, and the 
aUied armies of the Kings of 
Castile, Leon, Aragon, Navarre, 
and Portugal. The Moors were 
utterly routed, very few of 
their enormous host escaping 
from the field. 

Las Salinas (Conquest of Peru). 
Fought April 20, 1538, be- 
tween the forces of Francisco 
Pizarro and those of Almagro. 
The latter were totally routed, 
and Almagro captured and 

Laswari (Second Mahratta 
Fought November i, 1803, 
between the British, 10,000 
strong, under General Lake, and 
Scindhia's army, consisting of 
9,000 infantry and 5,000 ca- 
valry. Scindhia's veteran in- 
fantry made a most gallant 
defence, standing their ground 
until 7,000 had fallen, when the 
survivors laid down their arms* 
The cavalry also suffered 
heavily. The British loss 
amounted to about 800. Seventy- 
two guns and a large quantity 
of ammunition and stores were 



Laupen (Burgundian Wars). 

Fought June 21, 1339. be- 
tween 5, 000 Swiss of Berne and 
the Forest Cantons, under Ru- 
dolf von Erlach. and 15,000 
Burgundians, under the Counts 
of Kiburg and Nidau. Despite 
their superior numbers, the 
Burgundians were unable to 
withstand the charge of the 
Swiss, and were utterly routed 
and forced to raise the siege of 

Lautulae (Second Samnite War). 
Fought B.C. 316, between the 
Samnites, under Pontius, and 
the Romans, under Q. Fabius 
Maximus. The Romans were 
defeated with great slaughter. 

Lawfeldt (War of the Austrian 
Succession ). 
Fought July 2, 1747. between 
the alUed Austrians and British, 
under the Duke of Cumberland, 
and the French, under Marshal 
Saxe. The village of Lawfeldt 
was thrice carried by the French 
and thrice recaptured, but about 
noon the British centre was 
driven in, and defeat was immi- 
nent, when a cavalry charge, 
headed by Sir John Ligonier, 
saved the day, and enabled the 
Duke to retire in good order. 
The allies lost 5,620 killed and 
wounded, the French about 

Le Bourget (Franco-German 
A determined sortie by the 
French from Paris, October 27, 
1870, in which they carried the 
village of Le Bourget. They held 
their ground there until October 
30, when they were driven out 
by the Prussian Guard Corps, 
leaving 1,200 prisoners in the 

hands of the Germans, who lost 
34 officers and 344 men. 

Leek, The (Thirty Years' War). 
Fought April 5, 1632, between 
26,000 Swedes and German 
Protestants, under Gustavus 
Adolphus, and 20,000 Im- 
periaUsts, under Count Tilly. 
Gustavus had prepared a bridge 
to cross the river, and immedi- 
ately after daybreak his engi- 
neers commenced to fix it, the 
Swedish artillery meanwhile 
keeping the Imperialists in 
check. In the artillery duel 
Tilly was mortally wounded, 
and his troops retired, leaving 
the Swedes to efiect the passage 

L'Ecluse (Hundred Years' War). 
Fought 1340, when the Eng- 
lish fleet surprised the French 
in a narrow channel, and totally 
routed them, with a loss of 90 
ships and 30,000 men. 


Fought off Leghorn March 3 1 , 
1653, when six English ships, 
under Commodore Appleton. 
were destroyed by a Dutch fleet 
of 16 sail, under Admiral Van 
Gelen. Only a sloop escaped the 
destruction. Van Gelen was 
mortally wounded during the 

Legnano (Wars of the Lombard 
Fought May 29, 1 176, between 
the Lombard League, aided by 
Venice and the Pope, and the 
Imperialists, under Frederick 
Barbarossa. Frederick was 
utterly routed, and fled from 
Italy in disguise. 

Leipsic (Thirty Years' War). 

Fought September 7, 1631, 
between 20.000 Swedes and an 



equal force of Saxons, under 
Gustavus Adolphus and John 
George, Elector of Saxony, and 
44,000 Imperialists, under Tilly. 
The Imperialist right totally 
routed the Saxons, who fled 
from the field, headed by the 
Elector. Meanwhile, the Swedes 
had completely defeated the 
left of the Imperialists, under 
Pappenheim, and repulsed the 
centre under Tilly, and on the 
return of the right from pursuing 
the Saxons, they were attacked 
by the Swedish left, and driven 
from the field, only four regi- 
ments holding their ground in a 
wood until mghtfall. The Im- 
perialists lost 8,000 killed and 
wounded and 5,000 prisoners ; 
the alUes 2,700, of whom only 
700 were Swedes. Gustavus cap- 
tured the whole of Tilly's 
artillery, and his victory was the 
salvation of the Ftotestant 
cause, which was trembUng in 
the balance. 

Leipsic (Campaign of Leipsic). 

Fought October 16, 17, and 
18, 1813, between the French, 
under Napoleon, and the forces 
of the Great CoaUtion. Napo- 
leon, who held Leipsic with 
155,000 men, was faced by 
160,000 Austrians and Russians, 
under the Prince of Schwartzem- 
berg, and 60,000 Prussians, 
under Blucher. On the i6th 
Schwartzemberg attacked, being 
faced by Napoleon with 1 15,000 
men, and, after an obstinate 
engagement, which lasted till 
nightfall, the French had gained 
a Uttle ground. At the same 
time Blucher attacked Marmont, 
who, with 24,000 men, held his 
own throughout the day. The 
French lost 27,000 ; the allies 

about 35,000. Both sides re- 
ceiving reinforcements during 
the night. Napoleon on the 
morning of the 17 th was at the 
head of 150,000 troops, while 
the allies numbered nearly 
300,000, including the Swedes 
under Bemadotte. Little was 
done on the 17 th, but on the 
1 8th Napoleon moved out to 
drive back the alUes, and leave 
a road of retreat open. He was 
repulsed at all points, and driven 
back into Leipsic, whence dur- 
ing the night of the 1 8th to 19th, 
the French retired by the only 
serviceable bridge. The corps* 
under Poniatowski left to cover 
the retreat was almost annihi- 
lated, and Poniatowski killed. 
The French lost in the three 
days over 60,000 men, while 
the losses of the aUies were also 

Leitskau (Campaign of Leipsic). 
Fought August 27, 1813, be- 
tween 5,000 French, under 
General Girard, and a Prussian* 
division, under General Hirsch- 
berg, aided by some Cossacks, 
under Czemitcheff. Girard was 
defeated, losing heavily in killed 
and wounded, besides 1,500 
prisoners and 6 guns. 

Le Mans (Franco-German 
Fought January 10, 11, and 
12, between the Germans, 
50,000 strong, under Prince 
Frederick Charles, and the 
French, numbering about 
150,000, under General Chanzy. 
The French army was com- 
pletely routed, and the whole 
force so completely demoraUsed 
as to be no longer an effective 
fighting unit. The Germans 
took 20,000 prisoners, 17 guns. 





and great quantities of war 
material, at a cost to themselves 
of 200 officers and 3,200 men. 

Lens (Thirty Years* War). 

Fought August 20, 1648, be- 
tween the French, 14,000 strong, 
under Cond6, and the Austrians, 
in somewhat superior force, 
under the Archduke Leopold. 
Conde feigned a retreat, to draw 
the enemy from their lines, and 
then turning upon them, de- 
cisively defeated them, with 
a loss of 4.000 killed, 6,000 
prisoners, and all their baggage 
and artillery. 


This city, the stronghold of 
the National party in Sicily, 
held by a garrison of Syracusans 
and Roman deserters, was 
stormed and sacked, b.c. 21 i, by 
three Roman legions under M. 
Marcellus. Two thousand Roman 
deserters captured in the place 
were put to the sword. Hippo- 
crates succeeded in escaping. 

Lepanto (Cyprus War). 

Fought October 17, 1571, be- 
twen a fleet of 250 Spanish and 
Venetian ships, under Don John 
of Austria, and a Turkish fleet 
of 270 sail, under Piale, the 
Capitan Pasha. The Turkish 
left wing, under the Dey of 
Algiers, met with some success, 
but the centre and right were 
almost destroyed, the Turks 
1 osing 200 vessels, and, it is said, 
30,000 men. Piale was killed. 
The Dey of Algiers succeeded 
n extricating the majority of 
his ships. The allies lost between 
4,000 and 5,000 men, including 
1 5 Venetian captains. 

Lerida (Thirty Years* War). 
Fought September, 1642, be- 

tween the Spaniards, under 
Leganez, and the French, under 
Lamothe-Houdancourt. The 
Spanish army was defeated, and 
this victory, in conjunction with 
the fall of Perpignan, gave the 
French possession of Roussillon. 

Lerida (Thirty Years' War). 

This city, held by a garrison 
of 4,000 Spaniards, under Don 
Jorge Britt, was besieged by 
the French, under the Great 
Cond6, May 12,51647. The de- 
fence was vigorous, the garrison 
making constant sorties, and 
about the middle of June the 
appearance of a large Spanish 
army at Fraga forced Cond6 
either to deUver an assault or 
to raise the siege. He chose the 
second alternative and with- 
drew his troops June 17. 

Lesno (Russo-Swedish War). 

A series of actions, fought 
1709 between 40,000 Russians, 
under Peter the Great, and 
15,000 Swedes, under General 
Levenhaupt, who was escorting 
a convoy of 8,000 waggons to 
the army of Charles XII. The 
battle lasted over five days, at 
the end of which time the rem- 
nant of the Swedes, though de- 
feated, were permitted to retire 
in good order, but without their 
convoy. The Swedes lost in 
this series of actions two- thirds 
of their numbers. The Rus- 
sians lost 10,000 men. 

Leucopetra (Wars of the Achaean 
Fought 146 B.C., between a 
Roman Consular Axmy, under 
Lucius Mummius, and the forces 
of the Achaean League, under 
Diacus. The Greeks, who were 
only half as strong as their oppo- 



nents, were routed, and all re- 
sistance came to an end, the 
Greek cities, one after another, 
opening their gates to the Ro- 

Leuctra (Bceotian War). 

Fought July, 371 B.C., between 
11.000 Spartans, under Cleom- 
brotus,and 6,000 Thebans, under 
Epaminondas. The principal 
fighting took place on the Theban 
left, where Epaminondas had 
massed his best troops, and after 
a fierce encounter the Spartans 
were driven back, leaving 1,000 
dead, including Cleombrotus, on 
the field. As a result of this de- 
feat, the Spartans evacuated 

Leuthen (Seven Years* War). 

Fought December 5, 1757, 
between 33,000 Prussians, under 
Frederick the Great, and 90,000 
Austrians, under Prince Charles 
of Lorraine and Count Daun. 
Frederick made a feigned attack 
on the Austrian right wing, and 
then under cover of the ground 
withdrew the major part of his 
force, and strongly attacked the 
Austrian left, which was driven 
back and finally overthrown by 
a charge of cavalry. The Aus- 
trians lost 7.000 killed and 
wounded, 20,000 prisoners, in- 
cluding three generals, and 134 
guns. The Prussians lost 5,000 
killed and wounded. In conse- 
quence of this victory, Breslau 
surrendered to Frederick, with 
over 18,000 troops, on Decem- 
ber 10. 

Lewes (Barons' War). 

Fought May 14, 1264, be- 
tween the Barons, under Simon 
de Mont fort, and the Royalists, 
under Henry III and Prince 

Edward. The king was com- 
pletely defeated, and the two 
parties signed an agreement, 
known as the Mise of Lewes, 
to submit the points in dispute 
to arbitration. 

Lexington (American War of 
Fought April 19, 1775, be- 
tween the Royal troops, under 
General Gage, and the Ameri- 
cans. After a brief engage- 
ment the Americans were de- 
feated, and retired. The losses 
on both sides were very small. 

Lexington (American Civil War). 
This place was invested Sep- 
tember 18, 1 86 1, by the Con- 
federates, 8,000 strong, under 
General Price, who having cut 
ofi their supplies, forced the 
garrison of 3,500, under Colonel 
MuUigan, to surrender, Septem- 
ber 20. The Confederates lost 
100 men only. 

Leyden (Netherlands War of 
This city was invested May 
26, 1 574, by 8,000 Walloons and 
Germans under Valdez, who in 
the course of a few days had 
erected 62 batteries round the 
place. There was no garrison, 
with the exception of a few 
" freebooters " and a burgher 
guard, under Jan van der Does. 
The Prince of Orange, in order 
to save the city, determined to 
open the dykes, and on August 
3 the gates at Schiedam and 
Rotterdam were opened, and 
the dykes broken along the 
course of the Yssel. Mean- 
while the citizens had come to 
an end of their bread, but by 
strenuous efforts the fleet under 
Admiral Boisot succeeded in 




throwing relief into the city at 
the beginning of October. By 
this time the city was on the 
verge of starvation, and 8,000 
of the inhabitants had perished 
of pestilence. The Spaniards, 
however, had been driven from 
work after work, and on October 
3 the last of their redoubts was 
mastered, and Valdez was forced 
to raise the siege. 

Lignitz (Seven Years* War). 

Fought August 15, 1760. 
Frederick the Great with 30,000 
Prussians was posted near Lig- 
nitz, and expecting to be 
attacked by the Austrians, 
90,000 strong, under Count 
Daim, commenced a retreat 
towards Parchwitz, and took 
up a position which, according 
to Daun's plan was to have 
been occupied by Landon's 
corps. Landon, quite uncon- 
scious of the presence of the 
Prussians, marched into the 
middle of Frederick's lines, and 
was utterly routed, with a loss 
of 4,000 killed and wounded, 
6.000 prisoners and 82 guns. 

Ligny (Hundred Days). 

Fought June 16, 181 5, be- 
tween 84,000 Prussians under 
Blucher and 60,000 French 
under Napoleon. The French 
attacked Blucher's position, and 
met with a stout resistance, 
especially at the village of 
Ligny, but by sundown the 
Prussians had exhausted their 
last resources, and Napoleon, 
bringing up the Guard, and a 
division of heavy cavalry, drove 
them from their positions, with 
a loss of about 12,000. The 
French lost 8,000 killed and 

Lille (War of the Spanish Suc- 
This city was besieged August 
12. 1708, by the Imperialists, 
under Prince Eugene, and was 
defended by a French garrison, 
under M. de Bouflers. which 
after repulsing several deter- 
mined assaults, surrendered 
October 25. The besiegers lost 
in the course of the siege 3,632. 
The French lost about 7,000. 

LilybsBum (First Punic War). 

This fortress was besieged B.C. 
250, by the Romans, under C. 
Attilius and L. Manlius, and was 
defended by a Carthaginian 
garrison, 10,000 strong, under 
Himilcon. The Romans in- 
vested the place both by sea 
and land, but the superior sea- 
manship of the Carthaginians 
enabled them from time to time 
to throw succour into the place. 
The first line of the defences 
was soon carried but the Ro- 
mans were then confronted 
with a second rampart, equally 
strong, and the siege was begun 
anew. In 249 P. Qaudiiis took 
over the command, but a defeat 
of the Roman fleet at Drepanum 
gave the Carthaginians com- 
plete command of the sea, and 
though the Romans continued 
to blockade the fortress on the 
land side, it held out till 241. 
After the naval battle of iEgusae 
Carthage sued for peace. 

Lincoln, Fair of. 

Fought in the streets of Lin- 
coln, 1 2 17, between the Royal 
troops, under the Earl of Pem- 
broke, and the adherents of the 
Dauphin Louis, under the Comte 
de la Perche. The RoyaUsts 
were victorious, and the French 
leader was killed. 



Lindlej (Second Boer War). 

At this place a force of 500 
yeomanry, under Colonel 
Spragge, after holding out for 
four days against a largely 
superior Boer force, surrendered 
May 27/ 1900. 


Fought 1598, between the 
Poles, under Sigismund III, 
King of Poland and Sweden, 
and the Swedes, under Charles 
the Regent. The Poles were 
surprised and totally defeated, 
with a loss of 20,000 men, the 
Swedes losing, it is said, only 
240. This victory was shortly 
followed by the dethronement 
of Sigismund and the accession 
of Charles as King of Sweden. 

Liparsan Islands (First Punic 
The scene of a naval battle, 
B.C. 257, in which the Roman 
fleet, under the Consul, C.Atti- 
lius, completely defeated the 

Lippe (Germanic Wars). 

Fought B.C. II between the 
Romans, under Drusus, and the 
Sicambri, Suevi and Cherusii. 
The Romans were largely out- 
numbered and surrounded, and 
so certain were the Germans of 
victory, that they had already 
apportioned the spoil among 
the various tribes. Drusus, how- 
ever, attacked the barbarians 
vigorously, and totally routed 
them with very heavy loss. 

Lissa (Seven Weeks' War). 

The only naval action be- 
tween ironclads in European 
waters, fought July 20, 1866, 
between the Austrian fleet of 
7 armoured ships and some 
obsolete wooden vessels, under 

Admiral Tegethofl, and the 
Italian fleet of 10 armour-clads, 
under Admiral Persano. Teget- 
hofi attacked in wedge forma- 
tion, with his flagship as the 
apex, and broke the line of the 
Italian fleet, which was steam- 
ing, Une ahead, across his bows. 
He rammed and sank the Italian 
flagship, and the rest of the 
action was a mel6e in which the 
Italians were defeated and 
driven off, with a loss of 3 ships 
and over 1,000 men. This de- 
feat forced the Italians to raise 
the siege of Lissa. 

Little Big Horn (Sioux Rising). 
On June 25, 1876, General 
Custer, with the 7th United 
States Cavalry, 700 strong, at- 
tacked the village of the Sioux 
chief. Sitting Bull. He divided 
his force into three columns, 
one of which, led by himself, 
marched into an ambush, and 
was massacred to a man. The 
other two columns were vigour- 
ously attacked by the Sioux, 
and forced to retire. The 
cavalry lost on this occasion 
265 killed. 

Lodi, Bridge of (Napoleon's 
Italian Campaigns). 
Fought May 10, 1796, during 
Napoleon's pursuit of the re- 
tiring Austro- Sardinian army, 
under BeauUeu. The bridge 
over the Adda was defended by 
the Austrian rear-guard, with 
some 20 guns, commanding 
passage. Napoleon sent a force 
of cavalry round by a ford to 
take the defenders in rear, and 
then rushed the bridge, the 
storm ers being led by Berthier 
and Mass6na, while Napoleon 
himself was in the thick of the 
fighting. The French loss is 

.■ e. :;; ■ 



said not to have exceeded 400, 
while the Austrians lost in the 
action and subsequent pursuit, 
2,000 killed and wounded, 1,000 
prisoners, and 20 guns. 

Loftcha (Russo-Turkish War). 

Fought September 3, 1877, 
between 20,000 Russians, under 
Prince Imeretinsky, and 15.000 
Turks, under Adil Pasha. The 
actual attack on the Turkish 
positions was made by Skobe- 
lefi, at first with 5,000, and 
afterwards with 9,000 men, and 
the Turks were driven out of 
Loftcha with a loss of 5,200 
killed. The Russians lost 1,500 
killed and wounded. 

Loigny - Pouprey (Franco - Ger- 
man War). 
Fought December i, 1870, 
between the Germans, 34.000 
strong, under the Grand Duke 
of Mecklenburg, and about 
90,000 French, forming the 
army of the Loire, under General 
d'Aurelle de Paladines. The 
Germans gained a signal victory, 
completely breaking the aggres- 
sive power of the Army of the 
Loire. The French lost 18,000 
killed and wounded and 9 guns, 
the Germans 4,200. 

Loja (War of Granada}. 

Fought July 4, 1482, between 
the Spaniards, under Ferdinand 
the Catholic, and the Moors, 
under Ali A tar. The King, who 
was besieging Loja, was en- 
camped on the heights of Almo- 
hacen, but finding the position 
insecure, decided upon a retreat. 
As he was retiring he was vigor- 
ously attacked by the garrison, 
and though, after very heavy 
fighting, he succeeded m with- 

drawing in good order, he 
lost most of his baggage and 

Lonato. See Castiglione. 

Londonderry (War of the Re- 
This town in which the Ulster 
Protestants, to the number of 
about 30,000. had taken refuge, 
was b^eged by James II, April 
19, 1689. It was defended by 
about 7,000 armed citizens, 
under Major Henry Baker, and 
held out until July 30, when 
Colonel Kirke succeeded in forc- 
ing the boom at the head of 
Lough Foyle and reprovisioning 
the town. The besiegers then 
withdrew, having lost 5.000 
men during the siege. The 
garrison was reduced to 4,000. 
Among those who died during 
the siege was Major Baker. 

Loose Coat Field. See Emping- 

Loudon Hill (Scottish Wars). 

Fought 1306, between the 
Scots, under Robert Bruce, and 
the English, under the Regent 
Pembroke. Bruce met the at- 
tack of the English cavalry 
with a line of spearmen, which 
they were unable to break, and 
they were driven off with heavy 
loss. Pembroke thereupon with- 
drew his army and returned to 

Louisburg (War of the Austrian 
This place, the strongest for- 
tress in America, was captured 
June 16, 1745, by a force of New 
Englanders, under Pepperel, 
aided by a naval force under 
Commodore Warren. 



Louisburg (Seven Years' War). 
Louisburg, baving been re 
stored to the French, was in- 
vested June 3, 1758. by a force 
of 11,600 British troops, under 
General Amherst, and a fleet of 
of 41 ships of war, under Admiral 
Boscawen. It was defended by 
3,800 French regulars, besides 
Indians and armed citizens, 
under the Chevalier de Drucour, 
while in the harbour were 12 
ships of war, with crews number- 
ing 3,000 men. Owing to heavy 
weather no siege guns were 
landed till the i8th, but by July 
20 a practicable breach had 
been effected, whereupon the 
garrison surrendered. During 
the siege the defenders lost 
x,200 men killed or died of 
disease, while the prisoners 
numbered 5,637, and 239 guns 
and mortars were taken. Wolfe, 
who commanded a brigade, 
specially distinguished himself. 

Ldwenberg (Campaign of Leip- 
Fought August 21, 181 3, be- 
tween 130,000 French, under 
Napoleon, and 80.000 Prussians, 
under Blucher. Blucher being 
vigorously attacked, retired be- 
hind the Haynau without offer- 
ing any serious resistance to the 
French advance. The Prussians 
lost 2,000 killed and wounded. 

Lowositz (Seven Years' War). 

Fought October i, 1756, be- 
tween 24,000 Prussians, under 
Frederick the Great, and a some- 
what superior force of Austrians, 
under Marshal Brown. Brown 
was marching to relieve the 
Saxons penn^ up in Pima, 
when he was attacked by the 
Prussians, who, after hard fight- 

ing, forced him to retire. Each 
side lost about 3,000, but the 
victory was of great importance 
to Frederick, as it led to the 
surrender at Pirna of 17,000 
Saxons and 80 guns. 

Luncefia (War of Granada). 

Fought April, 1483, when the 
Moors, under Abdullah and AU 
Atar, who were besieging Lucena, 
were attacked by a Spanish re- 
lieving force under the Comte 
de Cabra. The Moorish infan- 
try fled, and Ali Atar, heading 
a charge of cavalry in a gallant 
attempt to retrieve the day, 
was slain, whereupon his follow- 
ing broke and fled, pursued by 
the Christians to the banks of 
the Xenil, where the majority 
were cut to pieces. 

Lucknow (Indian Mutiny). 

On the approach of the rebel 
Sepoy army, July i, 1857, the 
garrison and residents took re- 
fuge in the Residency, which 
had been prepared to stand a 
siege. On September 19, 1857, 
a force of 3,179 British troops, 
under Havelock and Outram, 
left Cawnpore to relieve the 
garrison. On the 23rd they en- 
countered and defeated a force 
of 12,000 rebels at the Alum- 
bagh, capturing 5 guns. C^ 
the 25 th they forced the Char- 
bagh bridge, and captured the 
Secunderbagh, and the main 
body, after prolonged street 
fighting, reached the Residency, 
the rearguard with the wounded 
getting in on the 26th. The 
loss during the operations 
amounted to 535, while the 
garrison up to this time had 
lost 483 killed and wounded. 
Outram now took command 


ij mry -."T I Tunc. 1""'" "*' '" " 



and the garrison held out until 
November 19, when it was re- 
lieved, after very heavy fight- 
ing, by a column under Sir Colin- 
Campbell, and the whole force 
withdrawn. On March i, 1858, 
the recovery of the city from 
the rebels commenced by the 
capture of the Alumbagh, and 
was completed on the 21st, 
when the mutineers were finally 
driven from the place. During 
the interval the various fort- 
resses and palaces held by the 
rebels were successively carried 
by assault, the fighting in many 
cases being exceedingly severe. 

Lugdunum. See Lyons. 

Luncarty (Danish Invasions of 
Fought 980, between the Scots, 
under Kenneth III, and the 
Danish corsairs, who had landed 
on the Tay to attack Dunkeld. 
After a furious hand-to-hand 
fight the Danes were defeated 
and driven to their ships. 

Lunden (Dano-Swedish Wars). 

Fought 1676, between the 
Swedes, under Charles XI, and 
the Danes, under Christian V. 
Both sides claimed the victory, 
but the advantage rested with 
the Swedes, for Christian had 
to fall back upon Copenhagen, 
while Charles forced the Danes 
to raise the siege of Malmoe. 

Lundy's Lane (Second American 
Fought July 25, 1 8 14, be- 
tween 5,000 Americans, under 
General Jacob Brown, and 3,000 
British, under Sir George Drum- 
mond. Drummound occupied 
high ground on each side of 
Lundy's Lane, where he was 

attacked by the Americans. 
The fighting lasted till far into 
the night, when a final assault 
was repulsed, and the Americans 
retired to Chippewa with a loss 
of 858. The British lost 878. 

Lutter (Thirty Years' War). 

Fought August 27, 1626, be- 
tween the Imperialists, under 
Tilly, and the Danes and Ger- 
mans, under Christian IV of 
Denmark. The allies were re- 
treating before Tilly, who came 
up with them in an open plain 
near the Castle of Lutter, where 
the King had taken up a strong 
position. Tilly attacked, and 
notwithstanding Christian's per- 
sonal gallantry, his infantry was 
overwhelmed, while the German 
cavalry refused to take any part 
in the fight. The Danes left 
4,000 dead on the field, and Tilly 
captured 2,000 prisoners, 22 
guns and 60 standards. The 
King with difficulty cut his way 
through the enemy's horse, and 

Ltitzen (Thirty Years' War). 

Fought November 16, 1632, 
between 20,000 Swedes, under 
Gustavus Adolphus, and 30,000 
Imperialists, under Wsdlenstein. 
The Swedes attacked with suc- 
cess on their right, but their left 
was driven back by Pappenheim, 
and Gustavus, hurrymg off to 
rally them fell mortally wounded. 
The fall of their king, however, 
did not dishearten the Swedes, 
and a fresh charge, in which 
Pappenheim was killed, gave 
them a complete victory. A 
dense fog, however, came on, 
which enabled Wallenstein to 
effect an orderly retreat, though 
he left all his guns on the field. 



Ltitzen (Campaign of Leipsic). 

Fought May 2, 18 13, between 
the French, 70,000 strong, under 
Napoleon, and the Russians and 
Prussians, 65,000 strong, under 
Wittgenstein and Blucher. The 
King of Prussia and the Russian 
Emperor were present on the 
field. Napoleon held five vil- 
lages in front of Lutzen, round 
which the battle centred. They 
were taken and re-taken several 
times during the day, but at 8 
p.m., in spite of the remon- 
strances of Blucher, the two 
sovereigns ordered a retreat, 
and the honours of the day 
rested with the French. The 
allies lost about 20,000 ; the 
French about 18,000. 

Luzzara (War of the Spanish 
Fought August 15, 1702, be- 
tween the French, 35,000 strong, 
under the Due d'Anjou, and 
25,000 Imperialists, under Prince 
Eugene. The Prince attacked 
the French in their entrench- 
ments in front of Luzzara, and 
after a stubborn resistance, 
drove them out with a loss of 
about 4,000 men. The Imperi- 
aUsts lost 27,000 killed and 

Lynn Haven Bay. 

Fought September 5, 1781, 
between a British fleet of 19 
ships of the line and 7 frigates, 
under Admiral Thomas Graves, 
and a French fleet of 25 line of 
battle ships. Admiral Graves 
attacked the French as they 
were lying in Lynn Haven Bay, 
but was unsuccessful, and drew 
off after two hours' hard fight- 
ing, with a loss of 79 killed and 
230 wounded. The French lost 

22 officers and 200 men killed 
and wounded. 


Fought 197 between the le- 
gions of Britain, under Clodius 
Albinus, and the legions of Pan- 
nonia, under Severus, both 
generals having been proclaimed 
Emperor by their respective 
troops on the death of Pertinax. 
Albinus was defeated and slain. 


Macalo (Italian Wars). 

Fought October 11, 1427, 
when the Venetians, under Car- 
magnola, in a strong position 
near Macalo, were attacked by 
the Milanese, under Malatesta. 
The Venetians repulsed the 
attack, and assuming the offen- 
sive, surrounded Malatesta. and 
compelled him to surrender 
with his whole force, numbering 
about 10,000 men. 

Madonna dell* Oleno (War of the 
Austrian Succession). 
Fought September 30, 1744, 
between the French and Spani- 
ards, under Prince Louis de 
Conti and Don Philip of Spain, 
and the Imperialists, under the 
King of Sardinia. With a view 
of relieving Cuneo, which the 
allies were besieging, the King 
attacked their lines, and though 
he was defeated in the battle, 
he gained his object, for Conti 
was compelled by lack of sup- 
plies to raise the siege, October 
22, having suffered heavy losses 
from famine, flood and battle. 


This city was invested by the 
French under Labourdonnais, 


■-— — ~" 

j J F . O 



with 9 ships and about $,700 
troops, mostly Europeans, Sep- 
tember 14, 1746. It was de- 
fended by a garrison of 200, 
and after a week's bombard- 
ment, surrendered September 
25. The garrison lost 5 men 
only ; the French not a single 

Madras (Seven Years' War). 

On December 16, 1758, Ma- 
dras was invested by Lally- 
Tollendal with 2,000 European 
and 4,000 native troops. The 
garrison consisted of 4,000 men, 
more than half of whom were 
Sepoys, under Colonel Laurence, 
After a bombardment lasting 
from January 2, 1759, to Feb- 
ruary 16, Lally-ToUendal was 
on the point of ordering an as- 
sault, when the arrival of the 
British fleet caused him to raise 
the siege and retire. The garri- 
son lost during the siege 1,341 
killed and wounded. The 
French losses amounted to 700 
Europeans, besides Sepoys. 

Madeira (Napoleonic Wars). 

This island was occupied with- 
out bloodshed by a combined 
naval and military force, under 
Admiral Sir A. J. Cochrane and 
General Bowyer, December 26, 

Maestricht (Netherlands War of 
This city, the German Gate of 
the Netherlands, was besieged 
by the Spaniards, under Prince 
Alexander of Parma, March 12, 
1 579. It was held by a garrison 
of 1,000 troops and 1.200 armed 
burghers, under Melchior, while 
the besiegers numbered 20,000. 
Two unsuccessful assaults were 
made April 8, which cost the 
Spaniards 670 ofi^ers and 4,000 

men, but finally the place was 
taken by surprise, and a mas- 
sacre followed, in which 6,000 
of the inhabitants perished. 

Mafeking (Second Boer War). 

This small township, entirely 
destitute of regular defences, 
was invested October, 1899, by 
a force of 5,000 Boers, under 
General Cronje, and defended by 
a garrison of about 700 irregulars 
and armed townsmen, under 
Colonel Baden-Powell. Later 
in the siege Cronje withdrew a 
large part of his force, leaving 
about 2,000 under Sn3rman to 
prosecute the siege. Though 
the bombardment was continu- 
ous, only one resolute attempt 
was made to penetrate the de- 
fences ; when on May 12, 1900, 
300 Boers, under Sarel Elofif, 
succeeded in getting within the 
lines, but were surrounded and 
forced to surrender. On May 
17. the place was relieved by a 
cavalry column under Colonel 
Mahon. The garrison lost 273, 
the Boers about 1,000, in the 
course of the siege. 

Magdeburg (Thirty Years' War), 
This city, held by a small 
Swedish garrison, under Falken- 
berg, was besieged by the Im- 
perialists, under Tilly, March, 
1 63 1. After a desultory bom- 
bardment, Tilly was forced by 
the approach of Gustavus Adol- 
phus either to raise the siege or 
to attempt a storm. Choosing 
the latter course, an assault was 
delivered, under Pappenberg, 
and after two hours' severe 
fighting, in the course of which 
Falkenberg fell, the garrison 
was overpowered. The victory 
was suUied by an infamous mas- 



sacre of the unarmed inhabi- 
tants, thousands of whom perish- 
ed at the hands of the Croats 
and Walloons. 

Maj^enta (Franco-Austrian War). 
Fought June 4, 1859. be- 
tween the 2nd French Corps 
d'Arm6e, under Macmahon, and 
the main Austrian army, under 
Marshal Giulay. about 100,000 
strong. Macmahon attacked 
the Austrian position, and, after 
hard fighting, drove them out of 
Magenta, and totally defeated 
them with a loss of about 6.000 
killed and wounded. The French 
lost 4,400. 

Magersfontein (Second Boer 
Fought December 11, 1899, 
between 9,000 Boers, under 
General Cronje, and Lord Me- 
thuen's division, with the addi- 
tion of the Highland Brigade. 
Cronje's position was exceed- 
ingly strong, and an attempt 
to turn it by a flank march 
undertaken at night led to a 
disaster to the Highland brigade, 
who came under a heavy fire 
before they were extended, and 
lost 57 officers and over 700 
men, including their brigadier, 
General Wauchope. Eventu- 
ally the attacking force was 
withdrawn, without having 
made any impression on the 
Boer position. The total British 
losses were 68 officers and 1,01 1 
men. The Boers admitted a 
loss of 320, but it was probably 
considerably heavier. 

Magnesia (War with Antiochus 
the Great). 
Fought B.C. 190, between 
Antiochus the Great « with 80,000 

troops, and the Romans, 40,000 
strong, under Cnaeus Domitius. 
Antiochus, leading the right 
wing, drove back the Roman 
left and penetrated to their 
camp, which he nearly suc- 
ceeded in capturing. His left 
wing, however, was routed, and 
his elephants becoming unman- 
ageable, broke the ranks of the 
phalanx, whereupon his whole 
army fled in confusion, with a 
loss, it is said, of 50.000 killed. 
The Romans lost 300 only. 

Maharajpur (Gwalior War). 

Fought December 29, 1843, 
between the British, 14,000 
strong, with 40 guns, under Sir 
Hugh Gough, and the troops of 
Bhagerat Rao Scindhia, 18.000 
strong, with 100 guns. The 
Mahrattas occupied a strong 
position at Maharajpur. the 
exact locality of their lines being 
unknown to Sir Hugh, until his 
troops came under fire. The 
British at once charged and car- 
ried the batteries, and finally 
routed the Gwalior infantry at 
a cost of 787 killed and wounded. 
The Mahrattas lost 3.000 killed 
and wounded, and 56 guns. 

Maharajpur (Indian Mutiny). 

Fought July 16, 1857, be- 
tween 5,000 rebels, under the 
Nana Sahib, and the British re- 
lieving force, under Havelock. 
The Nana was entrenched across 
the Grand Trunk Road, and his 
position being too strong for a 
frontal attack, Havelock turned 
his left flank. After severe 
fighting the rebels were de- 
feated, though Havelock was 
left with only 800 Europeans 
available for further service. On 
the following day Cawnpore was 

fc . l ifjg 

I LJ- * . ' 



Mahidpiir (Third Mahratta War). 
Fought December 21, 18 17, 
between the British, under Sir 
Thomas Hislop. and the army 
of Holkarof Indore. TheMah- 
rattas, with 70 guns, were 
strongly posted behind the 
Sipra, which Sir Thomas crossed 
in the face of a heavy fire, and 
completely defeated them. The 
British lost 778 killed and 
wounded, the Mahrattas about 

Maida (Napoleonic Wars). 

Fought July 4, 1806, between 
the British expeditionary force 
In Calabria. 5,000 strong, under 
Sir John Stuart, and the French, 
in equal strength, under General 
Reynier. The British charged 
with the bayonet, and the 
French, though veterans, failing 
to withstand the onslaught, 
broke and fled, losing very 
heavily in the pursuit. 

Maidan (First Afghan War). 

Fought September 14, 1842, 
between the British, under 
General Nott, and 12,000 Af- 
ghans, under Shems-ud-din, who 
occupied the heights command- 
ing the road to Kabul. Nott 
attacked and carried the Afghan 
position, the Afghans being 
driven off with heavy loss. 

Maiwand (Second Afghan War). 
Fought July 27, 1880, be- 
tween a small British force, with 
6 guns, under General Burrows, 
and the Afghan army, under 
Ayub Khan. A Bombay native 
regiment was broken by a Ghazi 
rush, and although the 66th 
Regiment fought magnificently, 
the British were routed, with a 
loss of 32 officers and 939 men 
killed, and 17 officers and 151 

men wounded. The survivors 
escaped with difficulty to Kan- 

Main, The (Germanic War). 

Fought B.C. 9, when the Ro- 
mans, under Dnisus, attacked 
and totally routed the Marco- 
manni, driving them to the east- 
ward and occup)dng their terri- 

Majorca (Napoleonic Wars). 

This island was captured from 
the Spaniards in 1706, by a small 
British force under Sir John 

Majuba (First Boer War). 

Fought February 27, 1881, 
when a British column, 647 
strong, under Sir George CoUey, 
posted on the summit of Majuba 
Hill, was attacked and driven 
off by the Boers under General 
Joubert. A strong party of 
young Boers stormed the hill 
while the fire of the defenders 
was kept down by a picked body 
of marksmen, and the British 
were driven from their position 
with heavy loss, especially 
during the retirement down the 
hillside. The casualties amount- 
ed to 223 killed and wounded. 
Sir George CoUey being killed, 
and 50 prisoners. The Boer 
losses were very small. After 
this disaster an armistice was 
agreed to, and peace soon after- 
wards concluded. 


This city, which was defended 
by 30,000 Malays, under the 
Sultan Mohammed, was cap- 
tured by Albuquerque, with 19 
ships and 1,400 Portuguese re- 
gulars, after a very feeble de- 
fence, in 151 3. 



Malaga (War of Granada). 

This city, defended by a 
Moorish garrison, under Hamet 
Zeh, was besieged by the Span- 
iards, 60,000 strong, under Fer- 
dinand the Catholic, April 17, 
1487. After an obstinate re- 
sistance, lasting for four months, 
the garrison was forced to sur- 
render, and Ferdinand and Isa- 
bella entered the city August 
i8th. The inhabitants were sold 
into slavery. 

Malaga (War of the Spanish Suc- 
Fought August 13. 1704. be- 
tween the combined British and 
Dutch fleets, consisting of 45 
sail of the line, under Sir George 
Rooke, and the French fleet of 
53 line-of-battle-ships, under the 
Comte de Thoulouse. The 
French admiral was endeavour- 
ing to effect a junction with the 
Spanish fleet, which was en- 
gaged in the siege of Gibraltar, 
and was brought to action by 
Sir George Rooke off Malaga. 
The fighting was severe, and 
though no ships were lost on 
cither side, the British gained 
an important strategic victwy 
as the junction of the two hostile 
fleets was prevented. The 
British lost 6 ofl&cers and 687 
men killed, and 18 officers and 
1,645 men wounded. The 
French lost 191 officers and 
3,048 men Idlled and wounded. 

Malakand Pass (Chitral Cam- 
Fought April 3, 1895, when 
the British expedition, under 
General Low, 15.000 strong, 
forced the pass, which was held 
by about 12.000 tribesmen, 
with a loss of 8 officers and 61 

men killed and wounded. The 
Chitralis lost about 500. 

Malakoff (Crimean War). 

This fort, forming an impor- 
tant part of the southern de- 
fences of Sebastopol, was 
stormed by 30,000 French, 
under General Pelissier, Sep- 
tember 8, 1855. The Russians 
being taken by surprise, made 
but a feeble resistance. 

Malavilly (Third Mysore War). 

Fought March 20, 1799, when 
the camp of the British force, 
under I^rd Harris, marching 
on Seringapatam, was attacked 
in force by Tippu Sahib. The 
enemy was thrown into confu- 
sion by a charge of cavalry, 
under General Floyd, and re- 
tired with a loss of about 
The British losses were trifling. 

Maldon (Danish Invasion). 

Fought 991, between the 
Anglo-Saxons, under Brihtnoth, 
and the Danes, under Olaf 
Triggvason and Guthmund. 
The Anglo-Saxons were com- 
pletely defeated and Brithnoth 

Malegnano (Franco - Austrian 
Fought June 8, 1859, be- 
tween three French divisions, 
under Marshal Baraguay d'Hil- 
liers, and the Austrians, in 
about equal force. After three 
hours' hard fighting, the 
Austrians were defeated and 
driven out of Malegnano, with 
heavy loss, including 1,000 
prisoners. The French lost 850 
killed and wounded. 

Mahnate. See Varese. 



Malo- Jaroslawetz (Moscow Cam- 
Fought October 24. 181 2, be- 
tween 24,000 Russians, under 
General Doctoroflf, and a portion 
of Eugene Beauharnais' corps, 
15,000 strong, under General 
Delzons. After a sanguinary 
engagement, in which Malo- 
Jaroslawetz was taken and re- 
taken seven times, the action 
ended in a drawn battle, but 
the strategical success lay with 
the Russians, who obliged Napo- 
leon to abandon the southerly 
Une of retreat he had projected. 
The French lost 5,000, including 
General Delzons killed, the 
Russians about 6,000. 

Malplaquet (War of the Spanish 
Fought September 11, I70(>, 
between the British and Imperi- 
alists, under Marlborough and 
Prince Eugene, and the French, 
under Marshal Villars. Villa rs 
offered battle with the object of 
relieving Mons, which the allies 
were besieging, but while they 
were waiting for reinforcement 
from Tournay, he was enabled 
to entrench himself strongly on 
the ground he had chosen. After 
desperate fighting, however, the 
French position was carried 
from end to end, and they were 
driven out with a loss of 17,000 
killed and wounded. The allies 
lost, according to most accounts, 
about 8,000, though some con- 
temporaries assert that their 
losses were even heavier than 
those of the French. 

Malta (Ottoman Wars). 

This place was besieged May 
19. 1565, by 30,000 Turks, under 
Mustapha Pasha, aided by a 
fleet of 185 sail, under Piale, the 

Capitan Pasha. It was de- 
fended by the Knights of Malta, 
under their Grand-Master Lava- 
let te, and though St. Elmo was 
taken, Valetta held out against 
numerous assaults until Sep- 
tember II, when Mustapha 
raised the siege. The garrison 
lost 5,000 men, the Turks 20,000. 

Malta (Wars of the French Re- 
The town of Valetta and the 
island of Malta were captured 
from the French September 5, 
1800, by a combined British 
naval and military force, under 
Captain George Martin, R.N., 
and Major-General Pigott. Two 
line-of-battle-ships and three 
frigates were seized in the har 

Malvern Hill. See Seven Days' 


Fought B.C. 338, between the 
Italian Greeks, under Archi- 
damus, King of Sparta, and the 
Lucanians. The Greeks were 
defeated, and Archidamus slain. 

Mangalore (First Mysore War). 
This place was besieged June 
20. 1783, by Tippu Sahib with 
his whole army, and was de- 
fended by a small British garri- 
son, under Colonel Campbell. 
On the conclusion of peace be- 
tween France and England, the 
French officer assisting Tippu 
withdrew, and on August 2 an 
armistice was arranged, during 
which the garrison was to receive 
regular supplies. This article 
was evaded, and the defenders 
half starved, and after some de- 
lay Tippu renewed the siege. 
No attempt, however, was made 
to relieve the place, and after a 



gallant defence, Campbell sur 
rendered January 26. 1763. 

Manilla (American-Spanish War) 
Fought May i, 1898, between 
the American squadron of 6 
ships, under Admiral Dewey, 
and II Spanish vessels, chiefly 
small, and unarmoured. The 
Spanish fleet was totally de- 
stroyed, the Americans suflering 
no loss. 

Mansfield (American Ciyil War). 
Fought April 8, 1864, be- 
tween 20,000 Federals, under 
General Banks, and about 8,000 
Confederates, under General 
Taylor. Banks, while march- 
ing through a diflicult country, 
was attacked by Taylor, and 
utterly routed, at a cost to the 
assailants of less than a thousand 
meil! Besides heavy losses in 
killed and wounded, the Federals 
lost 3,500 prisoners, 22 guns, 
and 220 waggons of stores and 

Mantineia (Peloponnesian War). 
Fought B.C. 418, between 
10,000 Spartans and Tegeans, 
under Agis, and an equal force 
of Athenians, under Laches and 
Nicostratus. The Spartan left 
was completely routed, but the 
Athenian centre and left failed 
to withstand the Spartan 
attack, and but for the defeat 
of Agis' left wing, would have 
been surrounded and captured. 
In the end the Spartans gained 
a signal victory. Larches and 
Nicostratus both fell in the 

Mantineia (Bceotian War). 

Fought B.C. 362, between the 
Boeotians, under Epaminondas, 
and the combined forces ojf 

Athens, Sparta, and Mantineia. 
Epaminondas attacked strongly 
with his left, holding back his 
right in reserve, and after the 
driving back of the Mantineians, 
routed the Spartans in the 
centre. The Athenians were 
hardly engaged, but the Bceotian 
victory was complete. In the 
pursuit Epaminondas, fell and 
the loss of the great leader so 
disheartened the Boeotians that 
they did not further press their 

Mantineia (Wars of the Achcan 
Fought B.C. 208, between the 
Acha^ans, under Philopoemen, 
and the Spartans, under Macha- 
nidas. The Achaeans drove the 
Spartans into a ravine in great 
disorder, and routed them with 
a loss of 4,000 killed, amongst 
whom was Machanidas. 

Mantua (Napoleon's Italian 
This city was invested by 
Napoleon June 4, 1796, and 
was defended by 14,000 Aus- 
trians, under General Canto 
d'Irles. The siege was vigor- 
ously prosecuted, but the ap- 
proach of Wurmser with a large 
Austrian army forced Napoleon 
to concentrate his forces, and 
he raised the siege July 31, 
After a brief campaign, which 
resulted in the dispersal of 
Wurmser 's army, that general, 
with the remnant of his forces, 
was shut up in the city, which 
was again closely invested Sep- 
tember 19. Wurmser held out 
till his provisions were ex- 
hausted, when, on Februsuy 
2, 1797, he surrendered, with 
20,000 men, of whom only 
10,000 were fit for service. It 


F_-._-.^ t«2j«-* 



is computed that 27, cxx> perished 
during the siege. 

Maogamalcha (Persian Wars]. 

This fortress, defended by a 
Persian garrison, and considered 
impregnable, was besieged by 
the Romans under the Emperor 
JuUan in 363. A mine was 
carried from the trenches under 
the ramparts, and three cohorts 
broke through into the streets, 
whereupon the garrison de- 
serted the ramparts and the 
besiegers entered. The place 
was sacked, and afterwards 
razed to the ground. 

Marathon (Second Persian In- 
Fought September 490 B.C., 
between the Athenians and 
Plataeans, 10,000 and 1,000 
strong respectively, under Mil- 
tiades, and the army of Darius 
Hystaspes, about 100,000 in 
number, under Datis. Being 
greatly outnumbered. Miltiades 
altered the usual arrangement 
of the Greek line, so as to extend 
his wings across the whole width 
of the valley in which the battle 
was fought, and thus escape 
being outflanked. To effect 
this he was forced to weaken 
his centre, which was repulsed, 
but both his wings drove back 
the invaders, and then fell upon 
and routed the victorious Persian 
centre. The Persians fled in 
confusion to their ships, which 
they succeeded in launching, 
and escaped with a loss of 
6.400. The Athenians lost 192 

MarcianopoUs (Gothic Invasion 
of Thrace). 
Fought 376, between the 

Romans, under Lupicinus. and 
the Goths, under Fritigem. 
The Romans were totally de- 
feated, but stood their ground 
to the last, and were cut to 
pieces almost to a man. Lupi- 
cinus fled as soon as the ulti- 
mate success of the Goths be- 
came apparent. 

Mardis (War of the Two Em- 
Fought 315, shortly after the 
battle of Cibadis. between Con- 
stantine, Emperor of the West, 
and Licinius. Emperor of the 
East. Constantine moved a 
body of 5.000 men round his 
opponent's flank, and attacked 
him simultaneously in front 
and rear. The Illyrian vete- 
rans formed a double front, and 
held their ground, though with 
heavy loss, till nightfall, when 
Licinius. having lost thousands 
of his best troops, drew off his 
army towards the mountains of 
Macedonia. The consequence 
of this defeat was the acquisi- 
tion by Constantine of Pan- 
nonia. Dalmatia. Dacia. Mace- 
donia and Greece. 

Marengo (Napoleon's Italian 
Fought June 14, 1800, be- 
tween 30,000 French, under 
Napoleon, and 40,000 Austrians. 
under Melas. The Austrians 
attacked, and drove back in 
disorder the first line under 
Victor, and, following up their 
success, a serious defeat for 
Napoleon seemed inevitable, 
when the arrival of the reserve 
corps under Desaix turned the 
scale. Under cover of his attack, 
the broken divisions reformed, 
and the Austrians were finally 
repulsed at all points, and fled 



in disorder. Desaix was killed 
at the head of his troops. 


Fought May, 285, between 
the legions of the Emperor 
Carinas and those of Diocletian, 
who had been raised to the 
purple by his soldiers. The 
troops of Diocletian, wasted by 
the Persian War, were all but 
overpowered by the fresher 
legions of Carinus, but the de- 
fection during the battle of 
one of his generals turned the 
scale, and Carinus himself being 
killed by an ofilcer whom he 
had wronged, Diocletian gained 
a complete victory. 

Maria Zell (Campaign of the 
^ Danube). 

Fought November 8, 1805, 
during the French advance on 
Vienna, between Davoust's 
corps, and the Austrian corps, 
under General von Meerfeld. 
The Austrians were defeated 
and driven of! in disorder, 
leaving 4,000 prisoners in the 
hands of the French. 

Mariendahl (Thirty Years' War). 
Fought May 2, 1645, between 
the French, under Turenne, and 
the ImperiaUsts, under Merci. 
Turenne, who had 3,000 in- 
fantry and 8 regiments of horse, 
was surprised in his camp by 
Merci at 2 a.m., and being placed 
between two fires, was com- 
pelled to beat a disastrous re- 
treat, with the loss of almost all 
his infantry, 1,200 cavalry, and 
all his artillery and baggage. 

Marignano (Italian Wars). 

Fought September 13 and 14, 
1575, between 50,000 French, 
under Francis I, and about 

40,000 Swiss mercenaries. The 
Swiss attacked the French 
camp, and forcing the lines, 
fought till midnight without 
deasive result. On the morn- 
ing of the 14th the battle was 
renewed, and the Swiss were on 
the point of success, when the 
arrival of a small force of Vene- 
tians obliged them to withdraw. 
The French lost 6,000 men, and 
the Swiss losses were very heavy, 
including 1,200 who perished 
in the flames of a village they 
were defending after the repulse 
of the attack. Marshal Trivul- 
zio, who commanded a wing of 
the French army, called the 
action the " Battle of Giants." 

Marosch, The (Conquest of 
Fought loi, between the 
Dacians, under Decebalus, and 
the Romans, under Trajan. 
The Dacians were utterly routed, 
and driven across the nver with 
heavy loss. 

Marseglia (Wars of Louis XIV). 
Fought October 4, 1693, ^' 
tween the French, under Mar- 
shal dc Catinat. and the Aus- 
trians, Spanish, and English, 
under the Duke of Savoy. The 
allies, who were inferior in num- 
bers, were attacked by the 
French, and, after severe fight- 
ing, driven across the Po with a 
loss of about 6,000. The Duke 
of Schomberg and Lord War- 
wick were taken prisoners. The 
loss of the French was slightly 

Mars-la-Tour (Franco-German 
Fought August 18, 1870, be- 
tween the French, under Mar- 
shal Bazaine, and the 3rd and 




loth German Army corps, under 
Von Alvensleben. The Ger- 
mans, though at times very hard 
pressed, succeeded in holding 
their ground, and prevented 
the French breaking through to 
the westward. The battle is 
chiefly remarkable for the 
desperate charges of the Ger- 
man cavalry, and especially of 
Von Bredow's brigade, against 
the French infantry, under 
cover of which the shattered 
German infantry was enabled 
to reform. The losses were 
about equal, amounting to 
about 16,000 killed and wounded 
on each side. The action is 
also known as the Battle of 

Marston Moor (Civil War). 

Fought July 2, 1644, between 
18,000 Royalists, under Prince 
Rupert, and 27,000 Parliamen- 
tarians, under Manchester, 
Leven and Fairfax. For the 
first time in the war, Rupert's 
cavalry was repulsed by Crom- 
well's Ironsides, and though the 
right wing under Fairfax was 
broken, the left and centre were 
victorious, and the Royalists 
were totally defeated, with a 
loss of 4,000. This victory 
gave the Parliament complete 
control of the north. 

Martinesti (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought September 23, 1789, 
between the Austrians and Rus- 
sians. 27,000 strong, under the 
Prince of Coburg and Suwaroff, 
and the Turks, 80,000 strong, 
under Osman Pasha. The 
allies stormed the Turkish en- 
trenchments, and drove out 
the defenders, of whom 7,000 
were killed and wounded, while 
8,000 were drowned in crossing 

the Rynma. The victors lost 
617 killed and wounded. 

Martinique (Wars of the French 
This island was captured 
from the French in 1794, by a 
combined naval and military 
force under Sir John Jervis and 
Sir George Grey, with a loss to 
the victors of 6 officers and 37 
men killed and wounded. 

Martinique (Napoleonic Wars). 

Having been restored to 
France at the Peace of Amiens, 
Martinic^ue was again taken by 
the British, February 24, 1809, 
the force engaged being under 
Admiral Sir A. T. Cochrane, 
and Lieut.-General Beckwith. 


Fought 642, between the 
Northumbrians, under Oswald, 
and the Mercians, under Penda. 
The latter were defeated, and 
Penda slain. 

Masulipatam (Seven Years* War )• 
This fortress, held by a French 
garrison, under Conflans, was 
besieged by the British, about 
2,500 strong, under Colond 
Forde, in March, 1759. After 
a fortnight's bombardment the 
place was taken by storm, the 
resistance being very feeble, 
and Conflans surrendered with 
his whole force, which consider- 
ably outnumbered the assail- 
ants. One hundred and twenty 
guns were taken in the fortress. 

Matchevitz (First Polish Insur- 
Fought October 10, 1794. be- 
tween the Russians, under 
Baron de Fersen, and the Poles, 
under Kosciusko. The Poles, 
after hard fighting, were totally 



defeated, leaving 6.ocx> dead 
upon the field, while Kosciusko 
was severely wounded. 

Matchin (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought July lo, 1791, be- 
tween the Turks, under Yussuf 
Pasha, and the Russians, under 
Prince Rcpnin. The left and 
centre of the Turkish army held 
its ground manfully, and the 
victory was long in doubt, but 
a brilliant charge of the Russian 
left, under General Kutusoff, 
drove back the Turks who were 
defeated with heavy loss. 

Maxen (Seven Years' War). 

Fought November 21, 1759, 
between the Austrians, under 
Marshal Daun, and the Prus- 
sians, under General Finck. 
Daun surrounded Fi nek's posi- 
tion, and after comparatively 
little fighting compelled him to 
surrender with over 1 5,000 men, 
including 17 generals. Seven- 
teen guns were captured. The 
casualties on both sides were 
very small. 

Maya (Peninsula War). 

Fought July 2$, 181 3, be- 
tween a British division, under 
General Stewart, and the French 
divisions of d'Armagnac, Abbe 
and Maransin. The French, at 
a cost of 1,500 men, forced the 
pass of Maya, driving back the 
British with a loss of i ,400 men 
and 4 guns. 

Maypo (South American War of 
Fought April 5, 1818, between 
the Chilian Patriots, 9,000 
strong, under San Martin, and 
6,000 Spanish Royalists, under 
Greneral Osorio. The Spaniards 
were totally defeated with a 
loss of 1,000 killed and 2,350 

prisoners, the Chilians losing 
over 1,000 killed and wounded. 
The result of the battle was the 
establishment of the independ- 
ence of Chili. 

Medellin (Peninsular War). 

Fought March 28, 1809, be- 
tween the French, under Mar- 
shal Victor, and 30,000 Spani- 
ards, under Cuesta. The Spani- 
ards soon gave way, and were 
mercilessly sabred in the pur- 
suit bjr the French cavalry, 
losing, it is said, 18,000 killed 
and wounded. The French 
lost 300 only. 

Medina (Mohammed's War with 
the Koreish). 
Siege was laid to this town in 
625 by 10,000 Koreish, under 
Abu Sophian. It was defended 
by Mohammed with 3,000 Mos- 
lems, and during the space of 
20 days several half-hearted 
assaults were easily repulsed. 
At the end of this time Abu 
Sophian withdrew, and the 
Koreish made no further at- 
tempt to interfere with the pro- 
gress of Mohammedanism. 

Medola (Napoleon's Italian Cam- 
Fought August 5, 1796, be- 
tween the French, 23,000 strong, 
under Napoleon, and 25.000 
Austrians, under Wurmser. The 
Austrians were totally defeated, 
and driven back to Roveredo, 
with a loss of 2.000 killed and 
wounded, prisoners and 
20 guns. Prior to this defeat 
Wurmser had succeeded in re- 
victualling Mantua, but at very 
heavy cost, the Austrian losses 
during the three days' fighting, 
from the 3rd to the 5th, amount- 
ing to 20,000 men and^6o guns. 




Meeanee (Sdnde Campaign). 

Fought February 17, 1843, 
between 2,800 British and native 
troops, under Sir Charles Napier, 
and about 20,000 Beluchis, 
under the Amirs of Scinde. The 
infantry were at one time almost 
overpowered by the overwhelm- 
ing numbers of the enemy, who 
attacked with great bravery, 
but they were rescued by a 
charge of the 9th Bengal cavalry, 
who broke up the assailants, and 
in the end the Beluchis were 
routed with a loss of 5,000 men 
and several guns. The British 
lost 256 killed and wounded. 

Meerut (First Mongol Invasion 
of India). 
This place was besieged in 
1398 by the Tartars, under 
Tamerlaiie. It was considered 
impregnable, and Tamerlane 
commenced mining operations, 
but these methods were too 
slow for his followers, who by 
means of scaling ladders carried 
the fortress by storm, and mas- 
sacred all the inhabitants. 
Tamerlane afterwards com- 
pleted his mines and destroyed 
all the defences. 

Megaletaphrus (First Messenian 
Fought 740 B.C., between the 
Messenians, under Aristomenes, 
and the Spartans. The Mes- 
senians were surrounded and 
cut to pieces, Aristomenes es- 
caping with a few followers. 


Fought B.C. 331, in the 
attempt of the Spartans, aided 
by the Arcadians, Achaeans 
and Eleians, to shake off the 
Macedonian yoke, during Alex- 
ander's absence in Asia The 

allies, under Agis, King of Sparta, 
were besieging Megalopolis, 
which had decUned to join the 
league, when they were attacked 
by the Macedonians, under An- 
tipater, and completely routed, 
Agis falling in the battle. 

Megalopolis (Wars of the 
Adiflean League). 
Fought B.C. 226, between the 
Spartans, under Cleomenes, 
and the forces of the Achaean 
League, under Aratus. The 
Achxans early gained an ad- 
vantage, and the Spartans fled, 
pursued by the light troops. 
These, however, b&ig unsup- 
ported, the Spartans turned 
and routed them, and then over- 
whelmed the Achaean hoplites 
in their turn with enormous 

Melanthias (Sdavonian Inva- 
Fought 559, between the Im- 
perial troops, under Belisarius, 
and the Sclavonians and Bul- 
garians, under Zabergan, Prince 
of Bulgaria. The barbarians 
assailed the Roman lines, but 
were easily repulsed, and so 
precipitate was their flight that 
onlv about 500 fell. This was 
Belisarius' last victory, and it 
was closely followed by his dis 
grace and death. 


Fought 1500, between the 
Danes, 30,000 strong, under 
John of Denmark, and the in- 
habitants of the province of 
Dithmarsh, which John de- 
signed to bring again under 
Danish rule, after two centuries 
of virtual independence. The 
advancing Danes delivered an 
assault against a small fortified 



outpost, but were repulsed, and 
driven in confusion into the 
surrounding marshes, where 
over 1 1, coo perished. 

Melltene (Persian Wars). 

Fought 578, between the Im- 
perial troops, under Tiberius, 
and the Persians, under Chosro- 
es. After a somewhat inde- 
cisive battle, at the end of which 
each side had held its ground, 
Chosroes, owing to his heavy 
los5}es, found it necessary to 
retire during the night. The 
battle was, however, signalised 
by an exploit of a Scythian 
chief, in command of the Roman 
left wing, who at the head of his 
cavalry charged through the 
Persian ranks, plundered the 
royal tent, and then cut his way 
out through the opposing hosts. 

Memphis (Athenian Expedition 
to Egypt). 
This city was captured B.C. 
459 by an Athenian fleet of 200 
ships, which sailed up the Nile 
to the assistance of Inaros, who 
had raised the standard of re- 
volt against Persia. The cita- 
del, however, held out until 
B.C. 456, when a Persian army, 
under Megabyzus defeated the 
Athenians and drove them out 
of Memphis. 

Memphis (Moslem Conquest of 
In 638, Amron, lieutenant of 
the Caliph Omar, with 8,000 
Moslems, invested the dty, and 
after a siege of seven months, 
in the course of which the be- 
siegers were nearly overwhelmed 
by the rising of the Nile, the 
place was taken by assault. On 
the site of the Moslem encamp- 

ment were laid the foundations 
of Old Cairo. 

Memphis (American Civil War). 
A river action fought June 6, 
1862. between 8 Confederate 
armed vessels, under Commo- 
dore Montgomery, and 10 
Federal gunboats, under Com- 
modore Davis. Only one of 
the Confederate vessels escaped 
destruction, and Memphis fell. 

Mensourah (Fifth Crusade). 

Fought 1249. between the 
French, under Louis IX, and the 
Moslems. The town of Mensourah 
was seized by the Comte d' Artois, 
but being surrounded, he and 
the knights with him were 
killed. The king meanwhile 
had seized the Saracen camp, 
but was unable to hold his 
ground, and was driven back 
to Damietta. In the course of 
his retreat, however, he was 
surrounded and taken prisoner 
bv the Saracens, with his whole 

Mentana (Garibaldian Rising). 

Fought November 3, 18(67, 
between 10.000 Garil^ldians, 
under Garibaldi, and the French 
and Papal troops. $,000 strong, 
under General Kanzler. Gari- 
baldi was totally defeated, a 
result largely due to the brilliant 
work of 1,500 Papal Zouaves, 
who drove them out of position 
after position. The Garibal- 
dians lost i.ioo killed and 
wounded, and 1,000 prisonera. 
The allies' losses were only 182 
killed and wounded, of which 
the Papal troops lost 144. 

Merida (Moorish Empire in 
This place was besieged in 712 
by 18.000 Moors, under Musa 



After a defeat in the open plain 
before the city, the Spaniards 
made a long and obstinate de- 
fence, which cost the besiegers 
many lives, but in the end they 
were forced by famine to sur- 


Fought 934 between the Ger- 
mans, under Henry the Fowler, 
and the Hungarian invaders. 
The Hungarians were completely 
defeated, with heavy loss, and 
withdrew from Germany, which 
they did not again invade for 
twenty years. 

Merta (Mogul Invasion of the 
This strong fortress, belong- 
ing to the Rajput Rajah of 
Malwar, was besieged, 1561, by 
Sharf-ud-Din Hussein, one of 
the generals of Akbar, the Great 
Mogul. The place held out 
gallantly for several months, 
but was then forced by famine 
to capitulate. One of the Mal- 
war chiefs, however, refused all 
terms, and cut his way out at 
the head of 500 men, of whom 
250 fell in the enterprise. 

Merton (Danish Invasion). 

Fought 871, between the West 
Saxons, under Alfred, and the 
Danish invaders. After a se- 
vere engagement the Danes were 


Fought October 2, 1284, be- 
tween the Sicilian and Catalan 
fleet, under the Grand Admiral, 
Roger de Lauria, and the French 
fleet, under Charles of Anjou. 
The Sicilians, who largely out- 
numbered the French, totally 
defeated them, burning or de- 

stroying practically the whole 
of their fleet. Charles of Anjou 
was captured, and henceforth 
made no further attempt to re- 
establish his authority in Sicily. 

Messina. See Cape Passaro. 

Metauras (Second Punic War). 

Fought 207 B.C., between 
50,000 Romans, under Claudius 
Nero and Marcus Livius, and 
the Carthaginians, in rather 
smaller force, under Hasdrubal. 
The Carthaginians were sur- 
prised at early dawn as they 
were endeavouring to find a 
ford in the Metaums, and being 
vigorously attacked, were totally 
routed, Hasdrubal being slain. 
The completeness of the victory 
was due to Nero, who being in 
command of the right wing, 
where the ground prevented his 
getting to close quarters, and 
seeing the Roman left hard 
pressed by Hasdrubal's best 
troops, led the major part of his 
force round the Roman rear, 
and fell upon Hasdrubal's right, 
routing him utterly. 

Methuen (Scottish Wars). 

Fought June 19, 1306, when 
a small Scottish force, under 
Robert Bruce, was attacked 
and defeated by the English in 
superior force. 

Metz (Franco-German War). 

This fortress was invested by 
the Germans after the defeat of 
Bazaine at Gravelotte in August 
18, 1870, and after several fruit- 
less attempts to break through 
the German lines had been re- 
pulsed, Bazaine surrendered to 
Prince Frederick Charles on 
October 26, with 3 marshals, 
6,000 officers, and 173,000 men. 



The Germans took 56 eagles, 
622 field guns, 72 mitrailleuses, 
S76 pieces of fortress artillery, 
and about 300,000 rifles. 

Meidco (Conquest of Mexico). 

Fought June 20, 1520, when 
the Spaniards, imder Cortez, 
who were evacuating Mexico 
during the night, were attacked 
by the Aztecs, and suffered 
heavy loss. The Spaniards 
called this event the *' Noche 

Michelberg (Campaign of the 
Fought October 16, 1805. 
Key's corps stormed the heights 
of the Michelberg at the same 
time that Lannes carried the 
Frauenberg, driving the Aus- 
trians back into Ulm, where on 
the 17th General Mack capitu- 
lated with 30.000 men. 

Middelburg (Netherlands War of 
Independence )• 
This fortress, the last strong- 
hold in Walcheren to hold out 
for the Spanish king, was be- 
sieged by the Patriots in the 
winter of 1593. It was de- 
fended by a garrison under 
Colonel Mondragon. who in 
spite of a gallant resistance and 
numerous attempts to reUeve 
him, was forced by famine to 
surrender, February 18, 1594. 

Bililazzo (Unification of Italy). 

Fought July 18. i860, be- 
tween the Italian Volunteers, 
under Garibaldi, and the Nea- 
poUtans, under General Bosco. 
The Neapolitans occupied a 
strongly entrenched position, 
which Garibaldi succeeded in 
turning, the Neapolitans, after 
a severe struggle, being totally 
defeated and (hiven out. 

Miletopolis (First Mithridatic 
Fought B.C. 86, between the 
Romans, under Flavins Fimbria, 
and the Pontic troops, under 
Mithridates. The Romans gained 
a complete victory. 

Millesimo (Napoleon's Italian 
Fought April 13, 1796, when 
the divisions of Augereau, 
Mass6na and La Harpe attacked 
the Austrians, strongly en- 
trenched, under General Colli, 
and after severe fighting, drove 
them back, thus cutting Colli's 
communications with General 
Beaulieu, the Austrian Com- 
mander-in-Chief. The Austro- 
Sardinians lost about 6.000 
men and 30 guns, and all effec- 
tive co-operation between the 
two wings was at an end. Also 
called the Battle of Monte Lezino 

Mill Springs (American Civil 
Fought January 19, 1862, 
between the Federals, about 
9,000 strong, under General 
Thomas, and 8,000 Confederates, 
under General Crittenden. The 
Confederates attacked, and at 
first drove back the Federals, 
who began the action with 
5,000 men only, but reinforce- 
ments arriving. Thomas re- 
pulsed the assailants with con- 
siderable loss, capturing 12 
guns. The Federals lost 246 
only. This was the first con- 
siderable defeat suffered by the 
Confederates in the w^ar. 

Bllinden (Seven Years* War). 

Fought August I, 1759, be- 
tween the French, 64,000 strong, 
under the Marquis de Contades, 
and the Hanoverians, British 



and Prussians, $4,cxx> strong, 
under Ferdinand of Brunswick. 
Ferdinand detached a force of 
10,000 men to threaten de 
Contades' rear, and then, at- 
tacking strongly, broke the 
first line of the French. But 
for the failure of the allies' 
cavalry to advance, the French 
would have been routed. As 
it was, they were able to rally, 
and effect an orderly retreat, 
though with a loss of 7,086 killed, 
wounded and prisoners. 43 guns 
and 17 standards. The allies 
lost 2,762, fully a half of this 
number being in the ranks of 
the six English regiments pre- 
sent, who bore the brunt of the 

Minorca (Seven Years* War). 

This place, garrisoned by 2,800 
British troops, under General 
Blakeney, was invested by the 
French, under the Due de 
Richelieu, May, 1756. On 
May 20, a British squadron of 
15 line-of -bat tie-ships and 3 
sloops, under Admiral Bjrng, 
attacked Richelieu's blockading 
squadron of 12 sail of the line 
and 5 frigates, with the object 
of throwing succours into the 
place. The attack, however, 
was conducted with so little 
resolution and resource, that 
Bjmg failed in his object, and 
allowed the French ships to 
escape him. Blakeney was 
shortly afterwards forced to 
surrender, and Byng was tried 
by court-martial, condemned 
and shot. 


Having been restored to Eng- 
land by the Treaty of Paris in 
1762, Minorca was again re- 
captured in 1 78 1, by a force of 

12,000 French and Spaniards, 
the garrison, under General 
Murray, being only 700 strong. 
Murray made a sturdy defence 
but was forced to surrender. 


Fought September, 764, be- 
tween the Japanese rebels, under 
Oshikatsa, and the Imperial 
troops, under Saiki-no-Sanya, 
The rebels were totally routed, 
and Oshikatsa and his son slain. 

Miraflores(Peruyio-Chilian War). 
Fought January 15, 1881, be- 
tween the Chilians, under 
General Baquedano, and the 
Peruvians, under General Ca- 
ceres. The Pervuians were 
totally defeated, losing 3,000 
killed and wounded, while the 
victors lost 500 killed and 1,625 
wounded. Following up their 
victory, the Chilians occupied 
Lima on the 17 th, and the war 
came to an end. 

Missionary Ridge. See Chattan- 

Missolonghi (Greek War of In- 
This place was besieged in 
1 82 1 by a force of 1 1,000 Turks, 
under Omar Brionis Pasha, and 
was defended by a small Greek 
garrison, under Mavrocordatos. 
The little garrison made so 
gallant a defence, that at the 
end of two months Omar was 
forced to raise the siege. On 
April 27. 1 825, the town was again 
besieged by the Turks and was 
again most obstinately defended 
by the garrison and inhabitants. 
So little progress was made that 
it was found necessary to call 
for the aid of the Egyptian 
army, under Ibrahim, son of 
Mehemet Ali. It was not, 



however, till three months after 
his arrival before the place that 
it was finally taken by storm. 
April 22. 1826. having held out 
for all but a year. 

Mita Caban. 

Fought 1362. between the 
Tartars, under Tamerlane, and 
the Getes. under the Khan EUas. 
The Getes were routed with 
heavy loss. 


Fought June. 1353. between 
the revolted Moronoshi, and the 
troops of the Emperor of the 
South. Gomurakami. under 
Yoshinori. Moronoshi gained a 
complete victory, and Yoshinori 
and the Emperor fled into the 
Eastern provinces. 


Fought December 30, 1391, 
between the troops of the pro- 
vinces of Idzumo and Idzumi. 
under Mitsuyaki. and those of 
the Emperor of the South, Goka> 
meyama. A series of engage- 
ments took place in and around 
Miyako, and in the end Mitsu- 
yaki was driven ofi with heavy 
loss, among the killed being the 
Daimio of Idzumi. 

Modder River (Second Boer War ). 
Fought November 28, 1899, 
between a Boer force, about 
9,000 strong, under General 
Cronje; and the British, under 
Lord Methuen. Cronje held a 
strong position on both banks 
of the river, which was not 
accurately known to Lord 
Methuen, who was marching to 
the Modder. His columns 
came under fire about 7 a.m., 
and the action lasted tiU even- 
ing, when a turning movement 

enabled him to drive Cronje 
from his entrenchments. The 
British losses were 24 officers 
and 461 men killed and wounded, 
those of the Boers being about 
the same. 

Mohacz (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought August 29. 1526, be- 
tween 30.000 Hungarians, under 
King Lewis, and Tomore. Bishop 
of Kolocz. and over 100,000 
Turks, with 300 guns, under 
Solyman the Magnificent. The 
Hungarians made a heroic re- 
sistance against overwhelming 
numbers, but were finally 
routed, leaving 22,000 dead on 
the field, including the king, 7 
bishops, 28 magnates, and over 
500 nobles. This disaster 
placed Hungary at the mercy 
of Sol3mian, and was quickly 
followed by the fall of Buda- 

Mohacz (Ottoman Wars). 

On the battlefield where 160 
years previously Soljrman had 
gained so decisive a victory, the 
Austrians and Hungarians sig- 
nally defeated the Turks, under 
Mohammed IV, in 1687. In 
consequence of this disaster, fol- 
lowing upon a long series of re- 
verses, Mohammed was deposed 
by the discontented solidery. 

Mohiley (Moscow Campaign). 

Fought July 23, 18 12. be- 
tween 28.000 French, under 
Davoust. and 60,000 Russians, 
under Prince Bagration. Ba- 
gration attacked Davoust in a 
strong position, which counter- 
balanced the great disparity of 
numbers, and the Russians were 
repulsed with a loss of about 
4,000. The French lost barely 

^r'lfSt^^^^BO^j-^j.'l ^gM m jfi i ^mi'T \ t t i T -* -??=•■"..': 



Mohningen (Campaign of Fried- 
Fought January 25, 1807, 
between 10,000 French, under 
Bemadotte, and 14,000 Rus- 
sians, under General Marhof. 
The French were defeated with 
a loss of about 1,000 killed and 

Molino del Rey (Peninsular War ). 
Fought December 21, 1808, 
between 26,000 French, under 
General St. Cyr, and the Spani- 
ards, about equal in strength, 
under Reding. The Spaniards 
were routed with a loss of 10,000 
killed, wounded and prisoners, 
and 50 guns, at very sUght cost 
to the victors. 

Molwitz (War of the Austrian 
Fought April 8, 1 74 1, be- 
tween the Prussians, 30,000 
strong, under Frederick the 
Great, and the Austrians, under 
Marshal Neuperg. Frederick 
surprised the Austrian general, 
and, after severe fighting, drove 
him from his entrenchments, 
with a loss of about 5,000 killed, 
wounded and prisoners. The 
Prussians lost 2,500. 

Monarda (Moorish Insurrection). 
Fought March 18, 1501, be- 
tween the Spaniards, under the 
Count di Cifuentes and Alonso 
de Aguilar, and the insurgent 
Moors. The Spaniards were 
largely outnumbered, and were 
overpowered by the rebels, 
suffering a disastrous defeat. 
De Aguilar was killed, fighting to 
the end. 

Monongahela (Seven Years* 
Fought July 9, 1755, between 
900 French and Indians, under 

Contrecoeur, and about 1,400 
British and Virginians, under 
Braddock. The English were 
attacked shortly after crossing 
the river, and though the officers 
and the Virginians fought gal- 
lantly, the troops, ignorant of 
Indian warfare, gave way to 
panic, and after three hours' 
fighting, were driven across the 
Monongahela, with a loss of 877 
killed and wounded. Of 86 
officers, 63 fell, including Brad- 
dock, who was mortally 
wounded. The French lost 16 
only ; their Indian allies some- 
what more heavily. 

Mons-en-Puelle (Flemish War). 
Fought 1304, between the 
French, under Philip IV, and 
the Flemings. The Flemings 
were unable to withstand the 
charge of the French cavalry, 
and broke and fled, leaving 6,000 
dead on the field. 

Montcontour (Third Civil War). 
Fought October 3, 1569, be- 
tween the Huguenots, under 
Henri le B^amais. and the 
Catholics, under the Due 
d'Anjou and Marshal de Tavan- 
nes. The Huguenots occupied 
an untenable position, and at 
the end of half an hour were 
utterly routed, and almost ex- 
terminated, some 700 only re- 
maining with the colours after 
the battle. 

Monte Aperto (Guelfs and Ghi- 
Fought September 4, 1260, 
between the Florentine Guelfs, 
and the Ghibellines, who had 
been driven from the city, under 
Manfred of Sicily. The Guelfs 
were totally routed, and the 
victors took possession of Flor- 



ence, and re-established their 

Montebello (Napoleon's Italian 
Fought June 9, 1800, between 
the French, under Napoleon, 
and the Austrians. under General 
Ott. Napoleon, being igno- 
ran of the fall of Genoa, was 
marching to the reUef of that 
city, when his advanced guard, 
under Lannes, was attacked by 
Ott, who was endeavouring to 
effect a junction with Melas. 
Lannes held his ground until 
reinforcements arrived, when 
he assumed the offensive, and 
drove the Austrians from the 
field with heavy loss, capturing 
5,000 prisoners. 

Montebello (Franco - Austrian 
Fought May 20, 1859, be- 
tween the Austrians, under 
General Stadion, and about 
7,000 French, under General 
Forey. The Austrians were de- 
feated and driven back to Stra- 
della, with a loss of 2.000 killed 
and wounded, and 200 prisoners. 

Monte Caseros (Urquiza's 
Fought February 3, 1852, be- 
tween the Argentine Govern- 
ment troops, under President 
Rosas, the leader of the Gaucho 
party, 25,000 strong, and 20,000 
insurgents, under Urquiza. 
Rosas was totally defeated, and 
compelled to fly to England, 
thus ending the long domination 
of the Gauchos in the Argentine 

Monte Lezino. See Ifillesimo. 

Montenotte (Napoleon's Italian 
Fought April 10 and 11, 1796, 

when d'Argentian, with the 
central division of the Austro- 
Sardinian army, attacked the 
French position at Montenotte, 
held by Cervoni's division. Cer- 
voni was driven back, but the 
key to the position was held 
throughout the day by Tampon, 
with 1,500 men, and on the 12th 
d'Argentian found himself out- 
flanked by Augereau and 
Mass6na, and was compelled to 
fall back, with a loss of 1,000 
killed. 2,000 prisoners, and some 
guns. This was Napoleon's first 

Montereau (Allied Campaign in 
Fought February 18, 18 14, 
between the rearguard of the 
French army, under Napoleon, 
and the Wurtembergers, under 
Prince Eugdne of Wurtemberg. 
Eugdne attacked Napoleon's 
position, but was repulsed with 
a loss of about 2,000 killed and 
wounded and 4,000 prisoners. 

Monterey (Americo - Mexican 
This town in southern Cali- 
fornia was captured from the 
Mexicans, September 23, 1846, by 
the Americans, under General 
Taylor, and this success was 
followed by the occupation of 
the whole of Northern Mexico 
by the American army. 

Montevideo (Napoleonic Wars). 

This city was taken by assault 
February 3, 1807, by 3,000 
British troops, under Sir Samuel 
Auchmuty. The capture was 
preceded by an action outside 
the town, in which the Rifle 
corps, now the Rifle Brigade, 
especially distinguished itself. 
The British losses amounted to 
about 600. 

1 64 


Montevideo (Uruguayan War of 
This city was besieged Febru- 
ary 1 6, 1843, by the Argentine 
troops, under Oribe, and was 
defended by the Uruguayans, 
and a number of foreign resi- 
dents, amongst others Gari- 
baldi, under General Paz. In 
the course of the siege, Gari- 
baldi, at the head of 160 Italians, 
made a sortie, in which he held 
his own for a whole day against 
12,000 Argentines, and eventu- 
ally effected a retreat in good 
order. The intervention of 
France and England eventually 
forced Oribe to raise the siege, 
November, 1845. 

Montevideo (Uruguayan War of 
Fought October 8. 185 1, be- 
tween the combined forces of 
Uruguay, Brazil and Paraguay, 
under Urquiza, and the Argen- 
tines, under Oribe. The Argen- 
tines were besieging Monte- 
video, and Oribe was hemmed 
in in his lines by the alUes, and 
forced to capitualte. 


Fought August, 1863, between 
the Colorados, or Liberal party, 
of Uruguay, under General 
Venancio Flores, and the, 
Blancos, under General Medina. 
The Blancos were victorious. 

Montfaucon (Noroian Invasion 
of France). 
Fought 887, between the 
French, under Eudes, and the 
Norman invaders. The latter 
were totally defeated, losing 
19,000 men in the battle, and 
were forced to retire from before 
the walls of Paris, which they 
were besieging. 


Fought ^1369, between the 
French, under Bertrand du 
Guesclin, and the Spaniards, 
under Pedro II of Castile. Pedro 
was routed and taken prisoner, 
and Henry of Trastamare placed 
on the throne of Castile. 

Montlhdry (War of the Public 
Fought 1465, between the 
forces of the Ligue du Bien 
Public, under the Comte de 
Charolais, and the Royal troops, 
under Louis XI. Louis was 
totally defeated, after a sangui- 
nary engagement, and driven 
from the field. 

Montmirail. See Champ Aubert. 

Montmorenci (Seven Years' 
Fought July 31, 1759, during 
the siege of Quebec, when Wolfe, 
with 5,000 men, attacked the 
entrenched camp of the French, 
which was defended by 12,000 
men under Montcalm. As the 
British were landing, 13 com- 
panies of grenadiers advanced 
to the attack without waiting 
for the main body. They were 
repulsed with heavy loss, which 
so weakened Wolfe that he de- 
cided not to press the attack 
further. The British loss a- 
mounted to 443, almost the 
whole of which fell upon the 
grenadiers. The French losses 
were very small. 

Montreal (Seven Years' War). 

This city was surrendered to 
the British, under General Am- 
herst, by Vaudreuil, Governor- 
General of Canada, September 
8, 1760. One of the conditions 
of the surrender was that the 
whole of the French army in 
Canada and its dependencies 



must lay down their arms. 
Canada thus became a part of 
the British dominions. 

Mont Val^ien. See Buzenval. 

Moodkee (First Sikh War). 

Fought December i8, 1845, 
between the British, 12,000 
strong, with 42 guns, under Sir 
Hugh Gough, and the Sikhs. 
30,000 strong, with 40 guns, 
under Taj Singh. Gough, at 
the end of a long march, was 
surprised by the Sikhs, and his 
force thrown into some confu- 
sion, but he succeeded in rally- 
ing them, and fmally drove the 
Sikhs from the field, capturing 
17 guns. The British loss was 
872 killed and wounded, among 
the former being Generals 
M'CaskiU and Sir Robert Sale. 

Mock (Netherlands War of In- 
Fought April 14. 1574. be- 
tween the Dutch Patriots. 8.000 
strong, under Count Louis of 
Nassau, and 5,000 Spaniards, 
under Don Sancho d'Avila. 
The village of Mook was held by 
the Dutch infantry, who were 
driven out by the Spaniards, 
and totally routed, with a loss 
of at least 4.000. Among the 
slain were the Counts Louis and 
Henry of Nassau. 

Morat (Burgundian Wars). 

Fought June 22, 1746, be- 
tween the Burgundians, 35.000 
strong, under Charles the Bold, 
and 24,000 Swiss, under Hans 
Waldmann. After a few hours' 
hard fighting the Burgundians 
were driven into the plain, 
where the Swiss utterly routed 
them, no less than 8,000 falling. 
The Swiss chroniclers aver that 
the victors only lost 500 killed. 

Morawa (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought November 3. 1443, 
between the Hungarians, under 
John Hunniades, with 12,000 
horse and 20,000 foot, and a 
greatly superior Turkish army, 
under Amurath JI. The Turks 
were defeated, with a loss of 
2,000 killed and 4,000 prisoners. 
This battle is aUo called the 
Battle of Nissa. 

Morazzone (Italian Rising). 

Fought 1848 between i,$oo 
Garibaddian volunteers, under 
Garibaldi, and 5,000 Austrians, 
under General d'Aspre. After 
a resistance lasting eleven hours. 
Garibaldi, hopelessly out-num- 
bered, withrdew his force from 
the town, and executed a 
masterly retreat to Arona. 

Morella (First CarUst War). 

This fortress, the last strong- 
hold of the Carlists, was be- 
sieged by Espartero, with 20.000 
Cristinos. May 23, 1840. It was 
defended by a garrison of 4.000 
veterans, under Cabrera, who on 
the 30th attempted to break 
through the besiegers' lines. 
His plan, however, had been 
betrayed, and he was met and 
driven back, whereupon the 
place surrendered. Cabrera, how- 
ever, with a portion of the 
garrison, made a second and 
this time a successful attempt 
to cut his way out. 

Morgarten (First Swiss-Austrian 
Fought November 16. 13 15, 
The men of Schwyz, 1.400 in 
number, took post in the Pass 
of Morgarten, and lay in wait 
for the Archduke Leopold, who, 
with 15,000 Austrians, was 

1 66 


marching into Schwyz. Having 
disordered the Austrian ranks 
by rolling down boulders upon 
them, the Swiss then fell upon 
them with their halberds, and 
totally routed them, with a loss 
of 1.500 killed. 


Fought July 24. 1763, be- 
tween the troops of Mir Cossim, 
the deposed Nawab of Bengal, 
and a British force of 750 Euro- 
peans and a large body of native 
troops, under Major Adams. 
The British stormed Cossim's 
entrenchments, driving out his 
army in confusion, and followed 
up their victory by the occupa- 
tion of Morshedabad, without 
further opposition. 

Mortara (Italian Rising). 

Fought March 21, 1849, be- 
tween the Piedmontese, under 
the Duke of Savoy (Victor Em- 
manuel) and General Darando, 
and the main Austrian army, 
under Radetsky. No steps had 
been taken by the Piedmontese 
to render Mortara defensible, 
and Uttle guard was kept, with 
the result that they were sur- 
prised by Radetsky. and driven 
out of the town in confusion, 
with a loss of 500 killed and 
wounded, 2,000 prisoners and 
5 guns. The Austrians lost 
300 only. 

Mortimer's Cross (Wars of the 
Fought February 2, 1461, 
when Edward, Duke of York, 
defeated the Lancastrians, 
under the Earls of Pembroke 
and Wiltshire, and drove them 
back into Wales, thus pre- 
venting a concentration of the 
Lancastrian forces. 

Mortlack (Danish Invasion of 
Fought 1 010, between the 
Danes, under Sweyn, and the 
Scots, under Malcolm II. After 
a long and obstinate engage- 
ment the Danes were totally 
defeated, and forced to flee to 
their ships. A victory for them 
on this occasion would probably 
have given them a permanent 
lodgment in Scotland, as Mal- 
colm had his last available man 
in the field. 

Mortmant (Allied Invasion of 
Fought February 17, 18 14, 
between the Russian advance- 
guard, under the Count de 
Pahlen, and the French rear- 
guard, under Victor. The Rus- 
sians were repulsed with a loss 
of 3,000 killed and wounded, 
and II guns. 

Moskirch (Wars of the French 
Fought May 5, 1800, between 
50,000 French, under Moreau, 
and 60.000 Austrians, under de 
Kray. The French advance- 
guard, under Lecourbe, ap- 
proaching Moskirch found the 
heights strongly held by the 
Austrians, and attempted to 
carry them, but without suc- 
cess. The arrival of the main 
body, however, turned the 
scale, and the Austrians were 
obUged to abandon all their 
positions, with a loss of about 
5,000 men. The French lost 
about 3,500. 

Moskowa. See Borodino. 


This city, the chief stronghold 
of the Carthaginians in Sicily, 
was besieged by Dionysius of 



Syracuse, with 83,000 men, 
B.C. 398. Having built a mole 
to connect the mainland and 
the island on which Motya stood, 
he erected thereon his new 
engines of war, the catapults, 
used for the first time in this 
siege. He also built large mov- 
ing towers to enable him to cope 
with the lofty defences of the 
place, and by these devices suc- 
ceeded in effecting an entrance. 
Every house, however, was in 
itself a small fortress, and after 
days of street fighting, which 
cost the assailants a heavy 
price, the city was still unsub- 
dued. At last by a night sur- 
prise he mastered the quarter 
which still held out, and the in- 
habitants were massacred or 
sold as slaves. 

Mount Gaurus (First Samnite 
Fought B.C. 342, between the 
Romans, under Valerius Corvus, 
and the Samnites. The Romans 
won a signal victory. 

Mount Lactarius (Second Gothic 
Fought March 553, between 
the troops of the Emperor 
Justinian, under Narses, and 
the Goths, under Teias. the last 
Gothic king of Italy. The 
Romans gained a signal victory, 
and Teias was slain, the Goths 
thereupon accepting the rule 
of Justinian. 

Mount Paniimi. 

Fought B.C. 198, between the 
Syrians, under Antiochus the 
Great, and the Greeks and 
Egyptians, under Scopas. Sco- 
pas was routed, and Antiochus 
took possession of all the terri- 
tory held by Egypt in Asia, up 
to the frontier of Egypt proper. 

Mount Seleucus (Revolt of 
Fought Aueust 10, 353, be- 
tween the rebels, under Mag- 
nentius, and the Imperial legions, 
under Constantius. Constan- 
tius forced the passage of the 
Cottian Alps, and defeated 
Magnentius in a sanguinary 
battle, which dispersed his army 
and finally broice his power, 
Gaul and Italy being thus again 
brought under the Imperial sway. 

Mount Tabor (French Invasion 
of Egypt). 
Fought April 15, 1799, when 
Napoleon defeated and dis- 
persed the Syrian army raised to 
create a diversion in favour of 
the beleaguered garrison of Acre. 
Kleber's division bore the brunt 
of the fighting. 

Mount Taurus (Moslem Invasion 
of Asia Minor). 
Fought 804, between the Mos- 
lems, under Harroun-al-Raschid, 
and the Greeks, under the Em- 
peror Nicephorus I. The Greeks 
were totally defeated, with a 
loss of 40,000 men, and Nice- 
phorus, wounded in three places, 
with difficulty escaped from the 

Mount Tifata (Civil War of 
Bfarius and Sulla). 
Fought B.C. 83, when the 
legions of Sulla defeated the 
army of the Consul, Norbanus, 
with heavy loss, and drove them 
to take refuge in Capua. 

Mouscron (Wars of the French 
Fought 1794, between the 
French, under Moreau and 
Souham, and the Austrians, 
under General Clarifait. The 
French were victorious. 




MOhlberg (Wars of Charles V). 

Fought April 24, 1547, be- 
tween the German Protestants, 
9,000 strong, under the Elector 
Frederick of Saxony and the 
Landgrave of Hesse, and the 
Imperial army, together with 
3,500 Papal troops, 13,000 in 
all, under Charles V. The Pro- 
testants were totally defeated, 
and their two leaders taken 
prisoners. The ImperiaUsts lost 
50 only. 


Fought 1322, between the 
Imperial troops, under the Em- 
peror Louis the Bavarian, and 
the German malcontents, under 
Frederick, Duke of Austria. 
Louis won a signal victory, and 
put an end to the resistance to 
his rule. 

Miihlhausen (Gallic War). 

Fought B.C. 58, between the 
Romans, 36,000 strong, under 
JuUus Caesar, and the Sequani, 
under Ariovistus. The Romans 
occupied two camps, one of 
which was held successfully by 
two legions against a deter- 
mined attack of the Gauls. The 
attack having been repulsed, 
Caesar united his forces, and led 
them against the Sequani, whom 
he totally routed with enormous 

Mukwanpur (Gurkha War). 

Fought February 27, 18 16, 
when a village, forming part of 
Sir David Ochterlony's position, 
was attacked by 2,000 Gurkhas. 
The village was defended by 
three companies of Sepoys and 
40 men of the 87 th Regiment, 
and the defenders were hard 
pressed, but the arrival of re- 
inforcements enabled them 
after severe fighting to beat off 

the assailants with very heavy 

Multan (Second Sikh War}. 

This fortress, defended by the 
Sikhs, under Mulraj, was be- 
sieged by Lieutenant Edwardes 
with about 1,200 men in 
July, 1848. After an ineffectual 
bombardment, the siege was 
raised September 22, but was 
renewed December 27 by Gene- 
ral Whish, with 17,000 men 
and 64 guns. After a heavy 
bombardment the place was 
stormed January 2, 1849, ^^^ 
on the 22nd of the same month 
Mulraj surrendered the citadel. 
The JBrittsh loss during the 
siege was 210 killed and 910 

Miinchengratz (Seven Weeks' 
Fought June 28, 1866, be- 
tween the advance-guard of 
Prince Frederick Charles' army, 
and the Austrians, under Count 
Clam-Gallas. The Austrians 
were defeated with a loss of 
about 300 killed and wounded, 
and 1,000 prisoners. The Prus- 
sian losses were very smadl. 

Munda (Gvil War of C«sar and 
Fought March 17, B.C. 45, 
between the Pompeians, under 
Cnaeus Pompeius, and the 
Caesareans, under JuUus Caesar. 
The Pompeians were totally 
defeated, losing 30,000 men, 
including Labienus and Varro, 
while the Caesareans lost 1,000 
only. Cnaeus Pompey was 
wounded. This defeat put an 
end to the resistance of the 
Pompeian faction in Spain, and 
the action is further notable as 
being Caesar's last battle. 



Muret (Albigensian Crusade). 
Fought 121 3. between the 
Catholics, under Simon de 
Montiort. and the Albigenses, 
under the Count of Thoulouse, 
aided by Pedro II of Aragon. 
The Albigenses were routed, 
and this defeat put an end to 
their organized resistance. Pe- 
dro fell in the battle. 

Murfreesboro (American Civil 
Fought December 31, 1862, 
between 35,000 Confederates, 
under Genersd Bragg, and 40,000 
Federals, under General Rose- 
crans. Bragg attacked and 
drove back the Federal right, 
but the centre and left held 
their ground, and prevented 
the defeat degenerating into a 
rout. Both sides lost heavily, 
but the Confederates captured 
a large number of prisoners and 
over 20 guns. On the following 
day the Federal right retook the 
ground it had lost on the 31st, 
and at the end of the day both 
armies occupied their original 
positions. Early on January 2, 
however, Bragg retired in good 
order. Each side lost about 
8.000, killed, wounded and 
missing, in the two days' fight- 

Mursa (Revolt of Magnentius). 
Fought September 28, 351, 
between the usurper Magnen- 
tius, with 100.000 troops, and 
the Emperor Const an tins, with 
80,000. The battle was se- 
verely contested, but finally 
the legions of Magnentius were 
driven from the field with a loss 
of 24.000 ; that of the victors 
amounting to 30,000. 

Musa Bagh (Indian Mutiny). 
Fought March 19, 1858. when 

a British force, under Sir James 
Outram, totally routed a body 
of mutineers, 7,000 strong, 
under Huzrat Mahul, Begum 
of Oude, which was holding the 
Musa Bagh, a fortified palace 
in the outskirts of Lucknow. 

Muta (Moslem Invasion of 
Fought 629, between the Mos- 
lems, under Zaid. and the troops 
of the Emperor Heraclius. Zaid 
was slain, and so successively 
were Jaafar and Abdallah, who 
followed him in the command, 
but the banner of the prophet 
was then raised by Khaled, who 
succeeded in repulsing the on- 
slaught of the Imperial troops, 
and on the following day led the 
Moslems undefeated from the 
field. This is the first battle 
between the Mohammedan 
Arabs and a foreign enemy. 

Muthal, The (Jugurthine War). 
Fought B.C. 108, between the 
Numidians, under Jugurtha, 
and the Romans, under Metellus 
Numidicus. The Numidians 
were strongly posted on the 
heights above the river, but 
were driven out by the legiona- 
ries with heavy loss. Jugurtha 
did not again face the Romans 
in the field, contenting himself 
with a guerilla warfare. 

Mutina (Mark Antony's First 
Fought April 16. 43 B.C.. be- 
tween the adherents of Antony, 
and three Consular armies, 
under Hirtius, Octavius, and 
Vibius Pansa. Antony, who 
was besieging Mutina, was 
attacked simultaneously by the 
three armies. That of Pansa 
was routed, and Pansa slain 




but Octavius and Hirtius gained 
some small success. Antony, 
however, was undefeated, and 
continued the siege. On the 
27 th Octavius and Hirtius made 
a combined attack on his lines, 
and succeeded in forcing their 
way through into the town, 
though Hirtius fell in the action. 

Mycale (Third Persian Invasion). 
Fought August, 479 B.C., be- 
tween the Greeks, under Leoty- 
chides the Spartan, and a large 
Persian army. The Greeks ef- 
fected a landing near Cape 
Mycale, and drove the Persians 
back upon their entrenchments, 
which they then carried by 
storm, whereupon the Persian 
auxiUaries fled. The fugitives 
were slaughtered in detail by 
the revolted lonians, and the 
whole army destroyed. 

Mylae (First Punic War). 

Fought B.C. 260, when the 
Roman fleet, under Caius Dui- 
lius, defeated the Carthagini- 
ans, under Hannibal, with loss 
of 50 ships, 3,000 killed and 
7,000 prisoners. Duilius had 
introduced the boarding bridge, 
which was lowered on to the 
deck of the opposing galley, and 
this gave full scope to the supe- 
rior powers of the Romans in 
hand-to-hand fighting. 

Mylex (Civil War of Caesar and 
Fought B.C. 36, between the 
Pompeian fleet, under Sextus 
Pompeius, and the fleet of the 
Triumvirs, under Agrippa. The 
Pompeians were defeated. 

Myonnesus (War with Antiochus 
the Great). 
Fought B.C. 190, between the 
Roman fleet, under Caius Livius, 

and the fleet of Antiochus, under 
Polyxenides, who had an ad- 
vantage of nine ships. He was, 
however, defeated by the supe- 
rior seamanship of the Romans, 
with a loss of 42 vessels. 

Mytilene (Peloponnesian War). 
This city, which had revolted 
against Athens, was invested 
in the autumn of 428 B.C. by the 
Athenians, under Paches, with 
1,000 hoplites and a fleet of 
triremes. A feeble attempt at 
relief by a Peloponnesian squad- 
ron, under Alcidas, was unsuc- 
cessful, and in May, 427, the 
city surrendered, and all the 
male inhabitants were con- 
demned to death. In the end, 
however, only the leaders of the 
revolt were executed. 

Mytilene (Peloponnesian War). 
A naval action fought B.C. 
406, between 140 Peloponnesian 
vessels, under Callicratidas, and 
70 Athenian triremes, under 
Conon. Conon was defeated, 
with the loss of 30 ships, the 
rest of his flf^et being driven into 
Mytilene, where it was blockaded. 


Nachod (Seven Weeks' War). 

Fought June 27, 1866, be- 
tween the sth Prussian Corps, 
under General Steinmetz, and 
the Austrians, under General 
Ramming. The Austrian ca- 
valry, which was considerably 
superior in number, was de- 
feated by the Prussian Uhlans, 
and the action resulted in the 
retreat of the Austrians, with a 
considerable loss in killed and 



wounded. The Prussians, who 
lost 900, captured 2,000 pri- 
soners and 5 guns. 

Nsefels (War of Kiburg). 

Fought April 9, 1388, between 
6,000 Austrians, under Tocken- 
burg, and 500 men of Glarus 
with a few Schwyzers. The 
Swiss were driven from their 
first position behind the " Letzi" 
at the entrance to the valley, 
but, retiring to the heights of the 
Rauhberg, disordered the ad- 
vancing columns by rolling 
boulders upon them, and, then 
attacking, utterly routed them. 
The Austrians lost 80 knights 
and 2.000 soldiers. 

Nagy-Sarl6 (Hungarian Rising). 
Fought April 19, 1849, be- 
tween the Hungarians, 25.000 
strong, under Gorgey, and the 
Austrians, who endeavoured to 
prevent Gorgey constructing 
bridges over the Gran. The 
Austrians were signally de- 
feated, and the river success- 
fully bridged. 

Naissus (Gothic Invasion of the 
Fought 269 between the 
Imperial troops, under the Em- 
peror Claudius Gothicus, and 
the invading Goths. The Ro- 
mans were hard pressed, when 
the Gothic lines were attacked 
in the rear by a force of 5,000 
men, which Claudius had con- 
cealed for this purpose in the 
neighbouring mountains, and 
being thrown into confusion, 
were totally routed. Fifty 
thousand men are said to have 
fallen in the battle. 

Najara. See Navarrete. 

Nanshan (Russo-Japanese War)^ 
Fought May 26, 1904, between 
three Japanese divisions, under 
General Oku, and a Russian 
division, with a large force of 
artillery, under General Stoes- 
sel. The Russians occupied a 
very strongly entrenched posi- 
tion on the heights of Nanshan. 
After an artillery preparation, 
the Japanese attempted to 
storm the heights, eight suc- 
cessive attacks failing before 
the concentrated fire of the 
Russian guns, though the last 
survivors of the assailants got 
^^Hthin 30 yards of the trenches. 
The infantry were then retired, 
and after a further bombard- 
ment, aided by the Japanese 
fleet in Kiuchau Bay, the whole 
force attacked simultaneously, 
and, penetrating the defences on 
the Russian left, drove them 
from their positions with heavy 
loss, the defenders leaving 500 
dead on the field. The Japan- 
ese lost 4,304 killed, wounded 
and missing. Seventy -eight 
guns were taken, and the Rus- 
sians penned up in Port Arthur. 

Narva (Russo-Swedish War). 

Fought November 30, 1700, 
between 8,000 Swedes, under 
Charles XII, and ^0.000 Rus- 
sians, under General Dolgorouky, 
The Russians were besieg- 
ing Narva, and after driving 
in two large bodies who occu- 
pied advanced positions, Charles 
boldly attacked their entrenched 
camp. After a brief cannonade, 
the Swedes stormed the trenches, 
and though the Russian artil- 
lerymen stood to their guns, 
after three hours' hard fighting, 
the defenders were driven out 
in disorder, having lost 18,000 

rz^^P?^"^ r-^sJiH'H^ 




in the trenches, while many 
more fell in the fight. The 
Swedes lost 600 only. 

Naseby (Gvil War). 

Fought June 14, 1645, be- 
tween 14,000 Parliamentarians, 
under Fairfax, and 7,500 Roya- 
lists, under Charles I, with 
Prince Rupert in actual com- 
mand. Rupert's first charge 
broke the Parliamentary left 
wing, but, as usual, the pursuit 
was carried too far, and before 
the cavalry returned, Cromwell 
on the right had turned the 
scale, and the battle was over. 
The Royalist infantry, over- 
whelmed by superior numbers, 
was almost annihilated, 5.000 
prisoners, and all the artillery 
and munitions of war being 

Nashville (American Civil War). 
Fought December 15 and 16. 
1863, between 50.000 Federals, 
under General Thomas, and 
40,000 Confederates, under 
General Hood. Thomas at- 
tacked the left of Hood's lines 
before Nashville, and after hard 
fighting, in which Hood lost 
1,200 prisoners and 16 guns, the 
Confederates withdrew during 
the ni^ht to a position a few 
miles m the rear. Here they 
were again attacked on the i6th, 
and, though at first holding 
their ground, were in the end 
driven from the field in confu- 
fusion, with heavy loss in killed 
and wounded, besides 4.460 
prisoners and 54 guns. 

Naulachus (Civil War of Caesar 
and Pompey). 
Fought September 3, B.C. 36, 
between the Pompeian fleet of 

300 ships, under Sextus Pom* 
peius, and the fleet of the 
Triumvirs, of equal strength, 
under Agrippa. The action 
was severely contested, but in 
the end Agrippa was victorious, 
and Pompeius fled with 17 ves- 
sels only. 

Naupactus (Peloponnesian War). 
Fought 429 B.C. between 20 
Athenian ships, under Phormio. 
and 77 Peloponnesian ships, 
under Cnemas. The Athenians 
were entrapped by Cnemas at 
the entrance to the Bay of Nau- 
pactus, and 9 of his vessels 
driven ashore. The remaining 
II fled towards Naupactus. 
closely pursued by the Pelopon- 
nesians, when the rearmost of 
the flying Athenians suddenly 
tumea. and rammed the leading 
ship of Cnemas' squadron. Jhe 
pursuers hesitated, and the rest 
of the Athenians then returned, 
and gained a complete victory, 
taking 6 ships, and recovering 
8 of the 9 which had run ashore. 

Navarino (Greek War of Inde- 
Fought October 20. 1827, 
when the allied fleets of Great 
Britain, France and Russia 
under Cxxlrington. de Rigny. 
and Heiden respectively, and 
numbering in all 24 ships, anni- 
hilated the Turkish and Egyptian 
fleets, 60 vessels being en- 
tirely destroyed, and the re- 
mainder driven ashore. The 
allies lost 272 in killed and 
wounded ; the Turks over 
4,000. This battle is note- 
worthy as being the last general 
action fought under the old 
conditions between wooden 
sailing ships. 



Nayarrete (Hundred Years* 

Fought April 3, 1367. be- 
tween 24,000 English, under 
Edward the Black Prince, and 
60,000 French and Spaniards, 
under Bertrand du GuescUn 
and Henry de Trastamare. The 
English, mainly owing to the 
skill of their archers, completely 
defeated their opponents, with 
heavy loss, du Guesclin being 
made prisoner. This battle is 
also known as the Battle of 


Fought September, 376 B.C., 
between 80 Athenian triremes, 
under Chabrias, and 60 Spartan 
ships, under PolUo, who was 
endeavouring to waylay the 
Athenian grain ships from the 
Euxine. PolUo was totally de- 
feated, with a loss of 49 triremes. 

Nechtan's Mere. 

Fought May 20. 685, between 
the Picts, under Brude, and the 
Northumbrians, under Ecgfrith. 
The latter was defeated, and the 
Picts by their victory freed 
themselves from the North- 
umbrian domination. 

Neerwinde (War of the Revolu- 
Fought July 19, 1693, be- 
tween the English, under Wil- 
liam III, and the French in 
superior force, under Marshal 
Luxemberg. The French at- 
tacked the English entrench- 
ments, and were at first re- 
pulsed, but after eight hours' 
hard fighting, they succeeded 
in driving them back all along 
the line, though owing largely 
to the personal bravery of the 
King, the retirement was in good 

order. This victory which cost 
the French 10,000 men, was a 
barren one, for William's retreat 
was unmolested, and he .was 
almost at once in a condition to 
renew the conflict. This is also 
called the Battle of Landen. 

Neerwinde (Wars of the French 
Fought March 18. 1793, be- 
tween the French, under Du- 
mouriez, and the Austrians, 
under the Prince of Coburg. 
The Austrians won a signal 
victory, and in consequence of 
his defeat Dumouriez was com- 
pelled to evacuate Belgium. 


Fought 1746, off the Coro- 
mandel coast between a British 
squadron of 6 ships, under Cap- 
tain Peyton, and 9 French ships, 
under Labourdonnais. The 
fight was conducted almost en- 
tirely at long range, and was 
indecisive, but after the action 
Peyton sheered off and made 
for Trincomalee, thus practically 
admitting defeat, though the 
French had in fact suffered the 
heavier loss. 


Siege was laid to this place 
October 21, 178 1, by a British 
force, 4,000 strong, under 
Colonel Braithwaite. The gar- 
rison, partly Dutch and partly 
Mysore troops, though 8,000 
in number, did not wait for a 
bombardment, but surrendered 
Novemba: 3. 


A naval action was fonght off 
this place in 1782 between a 
British squadron, under Sir 
Edward Hughes, and a French 
squadron, under Suffren. ..The 



opposing forces were of about 
equal strength, and the action 
was indecisive, but the French 
designs on Negapatam were 
frustrated, and Suffren drew off 
to the southward. 

Nehavend (Moslem Invasion of 
Fought A.D. 637 between the 
Moslems, under Said, the lieu- 
tenant of the Caliph Omar, and 
a Persian army, 150,000 strong. 
The Persians were utterly 
routed, this being the last stand 
made against the conquering 

Neon (Sacred War). 

Fought B.C. 354, between the 
Phocians and certain mercenary 
troops, 10,000 in all, under Phi- 
lomelus, and the Thebans and 
Locrians. The Phocians were 
totally defeated, and Philo- 
melus, driven fighting and 
covered with wounds to the 
edge of a precipice, preferred 
death to surrender, and sprang 
over the cliff. 

Neuwied (Wars of the French 
Fought April 18, 1797, be- 
tween the French, 80,000 strong, 
under Hoche, and the Austrians, 
under Wemeck. Hoche won a 
signal victory, driving the Aus- 
trians beyond the I^n, with a 
loss of 8,000 men and 80 guns. 

Neville's Cross (Scottish Wars). 
Fought October 17, 1346. 
between the Scottish invading 
army, under David II, and the 
northern levies, under Henry 
Percy and Ralph Neville. The 
Scots were completely routed, 
with a loss of 15,000 men, and 
David and many of his nobles 

Newbum (Scottish Wars). 

Fought August 28, 1640, be- 
tween 4.500 English, under 
Lord Conway, and the Scottish 
army, 22,500 strong, under 
Leslie. Conway endeavoured 
to hold the ford of Newbum, 
near Newcastle, but his raw 
levies, after a cannonade of three 
hours, ffed in confusion. Con- 
way was consequently obliged 
to evacuate Newcastle, which 
was occupied by the Scots. 
The losses on both sides were 

Newbury (Civil War). 

Fought September 20, 1643, 
between the Royalists, under 
Charles I. and the Parliamenta- 
rians, under Essex. The object 
of Charles was to stop Essex's 
march on London, and though 
his troops held their ground 
throughout the day, he could 
not be said to have gained a 
victory, as during the night he 
felt himself obliged to abandon 
his position. 

A second indecisive battle 
was fought at Newbury, October 
27, 1644, when the Royalists, 
under Charles I. again sustained 
throughout the day, without 
giving ground, the attacks of 
the Parliamentary army, under 
Waller, Manchester, and others, 
but, as on the previous occasion, 
retired during the night. 

Newmarket (American Civil 
Fought May 13. 1864, be- 
tween 15,000 Federals, under 
Sigel, and 3,500 Confederates, 
under Breckenridge. The Con- 
federates, by a rapid flank move- 
ment, fell upon Sigel's force 
while on the march, and drove 
them to seek shelter ia a wood 



behind their artillery. The 
guns were then most gallantly 
attacked and taken by 250 boys, 
pupils of the Lexington Military 
School, who lost 80 of their num- 
ber in the charge. Sigel re- 
tired, having lost very heavily 
in men, and leaving 6 guns in 
the enemy's hands. 

New Orleans (Second American 
War). . 
This city, held by a garrison 
of 12.000 Americans, under 
General Jackson, was attacked 
December, 18 14, by a British 
force of 6,000 men, under 
General Keane, aided by the 
fleet. On the 13th the Ameri- 
can warships, lying in the Mis- 
sissippi, were captured by a 
boat attack, and by the 21st 
the whole of the troops were 
disembarked. After a few skir- 
mishes. Sir Edward Pakenham, 
arrived and took command 
on the 25 th, and on Janu- 
ary I, 181 5, a determined 
attack was made upon the 
American position. This failed, 
and owing to difficulties as to 
suppUes, the British retired. 
On the 7th a final assault took 
place, but the assailants were 
again repulsed, with a loss of 
1,500, including Pakenham, and 
the expedition then withdrew. 
At the time of the action peace 
had already been concluded, 
though of course neither party 
was aware of the fact. 

New Orleans (American Civil 
On April 16, 1862. the Federal 
fleet of 30 armed steamers and 
21 mortar vessels, under Com- 
modore Farragut, began the 
attack on this city by the bom- 
bardment of Fort Jackson. 

After this fort and Fort Mary 
had been shelled with little in- 
termission until the 25 th, Fa- 
ragut forced the passage, and 
anchoring off the Lev6e of New 
Orleans, the city at once sur- 
rendered. The forts, however, 
still held out, but a mutiny 
broke out in Fort Jackson, and 
on the 28th they surrendered 
to Commodore Porter. 

New Ross (Irish Rebellion). 

Fought June 5, 1799, between 
30,000 rebels, under Father 
Roche and Bagcnal Harvey, 
and about 1,400 regulars, under 
General Johnstone. The rebels 
attacked the troops posted in 
New Ross, and penetrated into 
the centre of the town, but were 
then driven back with the 
bayonet, and totally routed, 
with a loss of 2,600 killed. 

Newtown Butler (War of the 
Fought August 2, 1689, be- 
tween 5,000 Catholics, under 
Maccarthy, and 3.000 Protes- 
tants, under Colonel Wolseley. 
in defence of Enniskillen. The 
Catholics were totally routed, 
and fled in disorder, losing 1,500 
in the action, and 500 drowned 
in Lough Erne. 

Niagara (Seven Years* War) 

This fort was besieged in 
June, 1759. by 2,500 British, 
with 900 Indians, under General 
Prideaux, the garrison consist- 
ing of 600 French, under Cap- 
tain Pouchot. Prideaux was 
killed by the premature explo- 
sion of a shell, and Sir William 
Johnson succeeded to the com- 
mand. On July 24. when the 
garrison were almost in extremis, 
an attempt to relieve the fort 




was made by i,3cx> French and 
Indians, under Ligneris, but he 
was repulsed by Johnson with 
considerable loss, at La Belle 
Famille, and Pouchot at once 

Nicsea (First Crusade). 

This city was besieged by the 
Crusaders, under Godefroi de 
Bouillon, May 14, 1097. The 
Saracens were greatly aided in 
the defence by the possession of 
Lake Ascanius, but with great 
labour the crusaders trans- 
ported boats from the sea to 
the lake, and thus completed 
the investment of the place. 
Two determined attempts to 
relieve it were made by the 
Sultan Soliman, but both were 
repulsed, and Nicaea surren- 
dered June 20. 

Nicholson's Nek. See Farquhar's 

Nicopolis (Third Mithridatic 
Fought B.C. 66, between the 
Romans, under Pompey, and 
the army of Mithridates. The 
Romans had occupied the 
heights in front of the retreat- 
ing Asiatics, and Mithridates 
encamped under their position. 
In the night the Romans at- 
tacked him in his camp, and 
utterly routed him. This was 
the last battle fought by Mithdri- 
dates against the legions of 


Fought B.C. 47, when Domi- 
tius Calvinus, with one Roman 
legion and a contingent of 
Pontic and other Asiatic troops, 
encountered the Bosporans, 
under Phamaces. Calvinus' 

Asiatic troops fled at the first 
onset, and he was completely 
defeated, only the steadiness of 
the Romans saving him from 

Nicopolis (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought September 28, 1395, 
between 10,000 French and 
50,000 Hungarians, under the 
Due de Nevers and Sigismund of 
Hungary, and the Turkish army 
of Bajazet I. The French 
charged the Turkish lines, with- 
out waiting for the Hungarians, 
and penetrated the two first 
lines, kiUing 1,500 Turks, but 
they were then overpowered by 
the Janissaries in the third line 
and 3,000 killed, while all the 
survivors were captured. Baja- 
zet then turned upon the Hun- 
garians, who fled without strik- 
ing a blow. Bajazet massacred 
all his prisoners, excepting 25 

Nicopolis (Russo-Turkish War). 
This place was captured July 
16, 1877. by the 9th Russian 
Army Corps, under General 
Krudener, after two days* bom- 
bardment, when the garrison 
of 7,000 Turks surrendered. 
The Russians lost 1.300 killed 
and wounded. 

Nieuport (Netherlands War of 
Fought July 2, 1600, between 
the Dutch, under Maurice of 
Orange, and the Spaniards, 
under the Archduke Albert of 
Austria. Prince Maurice was 
surprised by the Archduke in a 
very critical position, but suc- 
ceeded in holding his own, and 
after a long and evenly-con- 
tested engagement, ultimately 
defeated the Spaniards witn 
heavy loss. 



Nikko (Japanese Reyolution). 

Fought 1868, between the 
adherents of the Shogun, under 
Otori Keisuke, and the Imperial 
army, under Saigo Takamori. 
The rebels were defeated, and 
fled to the castle of Wakamatsu. 

Nile (French Invasion of Eg]rpt). 
Fought August I, 1798, Ad- 
miral Brueys. with 13 ships of 
the Une and 4 frigates, was 
anchored in Aboukir Bay. 
Nelson, with 13 line-of-bat tie- 
ships and one 50-gun ship, 
penetrated with haJf his squad- 
ron between the French line 
and the shore, while his remain- 
ing ships engaged them on the 
outside. Thus caught between 
two fires, the French were 
utterly routed, only two of 
their vessels escaping capture 
or destruction. Admiral Bru- 
eys was killed, and his ship 
L'Oricnt blown up. This battle 
is also known as the Battle of 

Nineveh (Persian Wars). 

Fought December i, 627, 
between the Imperial troops, 
under the Emperor Heraclius. 
and the Persians, under Rhaz- 
ates, the general of Chosroes II. 
The Persians stood their ground 
manfully throughout the day 
and far into the night, and were 
almost annihilated before the 
surviving remnant retreated in 
good order to their camp. The 
Romans also lost heavily, but 
the victory opened the way to 
the royal city of Destigerd, 
which fell into the hands of 
Heraclius. and peace was made 
the following year. 

Niquitas (South American War 
of Independence). 
Fought 18 1 3, when the Colom- 

bian Patriots, under BoUvar, 
completely defeated the Spanish 

Nisib (Mehemet All's Second Re- 
Fought June 23, 1839, be- 
tween 30,000 Turks, under 
Hafiz Pasha, and Mehemet 
AU's Syro-Egyptian army, 
under his son Ibrahim. Ibrahim 
was far the stronger in artillery, 
and his fire so shattered the 
Turks, that when he finally 
advanced his infantry, they 
made no stand, but turned and 
ficd. Von Moltke, as a captain 
in the Turkish service, was 
under fire in this action for the 
first time. 

Nisibis (Persian Wars). 

This fortress, known as the 
Bulwark of the East, was thrice 
besieged in 338, 346 and 350 by 
Sapor II, King of Persia. In 
the two former years he was 
compelled to retire after a siege 
of 60 and 80 days respectively. 
In 350 the city was defended by 
a garrison under Lucilianus, 
and Sapor, finding the ordinary 
methods unavailing, diverted 
the course of the Mygdonius, 
and by building dams formed a 
large lake, upon which he placed 
a fieet of armed vessels, and 
attacked the city almost from 
the level of the ramparts. 
Under pressure of the water a 
portion of the wall gave way, 
and the Persians at once de- 
livered an assault, but were 
repulsed ; and by the following 
day the garrison had rebuilt the 
wall. At the end of about 
three months. Sapor, having 
lost 20,000 men, raised the siege. 


A naval action, fought at the 


tzjfsicrgsa:^ - > ■ * < i i g. >a E i 



mouth of the Nissa in 1064, 
between the Danish fleet, under 
Sweyn II, and the Norwegians 
under Harold Hardrada. Sweyn 
was totally defeated, and his 
fleet destroyed, he himself es- 
caping with difficulty to Zea- 

Nissa. See Morawa. 

Nive (Peninsular War). 

Fought December 13. 1813. 
between 35,000 French, under 
Soult. and 14,000 British and 
Portuguese, under Wellington. 
Having crossed the Nive on the 
loth, Wellington took up a 
strong position on the heights 
near the village of St. Pierre. 
Here he was attacked by Soult. 
but repulsed him, and occupied 
the French position in front of 
the Adour. The French losses 
in this battle and the combats 
which preceded it, amounted to 
10,000 men. The British lost 
5,019 killed and wounded. 

Nivelle (Peninsular War). 

Fought November 10, 181 3, 
when the French, under Soult, 
were driven from a very strong 
position by the British, under 
Wellington, and forced to retire 
behind the Nivelle. The French 
lost 4,265, including about 1,200 
prisoners, 51 guns, and all their 
fleld magazines. The British 
lost 2,694 killed and wounded. 

Nordlingen (Thirty Years' War). 
Fought September 6. 1634, 
between 40,000 Imperialists, 
under Ferdinand of Hungary, 
and a numerically inferior force 
of Germans and Swedes, under 
the Duke of Weimar and Count 
Horn. The action was fought 
to relieve Nordlingen, which 
Ferdinand was besieging, and 

resulted in the total defeat of 
the allies, who lost 12,000 killed, 
6,000 prisoners, including Horn, 
and 80 guns. 

Nordlingen (Wars of Louis XIV). 
Fought August 3, 1645, be- 
tween 17,000 French under 
Cond6, and 14,000 Imperialists, 
under Mercy. The French at- 
tacked the village of Allersheim, 
where the Imperiahsts were 
strongly entrenched, and after 
very severe fighting, the left 
under Turenne succeeded in 
expelling them, with a loss of 
6,000 killed, wounded and 
prisoners, and almost all their 
guns. General Mercy was killed. 
The French loss amounted to 
about 4,000. 

Noisseville (Franco - German 
A sortie of the French, under 
Bazaine, from Metz, August 31, 
1 870. in the endeavour to break 
through the investing Une of 
the Germans, under Prince 
Frederick Charles. The French 
had some slight success at first, 
and mamtained the ground 
they had won during the day, 
but on September i, their 
further efforts to advance were 
fruitless, and they were driven 
back into Metz with a loss of 
145 officers and 3,379 men. 
The Germans lost 126 officers 
and 2,850 men. 

Northallerton. See Standard. 

Northampton (Wars of the 
Fought July 10, 1460, be- 
tween the Lancastrians, under 
Henry VI. and the Yorkists, 
under the Earl of Warwick. 
The king's entrenchments were 
betrayed by Lord Grey de 



Ruth)ni, and the Lancastrians 
were defeated with a loss of 
300 killed, including Bucking- 
ham, Shrewsbury, Egremont, 
and other prominent men. The 
King was made prisoner. 

North Foreland (Dutch Wars). 

Fought July 25, 1666, be- 
tween the EngUsh fleet, under 
the Duke of Albemarle and 
Prince Rupert, and the Dutch, 
under Van Tromp and de 
Ruyter. The English gained 
a complete victory, capturing 
or burning 20 ships. The Dutch 
had 4,000 men killed or drowned. 

Notion (Peloponnesian War). 

Fought B.C. 407 between the 
Peloponnesian fleet, under Ly- 
sander, and the Athenian fleet of 
Alcibiades, which was lying at 
Notion. Alcibiades was not 
present during the action, 
which was the result of a sur- 
prise, and the Athenians were 
defeated with a loss of 1 5 ships 

Nova Carthago (Second Punic 
This city, defended by a small 
Carthaginian garrison, under 
Mago, was stormed by 27,500 
Romans, under Scipio, B.C. 209. 

Novara (Italian Wars). 

Fought June 6, 1515, between 
10,000 French, under La Tre- 
mouille. and 13,000 Swiss. The 
French camp was surprised by 
the Swiss, who, after hard fight- 
ing, totally routed the French 
with a loss of 6,000 men. The 
Swiss losses were also heavy. 

Novara (Italian Rising). 

Fought March 23, 1849, ^' 
tween 50,000 Piedmontese, 
under Chrzanowski, and three 
Austrian army corps, under 

Radetsky. After hard fighting* 
the Piedmontese were com- 
pletely defeated and driven 
from the field in disorder. 

Novi (Wars of the French Re- 
Fought August 15, 1799, be- 
tween the French, under Jou- 
bert, and the Russians and 
Austrians, under Suwaroff. 
Early in the action Joubert fell, 
Moreau succeeding to the com- 
mand. The result was disas- 
trous to the French, who were 
defeated with a loss of 7,000 
killed and wounded, 3.000 
prisoners, and 37 gims. The 
allies lost 6,000 killed and 
wounded and 1,200 prisoners. 


Nujufghur (Indian Mutiny). 

Fought August 24, 1857, be- 
tween 6,000 rebels, under Mo- 
hammed Bukht Khan, and a 
small British force, under John 
Nicholson. The rebels were 
defeated, at small cost, with a 
loss of over 800 men and all 
their guns. 

Numantia (Lusitanian War). 

This city, defended by the 
inhabitants under Megaravicus. 
was besieged B.C. 142 by a 
Roman consular army. In the 
course of 141 the Romans were 
twice defeated under the walls, 
and though negotiations for a 
surrender were entered into in 
the following year, they were 
not concluded, and in 139 the 
new Roman commander, Popi- 
hus Lxnas, refused to ratify 
the terms. Shortly afterwards 
he was again defeated by the 
Numantians, as was his suc- 
cessor Mandus in 137. It was 
not till the arrival of Scipio 
.'EmiUanus in 134 that the 




lengthy resistance of the in- 
habitants was at last overcome, 
and fifteen months after he 
took command the city fell, in 
the autumn of 133 B.C. 


Fought 1533, between the 
Poles, under Tamowski, and 
the Wallachians, under Bogdan. 
The Wallachians were signally 
defeated, with heavy loss, 

Obligado (Uruguayan War of 
Fought November, 1845, be- 
tween the Argentine fleet, under 
Oribe, and the combined French 
and British scjuardons. The 
alUes were victonous, and Oribe 
was forced to raise the siege of 
Montevideo, while the waters of 
the Parana were opened to the 
shipping of all nations. 

Ocaxia (Peninsular War). 

In this action, at which 
Joseph Buonaparte was pre- 
sent, Soult, with 30,000 French, 
defeated 53,000 Spaniards, un- 
der Areizaga. with a loss of 
5,000 killed and wounded. 
26,000 prisoners, including 3 
generals, 45 guns, and all their 
baggage and transport. The 
French only lost 1,700 men. 

Ocean Pond (American Civil 
Fought February 20, 1864, 
between 5,000 Confederates, 
under General Finnegan. and 
6,000 Federals, under General 
Seymour. The Confederates oc- 
cupied a strong position, pro- 
tected by swamps and forests, 
near Lake City, where they 

were attacked by Seymour* 
whom they defeated with a loss 
of 1,200 men and 5 guns. The 
Confederates loss amounted to 

Ockley (Danish Invasion). 

Fought 851. between the 
Danes, and the West Saxons, 
under Ethelwulf. The Danes 
were completely defeated. 

Oczakov (Ottoman Wars). 

This fortress, defended by 
10,000 Turks and Bosnians, was 
besieged 1737, by the Russians, 
under Count Munnich. and 
after the magazine had been 
blown up was stormed by the 
besiegers, and the garrison cut 
to pieces. In 1788 the place 
was again besieged by the Rus- 
sians, under Potemkin. and 
after a strenuous resistance of 
six months, was taken by storm. 
December 17. In the massacre 
which followed, 40,000 of the 
garrison and inhabitants were 
put to the sword. 

Odawara (Hojo Rebellion). 

The castle of Odawara. the 
last stronghold of the Hojo 
family, was besieged by the 
Japanese Imperial troops, under 
Hideyoshi. The castle held out 
for over three months, but at 
last finding that they could hope 
for no support from without, the 
garrison surrendered, and the 
power of the Hojo family came 
to an end. 


Fought B.C. 457. between the 
Athenians, under Myronides, 
and the Thebans and other 
Boeotian states. The Boeo- 
tians were totally defeated, and 
were in consequence compelled 
to acknowledge the headship of 



Athens, and to contribute men 
to her armies. 

Of en (Hungarian Rising). 

This fortress, held by an 
Austrian garrison, under General 
Hentzi, was besieged by the 
Hungarians, under Gorgey, 
May 4, 1849. After an un- 
successful assault, a siege in due 
form was commenced, and 
several further assaults having 
also failed, the place was finally 
taken by storm on the 21st. 
General Hentzi was mortally 

Ohud (Mohammed's War with 
the Koreish). 
Fought 623. between 950 
Moslems, under Mohammed, and 
3.000 Koreish of Mecca, under 
Abu Sophian. The latter were 
victorious, 70 Moslems being 
slain, and the Prophet himself 
wounded, but Abu Sophian did 
not feel himself strong enough 
to follow up his victory by an 
attack upon Medina. 


Fought 1467. between the 
Spanish adherents of the In- 
fante Alfonso, a claimant to the 
throne, under the Archbishop of 
Toledo, and the Royal troops, 
under Henry of Castile. After 
an action which began late in 
the afternoon, and lasted for 
three hours, without any very 
decisive result, the Archbishop, 
who was considerably inferior 
in numbers, withdrew his troops, 
leaving Henry in possession of 
the field. 

Olmiitz (Seven Years' War). 

This place was besieged by 
Frederick the Great, May, 1758. 
Having insufficient troops to 
completely invest the place. 

Frederick's task was a ditlicult 
one, and Marshal Daun was 
able to keep communications 
open, and supply the town with 
provisions. After a siege of 
seven weeks, the Austrians 
captured a convoy of 4,000 
waggons, under the escort of 
Landon, destined for the Prus- 
sian army, and Frederick was 
forced by this loss to raise the 
siege, and retire. 

OlpsB (Peloponnesian War). 

Fought 426 B.C., between a 
small Athenian force, under 
Demosthenes, and a force of 
Ambraciots. ^ith 3.000 Spartan 
hoplites, under Kurylochus. 
Demosthenes gained a com- 
plete victory, by means of an 
ambuscade, and Eurylochus was 

Oltenitza (Crimean War). 

Fought 1853, when a Turkish 
army, superior in numbers, 
under Omar Pasha, totally 
defeated the Russian army 
which had invade<i the Danub- 
ian Principalities. 

Omdurman (Soudan Campaigns). 
Fought September 2, 1898, 
between the British and Egyp- 
tians, 23,000 strong, under Sir 
Herbert Kitchener, and 50,000 
Dervishes, under the Khalifa. 
The Dervishes attacked the 
British zareba, and were repulsed 
with heavy loss. Kitchener 
then advanced, to drive the 
enemy before him into Om- 
durman, and capture the place. 
In the course of the operation, 
however, the Egyptian Brigade 
on the British right, under 
General Macdonald, became iso- 
lated, and was attacked in 
front by the centre of the Der- 
vish army, while his flank and 



rear were threatened by the 
Dervish left, which had not 
previously been engaged. The 
position was critical, but through 
the extreme steadiness of the Sou- 
danese, who changed front under 
heavy fire, the attack was re- 
pulsed. The British and Egyp- 
tian losses were 500 killed and 
wounded. The Dervishes lost 
about 15,000. 

Onao (Indian Mutiny). 

Fought July 28, 1857, between 
Havelock's relieving force, i , 500 
strong, and the rebels, who 
occupied a strong position near 
Onao, so protected on the flanks 
that a frontal attack was neces- 
sary. This was successful, and 
after the town had been passed, 
a further attack by the muti- 
neers was repulsed, with a loss 
of 300 men and 15 guns. 


Fought July 27, 1778, be- 
tween 30 British ships of the 
hne, under Admiral Keppel, and 
a French squadron of equal 
force, under the Comte d'Es- 
taing. After a fight which 
lasted throughout the day. the 
two fleets drew off to repair 
damages, neither side having 
lost a ship. 

Oondwa Nullah. 

Fought September, 1763, 
when 3,000 British and native 
troops, under Major Adams, 
carried by storm the entrench- 
ments and the fort held by 
Mir Cossim's army of 60,000 
men with 100 guns. Mir Cos- 
sim fled and his army was 
entirely dispersed. 


Fought August 23, 1768. 
when the camp of the Mahratta 

contingent, under Morari Rao. 
forming a part of Colonel Donald 
Campbell's column, was attack- 
ed by a detachment of Hyder 
AH's army. The Mahrattas re- 
pulsed the Mysore cavalry with 
a loss of about 300, at a cost to 
themselves of 18 only. 

Opequan (American Civil War). 
Fought September 19, 1864. 
between 13,000 Conf^erates, 
under General Early, and 45,000 
Federals, under General Sheri- 
dan. Success at first inclined 
to the side of the Southerners, 
but their left wing was broken 
by a charge of 7,000 cavalry, 
under Custer, and the Con- 
federates were completely routed 
and fled in confusion. 

Oporto (Peninsular War). 

Fought March 28. 1809. when 
the French, under Soult, com- 
pletely defeated the Portuguese 
under Lima and Pareiras, out- 
side the city of Oporto. Soult 
followed up his success by storm- 
ing Oporto, with horrible slaugh- 
ter, it being computed that 
10,000 of the inhabitants perish- 
ed. The French lost 500 only. 

Oran (Ximenes* Expedition to 
Fought May 17, 1509, be- 
tween the Moors and the Spani- 
ards, under Navarro. The 
Spaniards, late in the evening, 
attacked and drove off the Moors 
from a strong position on the 
heights above the city. They 
then stormed the city itself, 
escalading the walls by placing 
their pikes in the crevices of the 
stones. The Moors lost in the 
battle and the storm 4,000 
killed and about 8,000 prisoners, 
while the losses of the victors 
were very small. 



Orchomenus (First Mithridatic 
Fought B.C. 85, between the 
Pontic army, under Archelaus, 
and the Romans, under Sulla. 
The Asiatic cavalry attacked 
and drove back the Roman line, 
but Sulla himself ralUed his 
troops, and led them in a charge 
which totally routed the enemy 
with heavy loss. 

Ordovid, The. 

Fought A.D. 50, between the 
Romans, under Ostorius Scapula, 
and the Britons, under Carac- 
tacus. The Britons occupied 
the slope of a hill, where they 
were attacked by the Romans 
and totally routed. Caractacus 
fled to the Brigantes, by whom 
he was surrendered, and sent a 
captive to Rome. 

Orleans (Hundred Years* War). 
This city was besieged by the 
English, under the Regent, the 
Duke of Bedford, in October, 
1428. In April, 1429, a French 
force, 7,000 strong, under Dunois 
and Joan of Arc, succeeded in 
entering, it having been found 
impossible to invest the place 
completely. After various suc- 
cessful attacks on the batteries 
erected by the besiegers, Joan, 
on the 6th and 7th of May. led 
the garrison to victory against 
the EngUsh lines, and on the 
8th Bedford was compelled to 
raise the siege. 

Orthez (Peninsular War). 

Fought February 27, 18 14. 
between the British under Wel- 
lington, and the French, under 
Soult. The French were driven 
out of Orthez and across the 
Luy de B^am, with a loss of 

4,000 killed and wounded, and 
6 guns. 


Fought 1862. between the 
Bolivian Government troops, 
under the President, General 
Acha. and the rebels, under 
General Perez, who had pro- 
claimed himself President. Perez 
was utterly routed. 

Ostend (Netherlands War of 
This place was besieged, July 
5, 1 60 1, by the Spaniards, under 
the Archduke Albert. The town 
made a most remarkable defencei 
holding out for more than three 
years, but Spinola having taken 
command of the besiegers, it 
was finally captured. September 
14. 1604. by which time scarcely 
a house in the town was left 
standing. The Spaniards lost 
70.000 men in the course of the 

Ostia (Italian Wars). 

This place, held by a French 
garrison, under Menaido Guerri. 
was besieged in 1500 by the 
Spaniards, under Gonsalvo de 
Cordova. After five days' bom- 
bardment, an attack was made 
upon the town on the opposite 
side by a small party of Span- 
iards resident in Rome, under 
Garcilasso de la Vega. Thus 
between two fires. Guerri sur- 

Ostrolenka (Crimean War). 

Fought 1853. between the 
Turks, under Omar Pasha, and 
the Russian army which had 
invaded the Danubian Princi- 
paUties. The Turks, who were 
considerably superior in num- 
bers, gained a complete victory. 




Ostrowno (Campaign of Mos- 
Fought July 25 and 26, 18 12, 
between the French corps of 
Ney and Prince Eugdne. with 
Murat's cavahry. and the Rus- 
sian corps of Count Osterman 
and General Konownitzyn. The 
Russians were defeated and 
driven back on both days, with 
a loss of 3,000 killed and wound- 
ed, 800 prisoners and 8 guns. 
The French loss was about the 

Oswego (Seven Years* War). 

This place, held by a garrison 
of 1 ,400 Provincial troops, under 
Colonel Mercer, was besieged 
by the French, under Mont- 
calm, August II, 1756. After 
a bombardment of 3 days, 
in the course of which Mercer 
was killed, the place surrendered. 
The losses on both sides were 
very small. 

Otrar (Tartar Invasion of Khar- 
This city was besieged, 12 19, 
by 200,000 Mongols, under 
Oktai and Zagatai, sons of Gen- 
ghiz Khan, and defended by a 
garrison of 60,000. under Gazer 
Khan. The place was entered 
after a four months' siege, by 
which time the garrison was 
reduced to 20,000 men, but with 
this remnant Gazer Khan held 
out in the citadel for another 

Otterbum (Scottish Wars). 

Fought August 19, 1388, be- 
tween 9,000 English, under 
Henry Percy (Hotspur) and a 
greatly inferior force of Scots, 
under Earls Douglas and Mur- 
ray. Hotspur attacked the 
Scottish entrenchments, and was 

totally defeated, with a loss of 
about 2,000. The battle is 
celebrated in the old ballad of 
" Chevy Chace." 

Otumba (Conquest of Mexico). 
Fought July 8, 1520, between 
200 Spaniards, with some 
thousands of Tlascalan auxili- 
aries, under Cortes, and a force 
of about 200.000 Aztecs. The 
Spaniards, wearied by a long 
march on their retreat from 
Mexico, were intercepted by 
the Aztecs, and after many 
hours' fighting, were on the 
verge of defeat, when a charge 
of a few cavaliers, headed by 
Cortes, into the very heart of 
the Aztec army, so discouraged 
them that they fled in disorder. 
It is said that 20,000 Aztecs 

Oudenarde (War of the Spanish 
Fought July II, 1708. be- 
tween 80,000 British and Im- 
perialists, under Marlborough 
and Prince Eugene, and 100,000 
French, under the Duke of Bur- 
gundy and Marshal Venddme. 
The French, who were besieging 
Oudenarde, raised the siege on 
the advance of the allies, and 
marched to meet them, but were 
totally defeated with a loss of 
3,000 killed, 7.000 prisoners, 
and 10 guns. The allies lost 

Paardeberg (Second Boer War). 
Fought February 18, 1900, 
between 5,000 Bioers, under 
Cronje, and the British, number- 
ing 4 Infantry Brigades, with 4 
batteries, under Lord Kitchener. 
Cronje had taken refuge in the 



bed of the Tugela river, and an 
attempt was made to dislodge 
him. The absence of cover for 
the attacking force, however, 
rendered this impossible, but he 
was surrounded, and on the 
arrival of Lord Roberts, sub- 
jected to a sustained artillery 
fire, which lasted until he sur- 
rendered on the 27 th. The 
British losses during the opera- 
tions amounted to 98 officers 
and 1,437 men, of whom i.ioo 
fell in the battle of the i8th. 
The prisoners taken numbered 
3,000 Transvaalers and 1,100 
Free Staters, with 6 guns. 


Fought September 17, 1861, 
between the troops of Buenos 
Ayres, under Mitre, aided by an 
Itahan legion, under Piloni, and 
the army of the Argentine Con- 
federation, under Urquiza. The 
latter were defeated. 

Pagahar (First Burmah War). 

The only occasion during the 
war when the Burmans met 
the British in the open. In 1825 
Sir Archibald Campbell, with 
1,300 men, encountered 15,000 
Burmans, under Zay - ya- 
Thayan but the battle was 
almost a bloodless one, for the 
Burmans failed to make any 
stand, their general being the 
first to flee. 

Pagasaean Gulf (Sacred War). 

Fought B.C. 352, between the 
Phocians. under Onomarchus, 
and the Macedonians, under 
Philip. Philip's infantry was 
about equal in numbers to that 
of the Phocians. but he was far 
superior in cavalry, and in the 
end the Phocians were com- 
pletely defeated, with the loss 

of a third of their number. 
Onomarchus was slain. 

Palais Gallien (War of the 
Fought September 5, 1649, 
between the Royal troops, 8,000 
strong, under the Marshal de la 
Meilleraic, and 7,000 Bordelais, 
under the Dues de Bouillon 
and de la Rochefoucauld. The 
Bordelais successfully repulsed 
four or five assaults, but by 
nightfall were driven from their 
entrenchments into the city, 
with a loss of about 120. The 
assailants lost over 1,000 killed 
and wounded. 

Palermo (Italian Rising). 

Fought May 26 and 27, 1848, 
when Garibaldi, with 750 of his 
" Thousand Volunteers," and 
about 3,000 Sicilian " Picciotti," 
succeeded in surprising one of 
the gates of Palermo, which 
was garrisoned by 18,000 Nea- 
politans, under General Lanza. 
The "Picciotti" fled at the 
first shot, but Garibaldi pene- 
trated into the city, where, be- 
ing joined by the citizens, he 
erected barricades, and after 
some severe fighting, in which 
the NeapoUtans suffered heavily, 
(^ncral Lanza surrendered. The 
last of the Neapolitan troops 
were withdrawn on June 20. 

Palestrina (Italian Rising). 

Fought May 9, 1849, between 
4.000 Italian Patriots, under 
Garibaldi, and 7,000 Neapoli- 
tans, under King Ferdinand. 
After three hours' fighting, the 
Neapolitans were totally routed. 
Garibaldi was wounded in the 

Palestro (Unification of Italy). 

Fought May 30. 1859, be- 
tween the Sardinians, under 

■r^— =._ -■ jr yri ■ ' ^ • ■ '-■i ' ]:^_, 

^-•V.-l.^*-' - - 



General Cialdini, and the Aas« 
trians. under General Stadion. 
The Austrians attacked the 
Sardinians while they were 
crossing the Sesia. but were 
repulsed, and Cialdini effected 
the passage successfully and 
drove the Austrians out of 
Palestro with considerable loss. 

Palmyra (Expedition to Pal- 
This city was besieged by the 
Romans, under AureUan, after 
the defeat of Zenobia at Emesa 
in 272. An obstinate defence 
was made by the Queen, but 
AureUan being reinforced by 
Probus early in 273, Zenobia 
fled from the city and the place 
was captured. Zenobia failed 
to escape, and was brought into 
Aurelian's camp. During his 
return march, AureUan learnt 
that the citizens had risen, and 
massacred the Governor and 
the garrison he had left in the 
place. He thereupon retraced 
his steps, and destroyed the 
city, sparing neither young nor 

Palo Alto (Americo - Mexican 
Fought May 8, 1846, between 
the Americans, under General 
Taylor, and the Mexicans, under 
Arista. The Mexicans were 
completely routed, at very small 
cost to the victors. 

Panama (Raids of the Buc- 
On December 16, 1670. Morgan 
the Buccaneer sailed from His- 
paniola with 37 ships and about 
2,000 men to plunder this town. 
Having captured the castle of 
San Lorenzo, at the mouth of 
the Chagre, an exploit which 

cost the assailants 170 out of 
400 men engaged, while two- 
thirds of the garrison were 
kiUed, Morgan started to cross 
the Isthmus, at the head of 
1,200 men, January 18, 167 1. 
The garrison of Panama, 2,400 
strong, met him outside the 
city, and were defeated with 
heavy loss, the Buccaneers 
losing 600 men. Morgan then 
sacked the place, and on Feb- 
ruary 24, withdrew with 175 
mule loads of plunder, and 600 

Panama (Raids of the Buc- 
Fought April 23, 1680, be- 
tween the Buccaneers, with 
three ships, under John Coxon, 
and three Spanish vessels. The 
Spaniards were defeated, after 
a hard fight in which two Span- 
ish vessels were captured by 
boarding. The Spanish com- 
mander was kiUed. The Buc- 
caneers then entered the Bay, 
and captured six vessels lying 
in the roads. 


Fought 331 B.C., between the 
Italian Greeks, under Alexander 
of Epirus, and the Lucanians. 
During the battle Alexander 
was stabbed by a Lucanian 
exile serving in the Greek army, 
and the Greeks were in the end 

Pandu Naddi (Indian Mutiny), 
Fought July 15, 1857, be- 
tween a British relieving force, 
under Havelock, and the muti- 
neers who were opposing his 
advance to Cawnpore. By a 
forced march in the heat of the 
day, Havelock succeeded in 
seizing the bridge over the 



Pandu Naddi, which the mati- 
neers were engaged in mining, 
thus securing an open road to 
Cawnpore. The rebels were 
driven off after a short engage- 

Pandu Naddi (Indian Mutiny). 
Fought November 26, 1857, 
between 1,400 British, under 
General Windham, and the 
advance guard of the mutineers 
and the Gwalior contingent, 
under the Nana Sahib. The 
rebels were posted beyond the 
river, and the British crossing 
the dry bed, drove them from 
their entrenchments, capturing 
3 guns. Windham, then finding 
himself close to the main body 
of mutineers, retired towards 

Panipat (Third Mongol Inva- 
Fought April 20, 1526, be- 
tween the Delhi Mohammedans, 
10,000 strong, with 100 ele- 
phants, under Ibrahim, and the 
Mongols, about 2,000 picked 
men, under Baber, the nrst of 
the Great Moguls. Ibrahim was 
totally defeated, being himself 
among the slain. The battle 
marked the end of the Afghan 
dynasty of Delhi, and the com- 
mencement of the Mogul Em- 


Fought November 5, 1536. 
between Akbar, the Great 
Mogul, with about 20,000 troops, 
and the forces of the revolted 
Hindu Rajahs, 100,000 strong, 
under Hemu. The Hindus 
attacked, and the onslaught 
of the elephants being repulsed, 
their ranics were tluown into 
disorder, and the Moguls gained 

a complete victory. Hemu was 
wounded and captured. By 
this victory Akbar recovered 
Delhi, which had fallen into the 
hands of the rebels. 


Fought 1759, between the 
Mahrattas. 85,000 strong, under 
Sedashao Raio Bhao, cousin of 
the Peshwa, and the Duranis. 
numbering, with Hindu allies, 
about 90,000. The Bhao at- 
tacked, and dispersed Ahmed's 
Indian troops, but on the Du- 
ranis coming into action, the 
Mahrattas were broken and 
utterly routed, with enormous 
loss. The Bhao, and the son 
of the Peshwa were among the 

Panormus (First Punic War). 

Fought B.C. 2 so, between 
25,000 Romans, under L. Cae- 
cilius Metellus, and the Cartha- 
ginian army in Sicily, under 
Hasdrubal. Hasdrubal offered 
battle in front of Panormus, and 
Metellus sent out his Ught 
troops to engage him. They 
ran back into the town before a 
charge of the elephants, which, 
following closely, were driven 
into the ditch surrounding the 
place, where many were killed. 
Meanwhile Metellus sallied out 
with his legionaries, and taking 
Hasdrubal in flank completely 
routed him. The whole of the 
Carthaginian elephants in Sicily 
were killed or captured in this 

Paraetakene Mountains (Wars 
of Alexander's Successors). 
Fought 316 B.C., between the 
Macedonians, 30,000 strong, 
under Antigonus, and an equal 
force of Asiatics, under Eumenes. 

3 . '.'■i.*- 



l^umenes attacked the Mace- 
donian camp, and after a severe 
engagement, in which the 
Asiatics held the advantage, 
Antigonus, by successful man- 
oeuvring, withdrew his army 
without serious loss, leaving 
Eumenes a barren victory. 

Parana (Paraguayan War). 

Fought 1866, between the 
Paraguayans, under Lopez, and 
the Brazilians, under Porto 
Alegre. Lopez was victorious. 

Paris (Allied Invasion of France). 
On March 30, 18 14, Paris, 
which was defended only by 
20.000 regulars and National 
Guard, under Marmont, was 
attacked by the Grand Army 
of the allies, under Schwartz- 
emberg. Three columns as- 
saulted the French positions at 
Vincennes, Belleville and Mont- 
martre, while a fourth attacked 
the extreme left of the French 
line in order to turn the heights 
of Montmartre. The two first 
positions were carried, and 
Montmartre turned, whereupon 
Joseph having fled, Marmont 
surrendered. The French lost 
over 4,000 men ; the allies about 

Paris (Franco-German War). 

Paris was invested by the 
main German army, under the 
King of Prussia and von Moltke. 
September 19, 1870, The gar- 
rison, under the command of 
General Trochu, made a gallant 
defence, many serious sorties 
taking place, but the Germans 
gradually mastered the outer 
defences, and finally, being much 
straitened by famine, the city 
surrendered January 28, 1871. 

Parkany (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought August, 1663, l>c- 
tween 200,000 Turks, under the 
Grand Vizier, Achmet Koprili 
Pasha, and the Hungarians, in 
far smaller force, under Count 
Forgacz. The Hungarians were 
defeated, and driven into Neu- 
hausel, which town, after a 
valiant resistance of six weeks, 
capitulated September 24. 

Parma (War of the Polish Suc- 
Fought June 29, 1734, be- 
tween the French, under Marshal 
de Coigny, and the ImperiaUsts, 
60,000 strong, under General de 
Mercy. The ImperiaUsts were 
defeated with a loss of 6,000, 
including de Mercy. The French 
loss was almost as heavy. 

Paso de la Patria (Paraguayan 
Fought 1866, between the 
Paraguayans, under Lopez, and 
the Brazilians, under Porto 
Alegre. The Paraguayans gained 
a signal victory. 

Patay (Hundred Years* War). 

Fought June 18, 1429, be- 
tween the French, under Joan 
of Arc and the Due d'Alen^on, 
and the English, under Talbot 
and Sir John Fastolfe. The 
English were retiring after the 
siege of Orleans, and their ad- 
vanced guard under Talbot, 
being attacked by the French, 
was seized with a panic, and 
refusing to meet the charge of 
the French cavalry, broke and 
fled. The main body, under 
Fastolfe, however, maintained 
its formation, and made good 
its retreat to Etampes. T^bot 
was made prisoner. 



Patila (Tartar Invasion of 
Fought 1394, between the 
Tartars, under Tamerlane, and 
the Persians, under Shah Man- 
sur. The Persians vigorously 
attacked the Tartar centre, and 
Tamerlane was nearly over- 
whelmed, but rallying his troops 
he led a charge which restored 
the battle, and gained a com- 
plete victory. The complete 
subjugation of Persia followed. 

Pavia (Invasion of the Ale- 
Fought 271, between the 
Romans, under AureUan, and 
the German invaders. Aurelian 
gained a signal victory, and the 
Alemanni recrossed the frontier. 

Pavia (Lombard Conquest of 
This city was besieged in 568 
by the Lombards, under Alboin, 
and after a gallant defence, last- 
ing over three years, was at last 
subdued, rather by famine than 
by force of arms, and surrend- 
ered to the besiegers. Pavia 
then became the capital of the 
Lombard kingdom of Italy. 

Pavia (Italian Wars). 

Fought May 22, 143 1, on the 
Ticino, near Pavia, between 
85 Venetian galleys, under 
Nicolas Trevisani, and a some- 
what superior number of galleys 
in the pay of the Milanese. 
The Venetians were defeated, 
with a loss of 70 gallejrs and 
3,000 men. 

Pavia (Wars of Charles V). 

Fought February 25, 1525, 
between the French, under 
Francis I, and the Imperialists, 
under Lannoy. Francis, who 
was besieging Pavia, awaited 

the attack of the Imperialists 
on his lines, and his artillery 
wrought great havoc in their 
ranks, then, charging at the 
head of his cavahry, he was 
repulsed by Lannoy's infantry, 
and the Swiss mercenaries being 
taken in flank, and thrown into 
disorder, the battle was lost. 
Francis was captured. This is 
the occasion on which he wrote 
to his mother, " Rien ne m'est 
demourd, excepts I'honneur et 
la vie qui est sauve." 

Peach Tree Creek (American 
Civil War). 
Fought July 22, 1864, in the 
course of the operations round 
Atlanta, between the Federals, 
under General Sherman, and 
the Confederates, under General 
Hood. Hood attacked the 
Federal position, and drove off 
their left wing, capturing 13 
guns and some prisoners ; being 
reinforced, however, the Federals 
rallied, and recovered the lost 
ground. The Confederates, how- 
ever, claimed the victory. 
The Federals lost 3,722, in- 
cluding General McPherson. 
The Confederate losses were 
about the same. 

Pea Ridge (American Civil War). 
Fought March 7 and 8, 1862, 
between 16,000 Confederates, 
under General von Dom, and 
the Federals, in equal force, 
under General Curtis. On the 
7 th the Confederates drove 
back the Federal right wing, 
and nearly succeeded in cutting 
their communications, though 
they lost General M'Culloch 
in the course of the action. On 
the 8th the Federals drove back 
the Southerners, and recovered 
the ground they had lost, the 

■ -c.-X'^---^' 



battle ending without decisive 
result. The losses on each side 
were about This is also 
called the Battle of Gek Horn, j 

Peiwar Kotal (Second Afghan 
Fought December 2, 1878, 
between a British force, 3,200 
strong, under Sir Frederick 
Roberts, with 13 guns, and 
about 18,000 Afghans, with 11 
guns, strongly posted in the 
Kotal. By an able, but diffi- 
cult turning movement, the 
pass was crossed, and the Af- 
ghans completely defeated, with 
heavy loss, all their guns being 
captured. The British lost 20 
killed and 78 wounded. 

Peking (Tartar Invasion of 
This city was besieged by the 
Tartars, under Genghiz Khan, 
in 1 2 10, and after a long and 
obsintate defence, which so 
exhausted the besiegers that 
Genghiz Khan is said to have 
decimated his men in order to 
feed the rest, the city was 
taken by stratagem. 

Pelekanon (Ottoman Conquest 
of Asia Minor). 
Fought 1329, between the 
Turks, under Orkhan, and the 
forces of Andronicus the Young- 
er, Emperor of the East. The 
ImperiaUsts were defeated. 
This is the first occasion in 
which the Byzantines met the 
Ottoman invaders in battle. 

Pelischat (Russo-Turkish War). 
Fought August 30, 1877, 
when the Turks, 25,000 strong, 
with 50 guns, made a sortie 
from Plevna, and attacked the 
Russian lines in front of Pora- 
dim. The Russians, 20,000 

strong, under General Zotofif. 
succeeded in repulsing all the 
Turkish attacks, with a loss of 
about 3,000 killed and wounded. 
The Russians lost 1,000. 

Pelusium (Persian Conquest of 
Fought S2S B.C., between the 
Persians, under Cambyses, and 
the Egyptians, under Psam- 
meticus. The Egyptians were 
totally defeated, and this vic- 
tory was followed by the com- 
plete subjugation of Egypt, 
which became a Persian , sa- 

Pelusium (War of Alexander's 
Fought B.C. 321, between the 
Macedonians, under the Regent, 
Perdiccas, and the Egyptians, 
under Ptolemy Lagus. Per- 
diccas attacked the fortress, but 
was driven off with heavy loss, in- 
cluding 1 ,000 drowned in the Nile. 

Pefia Cerrada (First CarUst War ). 
This fortress, held by a CarUst 
garrison, under Gergue, was 
captured by Espartero with 
19,000 Cristinos, June 21, 1838. 
After shelling the place for 
7 hours, Espartero attacked the 
Carlists, who held the heights 
outside the town, and dispersed 
them, capturing 600 prisoners, 
and all their guns. The re- 
mainder of the garrison then 
abandoned the place. 

Penobscot Bay (American War 
of Independence). 
Fought July 14, 1779. when 
a British squadron of 10 ships, 
under Sir George ColUer, com- 
pletely destroyed an American 
squadron of 24 ships, and cap- 
tured the 3,000 men who formed 
their crews. 



Pen Selwood (Danish Invasion). 
Fought 1016, between the 
English, under Edmund Iron- 
side, and the Danes, under Knut, 
shortly after Edmund's elec- 
tion as King by the Witanege- 
mot. This was the first of the 
series of engagements between 
the two rivab, which ended 
with the Peace of Olney. 

Pered (Hungarian Rising). 

Fought June 21, 1849. be- 
tween the Hungarians, 16,000 
strong, under Gdrgey, and the 
Austrians and Russians, under 
Prince Windischgratz. The al- 
lies attacked the Hungarian 
position, and after severe fight- 
ing, drove them out, with a loss 
of about 3,000. 

Perembacum (First Mys ore War )• 

Fought September 10, 1780, 
when a Mysore force, ix,ooo 
strong, under Tippu Sahib, 
surrounded and cut to pieces a 
detachment of Sir Hector Mon- 
ro's army. 3,700 in number, 
under Colonel Baillie. Only a 
few. including Baillie himself, 
escaped the massacre. 

Perisabor (Persian Wars). 

This fortress, defended by an 
Ass3rrian and Persian garrison, 
was captured. May, 363, by the 
Romans, under Julian. The 
fortress was dismantled and 
the town destroyed. 


This fortress was besieged by 
the French, 1 1,000 strong, under 
the Seigneur du Lude, at the 
end of 1474, and was defended 
by a Spanish garrison. The 
Spanish army could not succeed 
in relieving the place, and after 
holding out with great gallantry 
until March 14, 1475, the gar- 

rison, reduced to 400 men, 
surrendered, and were allowed 
to march out with the honours 
of war. The capture of Per- 
pignan gave France possession 
of Rousillon. 

PerryviUe (American Civil War]. 
Fought October 8, 1862, be- 
tween 45,000 Federals, under 
General Buell, and a somewhat 
smaller Confederate army, under 
General Bragg. The Confeder- 
ates attacked, and drove back 
the Federals, but no decisive 
result was arrived at, and dur- 
ing the night Bragg withdrew, 
having inflicted a loss of 4.000 
on the enemy, and captured 
an artillery train. The Con- 
federates lost about 2,500 killed 
and wounded. 

Persepolis (Wars of Alexander's 
Fought B.C. 316, between 
the Macedonians, 31,000 strong, 
with 65 elephants, under Anti- 
gonus, and 42,000 Asiatics, 
with 114 elephants, under Eu- 
menes. At the first onslaught, 
Antigonus' infantry was 
overwhelmed, but his cavalry 
retrieved the day. and seizing 
the enemy's camp, threw Eu- 
menes' phalanx into confusion. 
Upon this the Macedonian in- 
fantry ralUed, and gained a 
complete victory, Eumenes be- 
ing captured. 

Peshawar (Second Mohammedan 
Invasion of India). 
Fought 1 00 1, between 10,000 
Afghans, under Sultan Mahmud 
of Ghuzni, and 42,000 Punjabis, 
with 300 elephants, under the 
Rajah Jaipal of Lahore. The 
Rajah was totally defeated, and 
captured with 15 of his prin- 
cipal chiefs. 



Petersburg (American Civil 
Fought June 15 to 18, 1864, 
forming an episode in the 
Federal attack on Richmond. 
General Beauregard, with 8,000 
men, was charged with the 
defence of Petersburg, and at 
the same time had to contain 
General Butler at Bermuda 
Hundred. His entrenchments 
before Petersburg were attacked 
on the 15th by General Smith, 
and a portion of the lirst line 
carried. On the i6th Beaure- 
gard withdrew the force mask- 
ing Bermuda Hundred, and 
concentrated his troops in front 
of Petersburg, but after holding 
out till the afternoon, a panic 
seized the defenders, and they 
were driven from the first line. 
Beauregard, however, rallied 
them, and retook the entrench- 
ments. During the night he 
withdrew to a second and 
stronger line of defences, and on 
the 17th and 18th repulsed, with 
terrible slaughter, all the efforts 
of the Federals to carry it. 

Petersburg (American Civil War ). 
On June 30, 1864, a mine was 
exploded under the Confederate 
defences in front of Petersburg, 
and an attempt was made by the 
Federals to carry the entrench- 
ments during the confusion 
that ensued. The Confederates, 
however, stood their ground, 
repulsing all attacks with heavy 
loss, and of the Federals who 
succeeded in entering the breast- 
works, 5,000 were killed or 
captured. Both the generals 
commanding, Lee and Grant, 
were present during the action. 

Peterwaradin (Ottoman Wars). 
Fought August 5, 17 16, when 

Prince Eugene, with 80,000 
Imperialists, mostly veteran s 
from the Flanders campaign, 
signally defeated 1 50,000 Turks 
under Damad Ali Pasha. The 
Turks lost 30,000 killed, 50 
standards and 250 guns. The 
Imperialists lost about 3,000. 

Petra (Persian Wars). 

This strong fortress, gar- 
risoned by 1,500 Persians, was 
besieged by the Romans, 8,000 
strong, under Dagisteus, in 549. 
After a series of unsuccessful 
assaults the Romans succeeded 
in bringing down a large portion 
of the outer wall by mining. By 
this time the garrison was re- 
duced to 400, but Dagisteus, 
delaying to storm the fortress, 
the Persians succeeded in throw- 
ing in reinforcements, which 
brought the garrison up to 
3.000. Meanwhile all the 
breaches had been repaired, and 
the Romans had to undertake 
a second siege. At last a breach 
was effected, and after very 
severe fighting the besiegers 
effected a lodgement. Of the 
defenders 700 fell in the second 
siege, and 1,070 in the storm, 
while of 700 prisoners, only 18 
were unwounded. Five hun- 
dred retreated to the citadel, 
and held out to the last, perish- 
ing in the fiames when it was 
fired by the Romans. 

Pharsalus (Civil War of Cesar 
and Pompey). 
Fought August 9, B.C. 48, 
between the Pompeians, 60,000 
strong, under Pompey, and 
Cacsareans, 25,000 strong, under 
Caesar. The Pompeian cavalry 
drove back that of Caesar, but 
following in pursuit, were thrown 
into confusion by the legion 



aries, whereupon they turned 
and fled from the field ; the in- 
fantry followed and the battle 
became a rout, in which 15,000 
Pompeians, and only 200 Cssar- 
eans fell. After the battle, 
20.000 Pompeians surrendered. 

Pharsalus (Greco-Turkish War). 
Fought May 6, 1897, when 
Edhem Pasha, with three Turk- 
ish divi<)ions. drove the Greeks 
from their entrenchments in 
front of Pharsalus. at a cost of 
about 230 killed and wounded. 
The Greek loss was not very 

Philiphaugh (Civil War). 

Fought September 13, 1645, 
when 4,000 Lowland horse, 
under David Leslie, surprised 
and cut to pieces Montrose's 
force of Highlanders, encamped 
near Selkirk. Montrose escaped 
with a few followers. 

Phiiippi (Rebellion of Brutus). 

Fought B.C. 42, between the 
Republicans, under Brutus and 
Cassius, 100.000 strong, and the 
army of the Triumvirs, about 
equal in numbers, under Octa- 
vius and Mark Antony. Brutus 
on the right repulsed the legions 
of Octavius, and penetrated into 
his camp. Cassius. however, 
was overthrown by Antony, 
and would have been over- 
whelmed but for the arrival of 
aid from the successful right 
wing. The action was renewed 
on the second day, when the 
Triumvirs were completely vic- 
torious, and the]RepubUcan army 
dispersed. Brutus committed 
suicide on the field of battle. 

Philippopolis V First Gothic In- 
vasion of the Empire). 
This city was besieged, 251, 

by the Goths, under Cniva, and 
after a gallant defence, and the 
defeat of an attempt by Decius 
to reUeve it, was stormed and 
sacked. It is said that 100,000 
of the garrison and inhabitants 
perished in the siege and sub- 
sequent massacre. 

Philippopolis (Russo-Turkish 
Fought February 17, 1878, 
between the Russians, under 
General Gourko. and the Turks, 
under Fuad and Shakir Pashas. 
The Turks made a stubborn 
defence of the approaches to 
Philippopolis, but were over- 
powered by superior numbers, 
and forced to retreat with a loss 
of 5,000 killed and wounded, 
2,000 prisoners, and 114 guns. 
The Russians lost 1,300. 

Phiiipsburg (War of the Polish 
This fortress, held by the 
Imperialists, was besieged 1734, 
by the French, under the Duke 
of Berwick. The Duke was 
killed by a cannon ball while 
visiting the trenches, but the 
place fell soon afterwards, not- 
withstanding the efforts of 
Prince Eugene to relieve it. 

Pieter's HiU (Second Boer War). 
The scene of the severest fight- 
ing in the course of Sir Redvers 
Buller's final and successful 
attempt to relieve Ladysmith. 
The operations commenced by 
the capture of Hlangwane, on 
February 19, 1900, which gave 
the British command of the 
Tugela. which was crossed on 
the 2 1 St. On the 22nd a steady 
advance was made up to the 
line of Pieter's Hill, which was 
attacked by the Irish Brigade, 

1^- 1 - 



under General Hart, on the 23rd. 
At a cost of nearly half their 
numbers, they succeeded in 
establishing themselves under 
cover, close to the Boer trenches, 
but could not dislodge the de- 
fenders. It was not till the 
27th, when BuUer had turned 
the Boer left, that a general 
assault was successful, and the 
Boers evacuated the position. 
The British losses during the 
operations were 1.896 killed 
and wounded. 

Pingyang (Chine- Japanese War). 
Fought September 15, 1894, 
between the Japanese, 14,000 
strong, under General Nodzu, 
and 12,000 Chinese, entrenched 
in a strong position. After 
severe fighting the Chinese were 
driven from their entrench- 
ments with heavy loss. The 
Japanese lost 650 killed and 

Pinkie Cleugh (Scottish Wars). 
Fought September, 1547, be- 
tween the Scots, under the Earl 
of Huntly, and the English, 
under the Protector Somerset. 
The Scots crossed the Esk, and 
attacked the English lines, at 
first with success, but they were 
thrown into confusion by a 
charge of cavalry, and in the 
end fled from the field with 
heavy loss. 

Pirot (Servo-Bulgarian War). 

Fought November 26 and 27, 
1885, between 40,000 Servians, 
under King Milan, and 45,000 
Bulgarians, under Prince Alex- 
ander. After some desultory 
fighting, the Bulgarians seized 
the town of Pirot in the course 
of the afternoon. At dawn on 
the 27 th, the Servians, by a 

surprise attack, recoverfni Pirot, 
which was later retaken by the 
Bulgarians, though the Servians 
continued to hold a position to 
the south of the town till night- 
fall. Early next morning an 
armistice was concluded. The 
Bulgarians lost 2,500, the Ser- 
vians 2,000 killed and wounded. 

Pittsburg Landing. See Shiloh. 

Placentia (Invasion of the Ale- 
Fought 271, between the 
Romans, under Aurelian, and 
the invading Alemanni. The 
barbarians attacked the Romans 
in the dusk of evening, after a 
long and fatiguing march, and 
threw them into disorder, but 
they were rallied by the Em- 
peror, and after severe fighting, 
succeeded in beating ofl their 

Plains of Abraham (Seven Years' 
Fought September 13, 1759, 
when Wolfe, who was lying on 
shipboard in the St. Lawrence 
above Quebec, with 4,000 troops, 
effected a landing secretly in the 
night of the 12th to the 13th, 
and took up unperceived a 
strong position on the Plains of 
Abraham. Next morning he 
was attacked by Montcalm, 
with about equal numbers, but 
notwithstanding the most des- 
perate efforts, the French were 
unable to carry the position, 
and were driven back into 
Quebec withaloss of about 1 , 500. 
Both Wolfe and Montcalm fell 
mortally wounded. The British 
loss amounted to 664 killed and 
wounded. The French imme- 
diately afterwards evacuated 



Plassy (Scren Years' War). 

Fought 1757, between the 
British, 3,000 strong, with 8 
guns, under Clive, and the army 
of Surabjah Daulah, Nawab of 
Bengal, aided by a small force 
of Frenchmen. Clive was en- 
camped in a grove of mango- 
trees, where he was attacked by 
the Nawab. He beat off the 
attack, and then stormed the 
Nawab's lines, totally routing 
his army, which fled in panic, 
with a loss of about 500. The 
British lost 72 only. 

Plataea (Third Persian Invasion). 
Fought B.C. 479, between the 
Greeks, about 100,000 strong, 
under Pausanias the Spartan, 
and 300.000 Persians, with 
50,000 Greek auxiliaries, under 
Mardonius. The Persians fought 
bravely, but were overborne by 
the superior discipline and 
heavier armour of the Greeks, 
and Mardonius falling, a panic 
ensued, and they fled to their 
entrenched camp. This was 
stormed by the Athenians, and 
no quarter was given, with the 
result, it is said, that with the 
exception of a body of 40,000 
which left the field early in the 
battle, only 3,000 Persians 

Plataea (Peloponnesian War). 

In 429 B.C., this city, held by 
a garrison of 400 Platseans and 
80 Athenians, was besieged by 
the Spartans, under Archida- 
mus. All the useless mouths 
were sent out of the place, only 
no women being retained to 
bake bread. The garrison re- 
pulsed numerous assaults, and 
the siege soon resolved itself 
into a blockade, but provisions 
becoming scarce, an attempt 

was made to break through the 
enemy's lines, which half the gar- 
rison succeeded in doing, with the 
loss of one man. The remainder 
held out till 427, when being on 
the verge of starvation, they 
surrendered. The survivors 
were tried for having deserted 
Boeotia for Athens, at the out- 
break of the war, and 200 
Platxans. and 25 Athenians 
were put to death. 

Plescow (Russo-Swedish Wars). 
This fortress was besieged by 
the Swedes, under Gustavus 
Adolphus, August 20. 161 5, 
and defended by a Russian 
garrison. It is notable as mark- 
ing a departure from the estab- 
lished practice of surrounding 
a besieged city with walls of 
circumvallation. For these 
Gustavus substituted a series 
of entrenched camps, communi- 
cations between which were 
maintained by strong patrol- 
ling forces. Little progress was 
made, owing to a delay in the 
arrival of the Swedish breaching 
guns, and through the media- 
tion of England, negotiations 
were opened with Russia, and 
the siege raised. October 14, 

Plevna (Russo-Turkish War). 

Four battles were fought in 
the course of the siege of Plevna, 
the first three being attacks on 
the Russian defences, and the 
fourth. Osman Pasha's final 
attempt to cut his way through 
the l)esiegcr's lines. 

On July 20. 1877, the advance 
guard of Krudener's corps, 
6,500 strong, under Schilder- 
Schuldener, attacked the de- 
fences to the north and east 
of Plevna. The Russians ad« 




vanced with impetuosity, and 
carried some of the advanced 
trenches, driving the defenders 
back to the outskirts of the 
town, but their heavy loss, and a 
failure of ammunition compelled 
a retreat, and the Turks rallying, 
drove them from the positions 
they had captured , and pursued 
them for some distance. The 
Russians lost two- thirds of their 
officers, and nearly 2,000 men. 

The second battle took place, 
July 30, when General Kriidener, 
with 30,000 Russians in two 
divisions, assailed the Turkish 
redoubts to the north and east 
of the town. Schakofsky had 
command of the latter attack, 
Krudener himself leading the 
assault on the Gravitza redoubt 
on the north. Kriidener was 
absolutely unsuccessful. Scha- 
kofsky by 5.30 p.m. was in pos- 
session of two of the eastern 
redoubts, but before nightfall 
these were retaken by the Turks, 
and the Russians retired, de- 
feated all along the line. Their 
losses amounted to 169 officers 
and 7,136 men, of whom 2,400 
were left dead on the field. On 
the nth and 12th of September, 
the investing army, 95,000 
strong, under the Grand Duke 
Michael, attacked Plevna on 
three sides, Osman Pasha having 
now 30,000 men under his com- 
mand. On the nth an attack 
on the Omar Tabrija redoubt 
was repulsed with a loss to the 
Russians of 6,000 men. The 
attack on the Gravitza redoubts 
resulted in the capture of the 
" Bloody Battery," which the 
Russians held till the end of the 
siege. On the south-west, Sko- 
belefi captured two of the six 
inner redoubts which protected 

that angle of the fortress. On 
the 1 2th, the attack on the 
second Gravitza redoubt was 
repulsed, and the two redoubts 
captured by Skobeleff were 
retaken, after a terrible struggle. 
The losses in the two days' 
fighting amounted to 20,600 
including 2.000 prisoners, on 
the Russian side, on that of the 
Turks to Of these, 8,000 
Russians, and 4,000 Turks fell 
in Skobelefi's attack. 

On December 10, Osman 
Pasha, at the head of 25.000 
Turks, accompanied by 9.000 
convalescents and wounded in 
carts, attempted to cut his way 
through the Russian army, now 
100,000 strong, under the King 
of Roumania, with Todleben 
as Chief of the Staff. The 
attempt was made on the east 
of Plevna, and was directed 
against the Imperial Grenadiers, 
under General Ganetzki. Hav- 
ing successfully crossed the Vid. 
Osman charged down upon the 
Russians, on a line two miles in 
length, and carried the first line 
of entrenchments. Todleben, 
however, hurried up reinforce- 
ments, and the Turks were in 
turn attacked, and driven back 
in confusion across the river, 
Osman being severely wounded. 
Here they made their last stand, 
but were overpowered, and 
driven into Plevna, which be- 
fore evening capitulated, after a 
defence lasting 143 days. In 
this engagement, the Turks lost 
5.000, and the Russians 2.000 
killed and wounded. 


Fought 1667, between 10,000 
Poles, under John Sobieski, and 
80,000 Cossacks and Tartars 



who were besieging Kaminiec. 
The Cossacks were totally routed 
and forced to evacuate Poland. 

Podol (Seven Weeks' War). 

Fought June 26, 1866, be- 
tween the advance-guard of 
Prince Frederick Charles' army, 
and the Austrians, under General 
Clam-Gallas. The Austrians 
were defeated and driven out 
of Podol, after severe fighting, 
in which they lost heavily. The 
Prussians took 500 prisoners. 

Poitiers (Gothic Invasion of 
Fought 507, between the 
Franks, under Clovis, and the 
Visigoths, under Alaric II. 
Clovis and Alaric met in single 
combat, and Alaric was slain, 
following which the Goths were 
utterly routed. By this decisive 
victory, the province of Aqui- 
taine was added to the Prankish 

Poitiers (Hundred Years' War). 
Fought September 19, 1356, 
between 8,000 English, under 
Edward the Black Prince, and 
80,000 French, under King 
John of France. The English 
occupied a strong position be- 
hind lanes and vineyards, in 
which their archers were posted. 
The French cavalry, charging 
up the lanes, were thrown into 
confusion by the bowmen, and 
were then taken in flank by the 
English knights and men-at- 
arms, who completely routed 
them, with a loss of 8,000 Idlled, 
and numerous prisoners, in- 
cluding the King, The English 
losses were very small. 

PoU (War of Chiozza). 

Fought 1380, when Doria. 
with 22 Genoese galleys, offered 

battle to the Venetian fleet, 
under Pisani, which was lying 
at Pola. Pisani sallied out with 
20 galleys, and captured the 
Genoese flag-ship, Doria being 
killed. The Genoese, however, 
rallied, drove Pisani back, and 
defeated him with a loss of 
2,000 killed, and 15 galleys and 
1.900 men captured. 

Pollen tia (First Gothic Invasion 
of Italy). 
Fought March 29, 403, be- 
tween the Goths, under Alaric, 
and the Romans, under Stilicho. 
StiUcho attacked the Gothic 
camp while they were celebrat- 
ing the festival of Easter, and 
owing to the surprise, the charge 
of the Roman cavalry threw 
them into confusion. They 
were, however, soon rallieil by 
Alaric, and the Romans driven 
off with heavy loss, but Stilicho 
advancing at the head of the 
legionaries, forced his way into 
the camp, and drove out the 
Goths with enormous slaughter. 
Alaric's wife was among the 

Pollicore (First Mysore War). 

Fought August 27, 1 78 1, be- 
tween 11,000 British, under Sir 
Eyre Coote and the Mysoris, 
80.000 strong, under Haidar Ali. 
Coote seized the village of Polli- 
core, turning Haidar's flank 
and forcing him to retreat, after 
an action lasting eight hours. 
The British lost 421 killed and 
wounded, the Mysoris about 

Polonka (Russo-PoUsh Wars). 

Fought 1667, between the 
Russian invaders, and the Poles, 
under Czamle9ki. The Rus- 
si.ins were totally routed, a 
defeat which was largely in- 



strumental in bringing about 
the signature of peace in the 
same year. 

Polotsk (Moscow Campaign). 

Fought August 1 8, 1812, be- 
tween 33,000 French and Bavar- 
ians, under General Saint Cyr, 
and 30,000 Russians, under 
Count Wittgenstein. The Rus- 
sians were taken by surprise, 
and after an action which lasted 
two hours only, were driven 
back with a loss of 3,000 killed, 
1,500 prisoners and 14 guns. 
The French lost a little over 
1,000 killed and wounded. 

Polotsk (Moscow Campaign). 

Fought October 18, 18 12, 
when (reneral Saint-Cyr, with 
30,000 French and Bavarians, 
was attacked and defeated by 
the Russians, in slightly superior 
force, under Count Wittgenstein, 
and forced to evacuate Polotsk. 

Ponani (First Mysore War). 

Fought November 19, 1780, 
when a force of British and 
native troops, about 2,500 
strong, under Colonel Macleod, 
entrenched near Ponani, were 
attacked before daybreak by a 
strong force of Mysoris, under 
Tippu Sahib. The Mysoris were 
repulsed at the point of the 
bayonet, with a loss of 1,100. 
The British loss was 87 only. 


This place was invested by 
the British, under Admiral Bos- 
cawen, with a fleet of 30 sail, 
and a land force of 6,000 men, 
August 30, 1748, and was de- 
fended by a French garrison of 
4,800. under Dupleix. The 
siege was grossly mismanaged, 
and in October Boscawen was 
forced to withdraw, having lost 

by sickness or in action nearly 
a third of his land force. The 
French lost 250 only during the 

Pondicherry (Seven Years' War). 
In August, 1760, Colonel 
Coote, with about 8.000 British 
and native troops, invested 
this place, which was held by a 
French garrison. 3,000 strong, 
under Lally-Tollendal. Coote 
was almost immediately super- 
seded by Colonel Monson. but 
the latter having been wounded. 
Coote resumed the conmiand. 
Fire was not opened from the 
breaching batteries till Decem- 
ber 8th, and on the 31st a 
terrific hurricane wrecked all 
the land batteries, and drove 
ashore six ships of the blockad- 
ing squadron. On January 10, 
1 76 1 , however, fire was reopened, 
and the town surrendered on 
the 15th. 


Having been surrendered to 
the French by the Peace of 
Paris, Pondicherry was again 
besieged by a British force, 
under Sir Hector Monro, in 
conjunction with a squadron of 
ships, under Sir Edward Vernon. 
August 8. 1778. It was gallant- 
ly defended by the French, under 
M. Bellecombe, until the middle 
of October, when after a month's 
bombardment the place sur- 


A naval action was fought off 
Pondicherry, August 10, 1778, 
during the third siege, when a 
French squadron of 5 ships, 
under M. Tron jolly, issued from 
the roads, and offered battle to 
the 5 ships of Sir Edward 



Vernon. The Prench were 
worsted, and driven back to 
their anchorage. 


A second naval action off 
this place was fought June 20, 
1783, between a British squad- 
ron of 18 ships of the line, and 
12 frigates, under Sir Edward 
Hughes, and a French squadron, 
under de Suffren. The battle 
was undecided, the British ships 
suffering considerably in masts 
and rigging, and being unable 
to chase when de Suffren sheered 
off. The British loss was 520 
killed and wounded. 

Pontevert (GalUc War). 

Fought S7 B.C., between 
50,000 Romans, under Cxsar, 
and the Suevi, 300,000 strong, 
under Galba. The Suevi attack- 
ed the Roman entrenched camp, 
but were repulsed with very 
heavy loss and their army dis- 

Pont Valain (Hundred Years' 
Fought 1370, between the 
French, under du Guesclin, and 
the EngUsh, under Sir Thomas 
Granson. The French sur- 
prised the English camp, but 
the English ralUed, and a severe 
conflict followed, in which the 
French attack was at first re- 
pulsed. A flank movement of 
the French, however, threw 
the English into disorder, and 
they were defeated with a loss 
of nearly 10.000 in killed, 
wounded and prisoners, a- 
mong the latter being Sir Thomas 

Poonah (Second Mahratta War). 

Fought October 25, 1802, 

between the forces of Jeswunt 

Rao, and the united armies of 
the Peshwa and Sindhia of 
Gwalior. After an evenly con- 
tested action, Jeswunt Rao got 
the upper hand, and gained a 
complete victory, Sindhia fleeing 
from the field, leaving behind 
him all his guns and baggage. 

Port Arthur (Chine - Japanese 

This place, held by a Chinese 
garrison of 9,000 men, was at- 
tacked and stormed by the Jap- 
anese, after a short bombard- 
ment. The Chinese made but a 
feeble resistance, the assailants 
losing only 270 killed and 

Port Arthur (Russo-Japanese 

Fought February 8, 1904, 
between a Japanese fleet of 16 
warships, under Vice-Admiral 
Togo, and the Russian fleet of 
6 battleships and 10 cruisers, 
under Vice- Admiral Stark, lying 
at anchor off Port Arthur. The 
Japanese attacked with torpedo 
boats, and succeeded in seriously 
damaging 2 battleships and a 
cruiser, which were beached at 
the mouth of the harbour. They 
then opened a bombardment, 
in which they injured a third 
battleship and four more cruisers 
sustaining no damage to their 
own ships. The Russians lost 
56 killed and wounded, the 
Japanese, 58, chiefly in the 
torpedo boats. 

On April 13, the Japanese 
torpedo flotilla attacked the 
Russian squadron, under Makar- 
off. The battleship Petropav- 
lovsk was torpedoed and sunk, 
Makaroff and 700 oflScers and 
men being drowned. The battle- 
ship Pobieda, and a destroyer 

— ■ ■ ^.i T 

= *:.-=t 



were also torpedoed, but man- 
aged to reach the harbour. The 
Japanese suffered no material 

After numerous only partially 
successful attempts to block 
the fairway, the Japanese, on 
May 2, sent in a fleet of mer- 
chant steamers, accompanied by 
the torpedo flotilla. Of these, 
eight succeeded in reaching the 
outer harbour, and two of them 
broke the boom guarding the 
inner harbour, and were blown 
up by their commanders in the 
fairway. Several others were 
sunk near the harbour entrance. 
Of the 179 officers and men 
forming the crews of the mer- 
chant steamers, only 42 were 
rescued by the Japanese, though 
a few survivors fell into the 
hands of the Russians. This is 
one of the most daring exploits 
in the history of naval warfare. 

Porte St. Antoine (Wars of the 
Fought July 2, 1652, between 
the Royal troops, under Tu- 
renne, and 5,000 insurgents, 
under Cond^. Cond6 occupied 
a position round the gate, pro- 
tected by barricades and fortified 
houses, where he was attacked 
by Turenne. The barricades 
were taken and retaken several 
times, but at last, after heavy 
fighting, Cond6 abandoned all 
idea of penetrating into Paris, 
and retired. His losses were 
heavy, especially in officers, 
among the severely wounded 
being the Due de Nemurs, and 
the Due de la Rochefoucauld. 

Port Hudson (American Civil 

This fortress was invested. 
May 25, 1863, by five Federal 

divisions, under General Banks, 
and defended by 6,000 Con- 
federates, under General Gard- 
ner. An assault on the 27th 
was repulsed, and a regular 
siege commenced. After a 
second unsuccessful assault, on 
June 14, the garrison, having no 
hope of reUef, surrendered, 
July 9, having lost 800 men 
during the siege. The losses of 
the besiegers were far heavier, 
the two unsuccessful assaults 
showing a heavy list of casual- 

Portland (Dutch Wars). 

Fought February 18, 1653, 
between an English fleet of 
about 70 sail, under Blake, 
Deane and Monk, and a Dutch 
fleet of 73 ships, convoying 300 
merchantmen, under VanTromp, 
de Ruyter and Evetzen. In 
the early part of the engage- 
ment, which was very severely 
contested, three English ships 
were carried by the board, and 
that portion of the fleet which 
had come into action was nearly 
overwhelmed. At this crisis, 
however, the rest of the English 
ships engaged, the battle was 
restored, and the captured ships 
retaken. On the 19th the battle 
was renewed off the Isle of Wight, 
5 Dutch ships being captured 
or destroyed. On the 20th the 
Dutch sheered off defeated, 
having lost during the three 
days' fighting, 11 men-of-war, 
60 merchant ships, 1,500 killed 
and wounded and 700 prisoners. 
The English losses were also 

Porto Hello (Raids of the Buc- 
This Spanish- American fort- 
ress was captured in 1665 by 


20 1 

460 Boccaneers, under Morgan. 
The walls were scaled, and the 
town sacked, unheard-of cruel- 
ties being perpetrated by the 

Porto Bello (War of the Austrian 
This place was captured from 
the Spaniards, November 21, 
1740, by a British fleet of 6 
ships, under Admiral Vernon. 
The British loss was trifling. 

Porto Novo (First Mysore War). 
Fought July I, 1 78 1, between 
8,500 British troops, under Sir 
Eyre Coote, and about 65,000 
Mysoris, under Hyder Ali. 
Hyder occupied a strongly en- 
trenched camp, blocking the 
British advance upon Cuddalore. 
Here he was attacked by Coote, 
and after a day's hard fighting 
the position was stormed, and 
Hyder forced to retreat. The 
British lost 306 only, while the 
Mysoris are computed to have 
lost 10,000. 

Porto Praya Bay. 

Fought April 16, 1781, when 
Commodore Johnstone, in com- 
mand of a British squadron of 
5 bhips of the line and 5 frigates, 
repulsed a determined attack of 
a French squadron of 11 sail, 
under de Suffren. The loss in 
the British squadron amounted 
to 36 killed and 147 wounded. 

Port Republic (American Ciyil 
Fought June 9, 1862, between 
the Federals, 12,000 strong, 
under General Shields, and an 
equal force of Confederates, 
under General Jackson. The 
Federals were completely de- 
feated, a portion of their army 

being driven from the field in 
disorder and with heavy loss. 


This city was besieged by a 
force of about 3,000 Athenians, 
B.C. 432, and was defended by a 
small garrison of Corinthians, 
under Aristaeus. The town 
held out until the winter of 429, 
when the garrison surrendered, 
and were permitted to go free. 

Potosi. (South-American War 
of Independence). 
Fought April, 1825, between, 
the I^livians, under Bolivar, 
and the Spanish Royalists, 
under Olaneta. The Spaniards 
were completely defeated. 

Prague (Thirty Years* War). 

Fought November 8, 1620, 
when the Imperialists, under 
Maximilian of Bavaria and 
Count Tilly, drove 22,000 Bo- 
hemians, under Frederick of 
Bohemia, up to the walls of 
Prague, and signally defeated 
them, with a loss of 5,000 men 
and all their artillery. Frede- 
rick was obliged to take refuge 
in the city, and soon afterwards 
capitulated. The battle only 
lasted an hour, and the Imperi- 
alists lost no more than 300 men. 

Prague (Seven Years' War). 

Fought May 6, 1757, between 
70,000 Austrians, under Charles 
of Lorraine, and 60,000 Prus- 
sians, under Frederick the 
Great. The Austrians occupied 
a very strong position on the 
Moldau, which was attacked 
and carried by Frederick, 
Charles being driven back into 
I^rague with a loss of 8.000 
kill^ and wounded and 9,000 
prisoners. Marshal Braun was 



among the killed. The Prus- 
sians lost 13,000, including 
Marshal Schwerin. 

Prairie Grove (American Civil 
A sanguinary but indecisive 
action, fought December 7, 
1862, between the Confederates, 
under General Hindman, and 
the Federals, under General 
Herron. The losses were about 

Preston (CivU War). 

Fought August 17, 1648, 
when Langdale, with 4,000 
Royalists, was deserted by the 
main body of the Scottish in- 
vading army, and left to face 
the attack of about 8,000 Par- 
liamentarians under Cromwell, 
The Royalists fought despe- 
rately for four hours, but were 
overpowered, and the whole 
force killed or captured. 

Preston (Rebellion of the Fifteen). 
Fought November 12, 171 s. 
between 4,000 Jacobites, under 
General Forster, and a small 
force of Royal troops, chiefly 
dragoons, under General Wills. 
The Jacobites had barricaded 
the approaches to the town, 
and held their ground through- 
out the day, but reinforcements 
arriving, Wills was able to in- 
vest the place completely ; and 
early on the morning of the 14th 
-Forster surrendered. Many of 
the rebels having left the town 
on the night of the 12 th, the 
prisoners numbered 1,468. The 
Jacobite loss in killed and 
wounded was 42, that of the 
Royalists about 200. 

Prestonpans (Rebellion of the 
Fought September 21, 1745, 

between 2,300 Royal troops, 
under Sir John Cope, and a 
slightly superior force of Jaco- 
bites, under the Young Pre- 
tender. Cope's infemtry failed 
to stand up against the charge 
of the Highlanders, and fled in 
confusion, losing heavily in 
killed and wounded, and 1,600 
prisoners, including 70 officers. 
The Highlanders lost about 
140 killed and wounded. This 
action is also known as the 
Battle of Gladsmuir. 

Primolano (Napoleon's Italian 
Fought September 7, 179^, 
when Napoleon surprised and 
totally routed the vanguard of 
Wurmser's army. The Aus- 
trians lost over 4,000 killed, 
wounded and prisoners. 

Princeton (American War of 
Fought 1776 between the 
Americans, under Washington, 
and the British, under General 
Gage. The British were de- 
feated, and this victory enabled 
Washington to regain posses- 
sion of New Jersey. 

Pruth, The (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought August 2, 1770, when 
the Russians, under General 
Romanzoff, stormed the triple 
entrenchments held by the 
main Turkish army, 120,000 
strong, under Halil Bey, and 
drove out the Turks with a loss 
of 20.000 killed and wounded. 

Puente (South American War of 
Fought February 16, 18 16, 
between the Colombian Patriots, 
under Lorrices. aud the Spanish 
Royalists, under MoriUo. The 



Royalists gained a complete 

Puente de la Reyna (Second 
Carlist War). 
Fought October 6, 1872, be- 
tween 50,000 Carlists, under 
Olio, and about 9,000 Republi- 
cans, under Moriones. The Re- 
publicans were defeated after 
hard fighting, and were at last 
driven in disorder from the field 
by a bayonet charge. The Car- 
lists lost 113 only ; the losses of 
the Republicans were far heavier. 

Pultowa (Russo-Swedish Wars). 
Fought July 8, 1709, between 
the Swedes. 24,000 strong, under 
Charles XII, and the Russians, 
70.000 in number, under Peter 
the Great. After some suc- 
cesses early in the battle the 
Swedes were overwhelmed by 
the Czar's great superiority in 
artillery, and were defeated 
with a loss of 9,000 killed and 
wounded and 6,000 prisoners. 
Charles with difficulty made his 
escape from the field by swim- 
ming the Borysthenes. 

Pultusk (Russo-Swedish Wars). 
Fought 1703, between 10,000 
Swedes, under Charles XII. and 
an equal force of Saxons, under 
Marshal von Stenau. The Saxons 
made practically no resis- 
tance, but fled from the field, 
losing only Ooo killed and 1,000 

Pultusk Campaign of Fried- 
Fought December 26, 1806, 
between 43,000 Russians, under 
Bennigscn, and 18,000 French, 
under Lannes. Lannes endea- 
voured to pierce the Russian 
left and cut them off from the 
town, but he did not succeed in 

getting through, and in this 
part of the field the action was 
indecisive. On the left the 
French did little more than 
hold their own, but the Rus- 
sians retired during the night, 
having lost 3.000 killed and 
wounded, 2,000 prisoners, and 
a large number of guns. The 
French admitted a loss of 1.500 
only, but this is probably an 
understatement, Russian ac- 
counts estimating the French 
losses at 8,000. 

Puna (Raids of the Buccaneers). 
On April 27, 1687, three Buc- 
caneering vessels, under Captain 
Davis, engaged two Spanish 
men-of-war off Puna. The ac- 
tion was entirely one of long- 
range firing, and lasted till May 
3, when the Spanish commander 
withdrew his ships. In the 
seven days only three or four 
Buccaneers were wounded. 

Punniar (Gwalior Campaign). 

Fought December 29, 1843, 
between the left wing of Sir 
Hugh Cough's army, under 
General Grey, and a force of 
12.000 Mahrattas, with 40 guns. 
The Mahrattas were totally 

Pydna (Third Macedonian War). 
Fought June 22, 168 B.C., 
between the Romans, under 
i^milius Paulus, and the Mace- 
donians, under Perseus. The 
Macedonian phalanx attacked 
the Roman line, and drove them 
back on their camp, but be- 
coming disordered by the un- 
even ground, was broken by the 
legionaries and cut to pieces. 
The result was a total defeat of 
the Macedonians, with a loss 
of 20.000 killed and 11,000 



jr-.: i-^-^ 



prisoners. The phalanx here 
fought its last fight and perish- 
ed to a man. 

Pyramids (French Invasion of 
Fought July 21, 1798, when 
the Mameluke army, under 
Murad Bey, endeavoured to 
arrest Napoleon's march on 
Cairo. The Mameluke infan- 
try, numbering about 20,000, 
took no part in the fight, but 
their cavalry, perhaps at that 
time the finest in the world, 
charged the French squares 
with the utmost gallantry. They 
were, however, repulsed time 
after time, with great slaughter, 
and were eventually driven into 
the Nile, where the shattered 
remnants escaped by swimming. 

Pyrenees (Peninsular War). 

The engagements fought be- 
tween Wellington's Ueutenants 
and Soult's army, which was 
endeavouring to relieve San 
Sebastian, are known as the 
Battles of the Pyrenees. They 
include the fighting from July 
25 to August 2, 181 3, and speci- 
ally the actions of Roncesvalles, 
Maya, Santarem and Buenzas. 
The British loss in these battles 
amounted to 7,300, while the 
French lost fully double that 

Pylos and Sphacteria (Pelopon- 
nesian War). 
The promontory of Pylos, 
which is separated by a narrow 
channel from the island of 
Sphacteria, was seized and for- 
tified by an Athenian force 
under Demosthenes. B.C. 425. 
Here he was besieged by the 
Spartans under Thrasymelidas. 
with a land force and a fleet of 

43 ships, the crews of which 
occupied Sphacteria. Demos- 
thenes repulsed an attack on 
Pylos, and Eurymedon, arriving 
with 50 Athenian vessels, de- 
feated the Spartan fleet, and 
blockaded Sphacteria. After a 
protracted siege, the arrival of 
reinforcements, under Cleon, 
enabled the Athenians to land 
14,000 men in the island, and 
the garrison, reduced from 420 
to 292. surrendered. 

Quatre Bras (Hundred Days). 

Fought June 16, 1815, be- 
tween the advance guard of the 
British army, under Wellington, 
and the left wing of the French 
army, 16,000 strong, under Ney. 
Napoleon's object was to pre- 
vent the junction of the British 
and the Prussians, and Ney's 
orders were to drive back the 
British, while Napoleon, with 
his main body, engaged the 
Prussians. Ney attacked at 3 
p.m., but the British held their 
own till evening, when Ney, not 
receiving the reinforcements he 
expected, began to fall back. 
Wellington then attacked vigor- 
ously all along the hne. retaking 
all the positions occupied by the 
French during the day. 

Quebec (Seven Years* War). 

This city was besieged June, 
1759, by 9,000 British troops, 
under General Wolfe, assisted 
by a fleet of 22 ships of war. 
under Admiral Holmes. The 
place was defended by about 
16,000 French, under Montcalm. 
Wolfe was too weak numerically 
for an investment, and his object 



was to draw Montcalm into an 
engagement. On July 31 he 
was defeated in an attack on 
Montcalm's lines outside the 
city, but on September I3» 
having landed alx}ve Quebec, 
he met and defeated the French, 
who evacuated the place on the 

After defeating General Mur- 
ray, April 27, 1760. the Cheva- 
lier de Levis laid siege to Quebec, 
with about 8,000 French and 
Canadians. The garrison con- 
sisted of no more than 2,500 
effectives, but owing to the 
superiority of their artillery, 
Levis was unable to make any 
impression on the defences. On 
May 1 5 a small British squadron 
anchored off the city, and on 
the following day attacked and 
destroyed the French ships 
carrying de Levis' supplies and 
reserve of ammunition, where- 
upon he hastily raised the siege, 
leaving behind him 40 siege 
guns and all his sick and 

Queenston Heights (Second 
American War). 
Fought October 13, 18 12, 
between 4.000 British (chiefly 
Canadian volunteers), under 
General Brock, and about 5,000 
Americans, under Van Reusse- 
laer. The Americans attacked 
the British position on Queens- 
ton Heights, and after very 
severe fighting, were totally 
defeated. The exact losses are 
unknown, but the British took 
1,000 prisoners, and the Ameri- 
can column was practically 

Qniberon Ba7(SeTen Years' War ). 

Fought November 20, 1759, 

between the British fleet, 23 

sail of the line and 10 frigates, 
under Hawke, and 21 French 
line-of-battleships and 3 frigates, 
under Conflans. The action 
was fought in a heavy gale on a 
lee shore, and resulted in the 
French being driven to take 
refuge in Quiberon Bay, with a 
loss of 2 ships sunk and 2 cap- 
tured. Notwithstanding the 
gale, Hawke followed up his 
advantage, and standing in, 
succeeded in capturing or de- 
stroying all but four of the ships 
which had taken refuge in ttie 
bay. though in so doing he lost 
two of his own ships, which 
were driven ashore and wrecked. 
The British lost in the action 
only I officer and 270 men 
killed and wounded. 

Quipuaypan (Conquest of Peru). 
Fought 1532, between the 
rival Peruvian chiefs, Atahualpa 
and Huascar. Huascar was 
totally routed, and taken pri- 

Quistello (War of the Polish 
Fought July, 1734, between 
the Imperialists, under Prince 
Eugene, and the French, under 
the Due de Broglie. Prince 
Eugene gained a signal victory. 

Raab (Campaign of Wagram). 
Fought June 14, 1809, be- 
tween 44.000 French, under 
Eugene Beauhamais, and about 
40,000 Austrians, under the 
Archduke John. The French 
attacked the Austrian position, 
and driving them successively 
from^the vQlages of Kismegyer 
and Szabadhegy, totally de- 

e. ,*ik r'—'jm 



feated them. Under cover of 
night, however, the Archduke 
was able to make an orderly 
retirement, with a loss of about 
3,000 killed and wounded and 
2,500 prisoners. The French 
lost something over 2,000. 

Radcot Bridge. 

Fought 1387, between the 
troops of Richard II, under De 
Vere, Duke of Ireland, and the 
forces of the Lords Appellant, 
under the Earl of Derby (Henry 
IV). De Vere and his troops 
fled almost without striking a 
blow, and the King was thus left 
entirely in the power of the 

Ragatz (Armagnac War). 

Fought March, 1446, between 
the Austrians and the Swiss 
Confederation. The Swiss gain- 
ed a brilliant victory, which was 
followed by peace with Austria 
and the Armagnacs. 

Rajahmundry (Seven Years* 
Fought December 9, 1758, 
between 2,500 British troops, 
under Colonel Forde, in con- 
junction with about 5,000 native 
levies, and the French, 6,500 
strong, under Conflans. The 
native troops did Uttle on either 
side, but Forde 's 500 Europeans 
routed Conflans' Frenchmen, 
and the latter fled with con- 
siderable loss. 

Raker sberg (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought 14 16, between 20,000 
Turks, under Ahmed Bey, and 
12,000 Austrians and others, 
under Duke Ernest of Styria. 
Duke Ernest marched to the 
reUef of Rakersberg, which the 
Turks were besieging, and drove 

them from the field utterly 
routed. It is said that the 
Turkish losses amounted to 
more than the whole Christian 
army. Ahmed Bey was among 
the slain. 

Ramillies (Seven Years' War). 
Fought May 23, 1706, be- 
tween the British and Imperi- 
alists, under Marlborough and 
Prince Eugene, about 80,000 
strong, and the French, in equal 
force, under Marshal Villeroy. 
The allies drove the French out 
of RamilUes, their resistance on 
the whole being unworthy of 
them, and in the end they were 
disastrously defeated with hea- 
vy loss, 5,000 being killed 
and wounded, while 6,000 pri- 
soners and 50 guns were taken. 
The allies lost less than 3,000. 


Fought 1 177, between the 
Saracens, under Saladin, and 
the Christians of Jerusalem, 
under Renaud de ChAtiUon. 
The Christians won a complete 

Ramnugger (Second Sikh War). 
Fought November, 1849, 
when Lord Gough attempted to 
dislodge Shir Singh, who with 
about 35,000 Sikhs, had occu- 
pied a position behind the 
Chenab opposite Ramnugger. 
The attempt was made by a 
brigade under General Camp- 
bell, with a cavalry force under 
General Cureton, and failed ow- 
ing to the unexpected strength 
of the Sikh artillery, which 
was well posted and served. 
General Cureton was killed. 


Fought B.C. 223, between the 
Egyptians, under Ptolemy Phi- 



lopator, and the Syrians, under 
Antiochus the Great. Anti- 
ochus at first held the advan- 
tage, but pressing too far in the 
pursuit, was overpowered and 
totally routed. The Syrians lost 
14,000 killed and 4,000 prisoners. 

Rastadt (Wars of the French 
Fought 1796, between the 
French, under Moreau. and the 
Austrians, under the Archduke 
Charles. After a severe engage- 
ment Moreau succeeded in seiz- 
ing the heights held by the Aus- 
trians, and forced Charles to 
retreat to the Danube. 

Raszyn (Campaign of Wagram). 
Fought April 19, 1809, be- 
tween 30,000 Austrians, under 
the Archduke Ferdinand, and 
about 20,000 French and Poles, 
under Poniatowski. The Arch- 
duke was marching on Warsaw 
when Poniatowsld, to whom the 
defence of that city had been 
entrusted, came out to meet 
him, and after a stubborn fight 
in the woods and marshes round 
Rasz3m, was driven back upon 
Warsaw, with a loss of 2,000 
killed and wounded. A few 
dajrs later he surrendered the 
city to the Austrians to save it 
from a bombardment. 

Rathenow (Swedish Invasion of 
Fought June 2$, 167s, be- 
tween the Brandenburgers. 
1 5.000 strong, under the Elector 
Frederick WiUiam. and the 
Swedes, under Charles XI. The 
Swedes, wearied by a long 
march, were surprised by the 
Elector in their camp, and 
suffered a serious reverse. 

Rathmines (GvU War). 
Fought August 2. 1649. be- 

tween the Royalists, under 
Ormonde, and the Parliament- 
ary garrison of Dublin, under 
Colonel Jones. Ormonde having 
ordered a night attack upon 
Dublin, the ParUamentarians 
made a sortie, and driving back 
the assaulting column, attacked 
the main body of the Royalists 
in their camp, totally routing 
them, with a loss of 4.000 killed 
and wounded and 2,000 pri- 
soners. All Ormonde's artillery 
was captured. 


Fought 729 between the 
troops of Leo the Iconoclast, 
and a force of Italians, raised 
by Pope Gregory II. in defence 
of image worship. After a 
severe struggle, the Greeks were 
routed, and in their flight to 
their ships were slaughtered by 
thousands. It is said that the 
waters of the Po were so in- 
fected with blood, that for six 
years the inhabitants of Ra- 
venna would not eat any fish 
caught in that river. 

Ravenna (War of the Holy 
Fought 1 5 12. between the 
troops of the Holy League, and 
the French, under Gaston de 
Foix. The French gained a 
signal victory, but Gaston de 
Foix fell in the moment of his 
triumph, pierced with sixteen 

Reading (Danish Invasion). 

Fought 871. between the 
Danish invaders, and the West 
Saxons, under iEthelred and 
Alfred. The West Saxons, 
after a stubborn resistance, 
were defeated and driven from 
the field with great slaughter. 

r— ••^iX^ "'T StiU .-*:j6ir<ti 

& -»:_■-' 



Rebec (Wars of Charles V). 

Fought 1524, between the 
Imperialists, under Constable de 
Bourbon, and the French, under 
Bonnivet. The French were 
totally defeated, with heavy 
loss, among those who fell being 
the Chevalier de Bayard. 

Redan (Crimean War). 

This fort, forming part of the 
southern defences of Sebasto- 
pol. was attacked by the British 
Second and Light Divisions, 
September 8, 1855. The ram- 
parts were stormed, but the 
.assailants were unable to make 
good their footing, and were 
eventually repulsed with heavy 
loss. The fall of the Malakoff, 
however, rendered the southern 
side of Sebastopol untenable, 
and the Russians retired during 
the night. The British losses 
amounted to 2,184 killed and 

Reddersberg (Second Boer War)* 
Fought April 3, 1900, when 
5 companies of British infantry 
were surrounded by a force of 
Boers, with 5 guns, and after 
holding out for twenty-four 
hours, were compelled by want 
of water to surrender, having 
lost 4 officers and 43 men killed 
and wounded. The prisoners 
numbered 405. 

Reims (Allied Invasion of 
Fought March 13, 18 14, when 
Napoleon, with 30,000 French, 
surprised and routed 13,000 
Prussians and Russians, under 
Saint-Priest, with a loss of 
6,000 killed, wounded and pri- 
soners. The French lost a few 
hundreds only. 

Revel (Russo-Swedish Wars). 
This port was attacked in the 

spring of 1790 by the Swedish 
fleet, under the Duke of Suder- 
manland. The Russian bat- 
teries, however, aided by the 
fleet under Admiral Chitcha- 
goff, drove them off with con- 
siderable loss. 

Revolax (Finland War). 

Fought April 27, 1808, when 
General Klingspoor, with about 
8,000 Swedes, surprised an 
isolated Russian column of 
about 4,000 men. under General 
Bonlatoff. The Russians were 
surrounded, and tried to cut 
their way through, but failed, 
less than 1,000 succeeding in 
escaping from the trap. Gene- 
ral Bonlatoff fell fighting to the 


St. Martin, the capital of this 
island, was besieged by the 
English, under the Duke of 
Buckingham, from July 17 to 
October 29, 1627. An assault 
on October 27 was repulsed, 
and the landing of the Duke of 
Schomberg, with 6.000 French, 
on the island, made the English 
lines untenable, whereupon 
Buckingham raised the siege. 
While returning to his ships 
Buckingham was attacked by 
the French, and suffered con- 
siderably. The English losses 
during the operations amounted 
to about 4,000 men. 

Rheinfeldt (Thirty Years* War). 
Fought 1638, between the 
Protestant Germans, under 
Duke Bernard of Saxe Weimar, 
and the Imperialists, under 
Jean de Wert. The Duke was 
besieging Rheinfeldt, when he 
was attacked by de Wert, and 
forced to raise the siege and 
retire. After retreating, how- 



ever, a short distance only, un- 
pursued, he suddenly retraced 
his steps, and taking the Im- 
perialists by surprise, inflicted 
upon them a severe defeat, dis- 
persing their army and captur- 
ing de Wert. In this action 
feu the veteran Due de Rohan. 

Rhodes (Ottoman Wars). 

This place, defended by the 
Knights, under their Grand 
Master, Pierre d'Aubusson, was 
besieged May 23, 1480, by a 
Turkish army, under Meshid 
Pasha, aided by a fleet of 160 
ships. The siege lasted three 
months, and was raised after 
the failure of the second assault, 
the Turks having by that time 
lost 10,500 killed and wounded. 

A second and successful siege 
was begun July 28, 1522, by 
Solyman the Magnificent. The 
Knights, under Villiers de L'Isle 
Adam, held out until December 
21, repulsing numerous attacks, 
but at last, worn by famine, they 
were compelled to surrender. 
The Turks are stated to have 
lost by disease and battle over 
100,000 men. This siege is not- 
able as being the first in which 
the Turks used explosive bombs. 

Riachuelo (Paraguayan War). 

Fought June 11, 1865, be- 
tween the fleets of Paraguay 
and Brazil. After a sanguinary 
enga|;ement the advantage rest- 
ed with the Brazilians. 

Richmond (American Ciyil War). 
Fought August 30, 1862, be- 
tween the Confederates, about 
6,000 strong, under General 
Kirby Smith, and 8,000 Fede- 

rals, under General Manson. 
The Federals were routed and 
driven headlong into Richmond, 
where 5,000 prisoners, 9 guns 
and 10,000 stand of arms were 
captured. The Confederate 
losses were slight. 

Richmond (American Civil War ). 
In the neighbourhood of this 
place were fought the final 
actions of the war, when Lee, 
with the army of Virginia, en- 
deavoured to break through 
the ring of Grant's troops by 
which he was surrounded, and 
being everywhere repulsed, was 
compelled to surrender March 
8, 1865, on which date he had 
but 10,000 effectives under his 

Rich Mountain (American Civil 
Fought July 12, i86x. be- 
tween 15,000 Federals, under 
General McClellan, and 6,000 
Confederates, under General 
Gamett. The Federals stormed 
the heights of Rich Mountain 
and Laurel Hill, and drove the 
Southerners from their posi- 
tions, with a loss of about 1,000, 
including prisoners. During 
thej>ursuit on the following day. 
General Gamett was killed in a 
cavalry skirmish. 

Rietfontein (Second Boer War). 
Fought October 24, 1899, 
between 4,000 British, under 
Sir George White, and the Free 
Staters, who were advancing to 
interrupt the retreat of Colonel 
Yule from Dundee. The enemy 
occupied a range of hills about 
seven miles from Ladysmith, 
where they were attacked by 
White. After an indecisive 



action the British retired to 
Ladysmith. with a loss of iii 
killed and wounded, but the 
object aimed at was attained, 
for the Boers were prevented 
from interfering with Colonel 
Yule's march. 

Rieti (Neapolitan Rising). 

Fought March 21, 1821, be- 
tween 12,000 Neapolitans, under 
General Pepe, and the Austrian 
invading army, 80,000 strong. 
As long as he was opposing only 
the advance guard, Pepe made 
a most resolute resistance, but 
on their being reinforced from 
the main body, the NeapoUtans 
were overpowered by superior 
numbers, and finally driven in 
confusion from the field. Two 
days' later the Austrians entered 
Naples, and reinstated Ferdi- 
nand on the throne. 

Riga (Thirty Years' War). 

This place was invested by 
the Swedes, under Gustavus 
Adolphus, in the early part of 
August, 162 1, and was defended 
by a garrison of 300 Poles. A 
resolute defence was made, and 
several determined assaults re- 
pulsed, but a large breach having 
having been effected by Sep- 
tember II, the garrison, now 
reduced to a handful, had no 
option but to surrender, and 
the town was entered by the 
Swedes, September 15, 1621. 

Rimnitz (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought September 22. 1789, 
when 25,000 Austrians and 
Russians, under the Duke of 
Coburg and Suwaroff, routed 
an army of 90,000 Turks, under 
the Grand Vizier. The Turkish 
losses were enormous, the whole 
army being killed, captured, or 

Rinya (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought July 21. 1556, be- 
tween 40,000 Turks, under Ali 
Pasha, and a comparatively 
small force of Austrians and 
Hungarians, under Thomas Na- 
dasdy. The Turks were de- 
feated with heavy loss, the 
Christians losing 300 men only. 

Rio Seco (Peninsular War). 

Fought July 14, 1808, when 
Marshal Bessidres. with about 
14,000 French, defeated 26,000 
Spaniards, under Cuesta. The 
Spaniards lost about 6.000, 
while the French loss was only 
370 killed and wounded. Fol- 
lowing upon this victory, Joseph 
entered Madrid. 

Rivoli (Napoleon's Italian Cam- 
Fought January 14, 1797, 
when the Austrians, with five 
divisions, under Alvinzi. at- 
tacked Napoleon's position on 
the heights of Rivoli. The 
position proved too strong to 
be carried, and Napoleon's 
superb handling of his troops 
resulted in the total defeat of 
the assailants. The fifth Aus- 
trian division, which had not 
taken part in the frontal attack, 
appeared in the rear of the 
French position after the battle 
was over, and being forced by 
overwhelming numbers, laid 
down its arms. Mass^na. who 
had specially distinguished him- 
self, took his title from this 
battle when later ennobled by 

Roanoke Island (American Civil 
This island, which com- 
manded the entrance to Albe- 
marle Sound. North Carolina, 
and which was defended by 



1 ,8cx> Confederates, under Gene- 
ral Wise, was attacked Febru- 
ary 7, 1862, by three brigades 
of Federals, under General 
Bumside, aided by 26 gunboats. 
On the 8th the Federals landed, 
overpowered the garrison, and 
occupied the island, losing 235 
killed and wounded. The Con- 
federates lost 91 killed and 
wounded. Of 7 Confederate 
gunboats employed in the 
defence, 5 were captured or 

Rocoux (War of the Austrian 
Fought 1747, between the 
French, under Maurice de Saxe, 
and the Imperialists, under 
Charles of Lorraine. The 
French won a signal victory, 
as the result of which they 
occupied Brabant. 

Rocroi (Thirty Years* War). 

Fought May 19, 1643, ^' 
tween the French, 22.000 strong, 
under the Great Cond^, and 
27.000 Spaniards, under Don 
Francisco de Melo. The battle 
was sternly contested, and at 
first went against the French, 
their left wing being repulsed, 
and the centre shaken. Want 
of cavalry, however, prevented 
Melo pressing home his advan- 
tage, and the French, rallying, 
broke the Spanish line, and 
severely defeated them. The 
Spaniards lost 9,000 killed, and 
6,000 prisoners in the infantry 
alone. The French only ad- 
mitted a loss of 2,000, but it 
was doubtless considerably hea- 

Roli^a (Peninsular War). 

Fought August 17, 1808, 
when Wellington, with 14,000 
British and Portuguese, of 

whom only 4,000 came into 
action, attacked the French, 
3,000 strong, under Laborde, 
and after a half-hearted re- 
sistance drove them from their 
position, with a loss of 500 men. 
The allies lost about 400. 

Rome (First Invasion of the 
The first siege of Rome by the 
Gauls, under Brennus, took 
place B.C. 387. No attempt 
was made to defend the city, 
which was seized and burnt by 
the barbarians, the greater part 
of the population fleeing to 
Veii and other neighbouring 
cities. The Capitol, however, 
was held by the leading Patrician 
families, and it is said withstood 
a siege of six months, when 
Brennus accepted a heavy ran- 
som and withdrew his army. 

Rome (Second Gothic Invasion 
of Italy). 
The city was besieged in 408 
by the Goths, under Alaric, and 
after being brought to the verge 
of starvation and losing many 
thousands from famine, the 
Romans capitulated, but re- 
tained their freedom on pay- 
ment of a heavy ransom, where- 
upon Alaric retired northward 
in 409. In the course of the 
year, however, Alaric seized 
Ostia, the port of Rome, and 
summoned the city to sur- 
render. In the absence of the 
Emperor Honorius, the populace 
forced the authorities to yield ; 
and Alaric, after deposing Hono- 
rius, and bestowing the purple 
on Attains, withdrew his troops. 
In 410, during the month of 
August, Alaric for the third 
time appeared before the walls, 
and on the night of the 24th 

m iP^iii 





the Salarian gate was opened 
to the besiegers by some sym- 
pathisers within the city, and 
Rome was given over to pillage 
and massacre, in which thou- 
sands perished. 

Rome (Ricimer's Rebellion). 

The rebel Count Ricimer, 
with a large army of Burgun- 
dians, Suevi and other bar- 
barians, laid siege to Rome in 
472, and after a defence of three 
months the besiegers entered 
the city by storming the Bridge 
of Hadrian, and sacked it. 

Rome (First Gothic War). 

In March, 537, the city was 
besieged by the Goths, under 
Vitiges, and defended by Beli- 
sarius. After a determined re- 
sistance, during which a vigor- 
ous assault was repulsed, and 
several successful sorties made, 
with heavy loss to the besiegers, 
Vitiges in March, 538, was com- 
pelled to raise the siege. 

Rome (Second Gothic War). 

In May, 546, Totila, King of 
Italy, at the head of an army 
of Goths, laid siege to Rome, 
which wais defended by a garri- 
son of 3,000, under Bassas. An 
attempt to relieve it by Beli- 
sarius was on the point of suc- 
cess, but Bassas failed to co- 
operate with the relieving force, 
and Belisarius was forced to 
retire, whereupon the city sur- 
rendered, December 17, 546. 

It was recovered by Belisarius 
in the following February, but 
was again besieged by Totila in 
549. On this occasion it was 
defended by a garrison of 3,000 
troops, under Demetrius, who, 
aided by the inhabitants, made 
a gallant resistance, but the 
Gate of St. Paul was opened to 

the besiegers by some Isaurian 
sympathisers within the walls, 
and Totila thus made himself 
master of the last Italian city 
excepting Ravenna, which had 
resisted his victorious army. 
In 552, after the defeat of 
Totila at Tagina, Rome was 
invested by the Imperial army, 
under Narses, who, after a brief 
siege, stormed the defences, 
and finally delivered the city 
from the Gothic domination. 


In the course of dispute with 
Pope Gregory VII, who had 
refused to recognize him as 
emperor, Henry III of Germany 
laid siege to Rome in 1082. 
After two interruptions to the 
siege, the city was finally sur- 
rendered to him by the Roman 
nobles, March, 1084. Gregory 
was deposed, and the anti-Pope 
Clement III set upon the ponti- 
fical throne, Heniy at the same 
time assuming the Imperial 

Rome (Wars of Charles V). 

The city was taken by storm 
May 9, 1527, by the Imperialists 
under the Constable de Bour- 
bon, who fell in the assault. A 
massacre followed, in which 
8,000 of the inhabitants perish- 
ed. The Pope retired to the 
Castle of St. Angelo, where he 
held out until November 26, 
when a treaty between him and 
Charles V put an end to the 

Rome (Italian Rising). 

After the proclamation of a 
Roman republic by Garibaldi 
and his adherents in 1848, a 
French army, under General 
Oudinot, was sent to restore the 



papal rule. On April 30. 1849, 
the French, 7,cxx) strong, at- 
tacked the Porta San Pancrazio, 
where they were encountered 
by the Republicans, under 
Garibaldi, and repulsed, with a 
loss of 300 killed and wounded 
and 500 prisoners. The Gari- 
baldians lost 100. 

On June 3 of the same year 
the French, under Oudinot, 
20.000 strong, made a night 
attack upon the Garibaldians, 
who brought up about 8,000 
men to oppose them. The 
Garibaldians were repulsed, 
with a loss of over 2.000. in- 
cluding 200 officers. Oudinot 
then laid siege to the city, 
which, after a terrible bom- 
bardment, surrendered July 2, 

Romerswael (Netherlands War 
of Independence). 
Fought January 29, 1574. 
between the " Beggars of the 
Sea," under Admiral Boisot, 
and a Spanish fleet of 75 ships, 
under Julian Romero. The 
" Beggars ** grappled the ene- 
my's ships in a narrow estu- 
ary, and after a very severe en- 
counter, in which the Spaniards 
lost 15 vessels and 1,200 men, 
Romero retreated to Bergen- 


Fought 778 between the 
Franks, under Charlemagne, 
and the Basques and Gascons, 
under Loup II. The army of 
Charlemagne, retreating from 
Spain, was caught in the defile 
of Roncesvalles, in the Pyre- 
nees, and the rearguard was to- 
tally annihilated, among those 
who fell being the famous Pala- 
din, Roland. 

Roncesvalles (Peninsular War). 

One of the actions known as 
the " Battles of the Pyrenees," 
fought July 2S, 181 3. Soult, 
at the head of Clauset's division, 
attacked the British, consisting 
of three brigades, under General 
Byng, but was unable to carry 
their position, and after severe 
fighting was repulsed with a 
loss of 400. The British lost 
181 killed and wounded. 

Rorke's Drift (Zulu War). 

On the night of January 22, 
1879, after the disaster of 
Isandhlwana, this outpost, held 
by a company of the 24th Regi- 
ment and details, in all 139 men. 
under Lieutenants Bromhead 
and Chard. R.E.. was attacked by 
a force oif Zulus, estimated at 
4.000. After a most heroic 
defence, in which many acts of 
heroism were performed, especi- 
ally in the removal of the sick 
from the hospital, which was 
fired by the Zulus, the assail- 
ants were beaten o£f. leaving 
over 400 dead on the field. The 
little garrison lost 25 killed 
and wounded. Eight Victoria 
Crosses and nine Distinguished 
Conduct medals were awarded 
for this affair. 

Roshach (Seven Years' War). 

Fought November 5, 1757, 
between 80,000 French and 
Austrians, under Marshal Sou- 
bise, and 30,000 Prussians, 
under Frederick the Great. 
Frederick, who occupied the 
heights of Rosbach, was at- 
tacked by the allies. The Prus- 
sian cavalry, however, under 
Seidlitz, charged down upon 
the Austrians. and threw them 



into disorder, and the infantry 
falling upon the broken columns 
utterly routed them, with a loss 
of 4,000 killed and wounded, 
7,000 prisoners, including 11 
generals and 63 guns. The 
Prussians lost 3,000 only. 


Fought 1382 between 50,000 
Flemings, under Philip van 
Arteveldt, and the French, 
under Charles VI. The Flem- 
ings at first drove back the 
French, but were overwhelmed 
by the charges of the French 
cavalry on their flanks, and 
were in the end utterly routed. 
Thousands fell in the action and 
subsequent pursuit, amongst 
them yan Arteveldt. 

Rostock (Dano-Swedish Wars). 
Fought June, 1677, between 
the Danish fleet, under Admiral 
Juel, and the Swedes, under 
Admiral Horn. The Swedes 
were completely defeated. 

Rotto Freddo (War of the Aus- 
trian Succession). 
* Fought July, 1746, when the 
rearguard of the retreating 
French army, under Marshal 
MaiUebois, was attacked by the 
Austrians, under Prince Lich- 
tenstein, and after a gallant re- 
sistance defeated with heavy 
loss. In consequence of this 
defeat the French garrison of 
Placentia, 4,000 strong, sur- 
rendered to the Imperialists. 

Rouen (Hundred Years* War). 
This city was besieged 141 8, 
by the English, under Henry V. 
After a gallant defence the 
garrison surrendered January 
15, 1419, the city paying a ran- 
som of 300,000 crowns. 

Roundway Down (Civil War). 

Fought July 13, 1643, when 
the Parliamentarians, under 
Waller and Hazlerigg, attacked 
the Royalists, under Prince 
Maurice, who was advancing to 
the reUef of Devizes. The Par- 
liamentarians were totally de- 
feated, their attack on Prince 
Maurice being repulsed, while 
at the same time they were 
taken in the rear by a sortie 
from the town. Of 1,800 in- 
fantry, 600 were killed and the 
rest taken prisoners. 

Roncray — St — Denis. See 

Roveredo (Napoleon's Italian 
Fought September 4, 1796, 
between 25,000 Austrians, un- 
der Davidowich, and the main 
body of Napoleon's army. 
Napoleon attacked the Austrian 
entrenched position, and in 
spite of a determined defence, 
carried it, driving the enemy out 
of Roveredo with heavy loss, 
including 7,000 prisoners and 
15 guns. This victory enabled 
Mass^na to occupy Trent, and 
the remnants of the Austrian 
army were driven headlong 
into the Tyrol. 

Rowton Heath (Civil War). 

Fought September 24, 1645, 
when a body of Royalist ca^^airy , 
under Sir Marmaduke Langdale, 
which was endeavouring to pre- 
vent the investment of Chester, 
was attacked by the Parlia- 
mentary horse, under Colonel 
Poyntz. The first attack was 
repulsed with loss, but Poyntz 
receiving infantry support, ral- 
lied his troops, and drove the 
Royalists from the field, with a 



loss of 300 killed and wounded 
and 1,000 prisoners. 

Roseburgh (Scottish Wars). 

This town, defended by an 
English garrison, was besieged 
by the Scots, under James II of 
Scotland, in 1460, and after a 
stubborn defence was captured 
and destroyed. This is the 
first occasion on which artillery 
was used by the Scots. During 
the siege the Scottish king was 
killed by the bursting of a gun 
of large calibre, August 3, 1460. 

RuUion Green (Covenanters* 
Fought November, 1666, be- 
tween the Covenanters, under 
Colonel Wallace, and the Royal 
troops, under General Dalziel. 
The Covenanters were defeated. 

Rumersheim (War of the Spanish 
Fought August 26, 1709, be- 
tween the French, under Mar- 
shal Villiers, and the Imperi- 
alists, under Count Mercy. 
Mercy was defeated and driven 
out of Alsace. 

Ruspina (Civil War of C«sar 
and Pompey). 
Fought January 3, 46 B.C., 
between JuUus Cssar, with three 
legions, and a force of Pom- 
peians, composed entirely of 
cavalry and archers, under La- 
bienus. Cxsar's troops were 
surrounded, but behaving with 
extreme steadiness, were able 
to retire to Ruspina in good 
order, though with very heavy 

Rynemants (Netherlands War of 
Fought August I, 1578, be- 
tween the Dutch Patriots, 

20,000 strong, under Count 
Bossu and Fran9ois de la None, 
and the Spaniards, numbering 
about 30,000, under Don John 
of Austria. Don John crossed 
the Demcr, and attacked Bossu 
in his entrenchments. He was 
however repulsed, after severe 
fighting, and retired, leaving 
1. 000 dead on the field. He 
offered battle in the open on the 
following morning, but Bossu de- 
clined to leave his lines, and 
Don John was indisposed to 
renew the attack, and fell back 
upon Namur. 

Saalfeld (Can^uugn of Jena). 

Fought October 10, 1806, 
between 7,000 Prussians, under 
Prince Louis of Prussia, and a 
division of Lannes' corps, under 
the Marshal himself. The 
Prussian infantry was broken 
and driven under the walls of 
Saalfield. whereupon the prince 
put himself at the head of his 
cavalry, and charged the ad- 
vancing French. The charge 
was repulsed, and the Prince 
refusing to surrender was cut 
down and killed. The Prus- 
sians lost in this action 400 
killed and wounded, 1,000 pri- 
soners, and 20 guns. 

Sabugal (Peninsular War). 

Fought April 3, 181 1, be- 
tween three British divisions, 
under Wellington, and the 
French, consisting of Reynier's 
corps. Reynier held the salient 
angle of the French position on 
the Coa, and was driven back 
after less than an hour's fight- 
ing, with a loss of about 1,50a 
The British lost 200 only. 





Sacile (Napoleon's Wars). 

Fought April 16. 1809, be- 
tween 45, OCX) Austrians, under 
the Archduke John, and 36,000 
French and Italians, under 
Eugene Beauhamais, Regent 
of Italy. After hard fighting, 
in which little generalship was 
shown on either side, a flank 
movement of the Austrians, 
which menaced the French line 
of retreat, forced Eugene to 
retire, victory thus resting with 
the Austrians. The losses were 
about equal on the two sides. 

Sacripontus (Civil War of Marius 
and Sulla). 
Fought B.C. 82, between the 
legions of Sulla and the army 
of the younger Marius, 40,000 
strong. Sulla's veterans were 
too steady for the newer levies 
of Marius, and the latter was 
routed, with the loss of more 
than half his army killed or 
captured. After this victory 
Sulla occupied Rome. 

Sadowa. See Koeniggratz. 

Sadulapur (Second Sikh War). 
Fought December 3, 1848. 
After the failure of his frontal 
attack on the Sikh position at 
Ramnugger in November, Lord 
Gough despatched a force under 
Sir Joseph Thackwell, to cross 
the Chenab and turn the Sikh 
left. An indecisive action fol- 
lowed, which Lord Gough 
claimed as a victory, but 
though the Sikhs retired, it was 
slowly, and only to take up a 
fresh position, which Thackwell 
did not consider himself strong 
enough to attack. 

Sagunto (Peninsular War). 

This fortress, held by a 
Spanish garrison, was besieged 

by the French, 22,000 strong, 
under Soult, September 23, 
181 1. Built on the heights 
above Murviedro, the place was 
accessible on one side only, and 
an attempt to escalade this was 
repulsed September 28. A re- 
gular siege was then com- 
menced, and a second unsuc- 
cessful assault was made on 
October 18. On the 25 th 
General Blake, with 30,000 
Spaniards, made an attempt to 
relieve the place, but was de- 
feated with a loss of i ,000 killed 
and wounded and 4,000 pri- 
soners, the victory costing the 
French about 800 men. On 
the following day the garrison 

St. Alban's (Wars of the Roses). 
Two engagements were fought 
here in the course of the war. 
On May 22, 1455, 2,000 Lancas- 
trians, under Henry VI, posted 
in the town, were attacked by 
3,000 Yorkists, under the Duke 
of York. The Duke pierced 
the Lancastrian centre, and 
drove them out of St. Alban's 
with heavy loss, among those 
who were killed being the Earls 
of Somerset and Northumber- 

The second battle took place 
February 17, 1461, when the 
army of Margaret of Anjou. led 
by Somerset, Exeter, and others, 
attacked the Yorkists, under 
Warwick. Warwick withdrew 
his main body, leaving his left 
unsupported to withstand the 
Lancastrian attacks, and these 
troops, after a feeble resistance, 
broke and fled. Henry VI, 
who was a prisoner in Warwick's 
camp, escaped and rejoined the 
Queen, and a rapid advance on 



London would probably have 
led to his reinstatement. War- 
wick, however, took such prompt 
measures as to render the 
Lancastrian victory practically 

St. Aubin du Cormier. 

Fought 1487, between the 
Royal troops, under La Tremou- 
ille, and the forces of the rebel 
Princes, under Marshal deRieux. 
The rebels were totally defeated, 
and a large number of nobles 
made prisoners, including the 
Due d'Orl^ans and the Prince 
of Orange. 

St. Charles (French-Canadiii 
Fought 1837, between the 
Loyalists, under Colonel Wether- 
all, and the Canadian rebels. 
The latter were defeated. 

St. Denis (Second Civil War). 

Fought November 10, 1567, 
between the Catholics, under 
the Constable Montmorenci, 
and the Huguenots, under the 
Prince de Cond6. Victory 
rested with the Catholics, but 
at the cost of the Constable, 
who was killed, and the battle 
had no decisive effect upon the 
course of the war. 

St. Denis (French - C^inadian 
Fought 1837. between the 
Canadian rebels, and a force of 
British and Canadian troops, 
under Colonel Gore. The rebels 
were victorious, but the results of 
their victory were unimportant. 

Ste Croix (Napoleonic Wart). 

This island, held by a small 
Danish garrison, was captured 
by a British naval and military 
force, under Admiral Sir A. J. 

Cochrane and General Bowyer, 
December 25, 1807, but little 
resistance b^g offered. 

St Eustache (French-Canadian 
Fought 1837, between the 
rebels, under Girod, and the 
Government troops, under Sir 
John Colbome. The rebels 
were completely defeated, and 
the rebellion was suppressed. 

Ste Foy (Seven Years' War). 

Fought April 27. 1760, be- 
tween 3.000 British troops, 
under General Murray, and 
8,000 French, under the Cheva- 
her de L6vis, who was approach- 
ing from Montreal, with the 
object of recapturing Quebec 
Murray marched out to attack 
L6vis, but was defeated and 
driven back into Quebec with a 
loss of over a third of his force. 
The French lost about 800. 

St. George (Ottoman Wars). 

This place, the capital of the 
island of Cephalonia, was be- 
sieged in October, 1500, by the 
Spaniards and Venetians, under 
Gonsalvo de Cordova and 
Pesaro. The garrison consisted 
of 400 Turks only, but being 
veteran soldiers they made a 
most gallant defence ; but at 
the end of two months the place 
was stormed from two quarters 
simultaneously, and the sur- 
vivors of the garrison, some 80 
only, laid down their arms. 

St. Gothard (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought August I, 1664. be- 
tween 100,000 Turks, under 
Achmet Kdpriali Pasha, and 
60,000 French and Germans, 
under Montecucculi, who occu- 
pied a strong position behind 
the Raab. On the Turks ad- 

M a 1 1 -* ■ _r '*"^' . ■ 

pi^ ^" - - J* 

— amwaa* — ^ 



vancing to the attack, a young 
Turk rode out, and challenged 
a Christian to single combat. 
The challenge was accepted by 
the Chevalier de Lorraine, who 
killed his adversary. The Turks 
then assaulted Montecucculi's 
entrenchment, but could make 
no impression, and after hard 
fighting were beaten off with a 
loss of 8,000 killed. 

St. Jacob an der Mirs (Armagnac 
Fought September, 1444, be- 
tween 30,000 Armagnacs, under 
the Dauphin, and 1,300 Con- 
federate Swiss. The Swiss 
being hard pressed, occupied 
the hospital of St. Jacob an der 
Mirs, where they maintained 
the unequal fight until the last 
man had fallen. The Arma- 
gnacs, however, had lost 2,000 
killed, and the Dauphin felt 
compelled to abandon the in- 
vasion of Switzerland. 

St. Kitts (Dutch Wars). 

Fought May 10, 1667, when 
Sir John Harman, commanding 
an English squadron of 12 fri- 
gates, fell in with a combined 
Dutch and French fleet of 22 
sail, under Commodore Kru)rsen 
and M. de la Barre, off 
St. Kitts. Notwithstanding 
his inferiority, Harman boldly 
attacked, and gained a signal 
victory, burning 5 and sinking 
several more of the enemy's 
vessels. The allies took refuge 
in the harbour of St. Kitts, and 
Sir John, following them in, 
destroyed the rest of their fleet, 
at a cost of 80 men only. 

St Lucia (Wars of the French 
This island was captured 
from the French, April 4, 1794, 

by a British squadron, under 
Sir John Jervis. 

St Blary's Clyst (Arundel's Re- 
Fought August 4, 1549, when 
Lord Russell, marching with 
the Royal army to the relief of 
Exeter, was attacked by 6,000 
rebels, detached from the be- 
sieging force. The rebels were 
defeated with a loss of 1,000 
killed, and Arundel was forced 
to raise the siege of Exeter. 

St Privat See Gravelotte. 

St Quentm. 

Fought August 10, 1557, be- 
tween 22,000 French and Ger- 
mans, under the Constable 
Montmorenci, and about 5,000 
Spanish and Flemish cavalry 
of the Duke of Savoy's army, 
under Count Egmont, supported 
by a small force of infantry. 
The French, in attempting to 
throw reinforcements into St. 
Quentin, were entrapped in a 
narrow pass, and were utterly 
routed, with a loss of 15,000 
killed, wounded and captxu^d, 
and all but two of their guns. 
The Spaniards only lost 50 men. 

St Quentin (Franco - German 
Fought January 19, 187 1, 
between the French, 40,000 
strong, under General Faid- 
herbe, and 33,000 Germans, 
under Von Goben. The French 
were decisively defeated, with 
a loss of 3.500 killed and wound- 
ed, 9,000 prisoners, and 6 guns. 
The Germans lost 96 officers 
and 2,304 men. 

St Thomas (Napoleonic Wars). 
This island was captured 
from the Danes, December 21, 
1807, by a combined British 
nav^ and military force, under 



Admiral Sir A. J. Cochrane and 
General Bowyer. 

Saints, The* See Dominica. 

Salado. (Moorish Empire in 
Fought 1344, between the 
Portuguese and Castilians, un- 
der Alfonso IV of Portugal 
and Alfonso XI of Castile, and 
the Moors, under Abu Hamed, 
Emir of Morocco. The Chris- 
tians won a signal victory, and 
Alfonso so distinguished him- 
self in the battle as to earn the 
title of the " Brave." 

Salamanca (Peninsular War). 

Fought July 22, 1 81 2, when 
Wellington, with 46,000 British 
and Spanish troops, encoun- 
tered 42,000 French, under 
Marmont. The battle was 
forced on by Marmont, who 
was endeavouring to interrupt 
Wellington's retreat, but the 
Marshal was severely wounded 
early in the day, and the con- 
duct of the action was in the 
hands of General Bonnet. The 
result was a signal victory for 
the British, the French losing 
12,500 killed, wounded and 
prisoners, and 12 guns. The 
British and Spanish loss a- 
mounted to about 6,000. These 
figures include the skirmishes 
of the days preceding the battle, 
during which the armies were in 

Salamanca (Mexican Liberal 
Fought March 10, 1858, be- 
tween the Government troops, 
under Miramon. andtheLibeiab, 
under Doblado. Doblado's raw 
levies could not face Miramon's 
trained troops, and were utterly 

Salamis (Third Persian Invasion). 
Fought 480 B.C. between the 
Greek fleet of 370 sail, under 
Themistocles, and the Persian 
fleet, of over 1,000 galleys. The 
Greeks at first hesitated to 
attack in face of the overwhelm- 
ing numbers of the Persian 
ships, but an Athenian trireme, 
commanded by Aminias, dashed 
in, and being followed by the 
rest of the Athenians and the 
iEginetans in good order, the 
Persians were, after a hard 
struggle, totally defeated, with 
the loss of more than half their 
fleet. Xerxes and his army 
witnessed the rout from the 
shores of Salamis. 

Salamis (Wars of Alexander's 
Fought B.C. 307, between the 
Macedonian fleet, under Deme- 
trius Poliorcetes, and the Egypt- 
ians, under Ptolemy Soter. The 
Egyptians were routed, with the 
loss of 100 ships captured and 
the rest sunk, and 30,000 pri- 

Salankemen (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought August 19. 1 69 1, be- 
tween 100,000 Turks, under the 
Grand Vizier. Mustapha Kdpriali 
Pasha, and 45.000 Imperialists, 
under the Margrave Louis. The 
Turks were signally defeated 
and Kdpriali sUun. 

Salano (Moorish Empire in 
Fought 1340 between the 
Spaniards, under Alfonso XI 
of Castile, and the Moors, under 
Abu '1 Hasan of Granada. The 
Moors, who were besieging 
Tarifa, were attacked by the 
Spaniards, who utterly routed 
them and relieved the town. 



Abu '1 Hamed fled to Africa, 
and Alfonso was enabled to 
recover Algeciras. 

Saldanha Bay (Wars of the 
French Revolution). 
Fought August 17, 1796, 
when Sir Keith Elphinstone, 
with a British squadron, entered 
the bay, and after capturing a 
Dutch ship of war l3ring in the 
harbour, landed a force, to 
which the garrison surrendered 
after a brief resistance. 

Sale. See Castiglione. 

Samarcand (Tartar Invasion of 
This place, which was de- 
fended by a garrison of 1 10,000 
Turks and Kharismians. under 
the Governor, Alub Khan, was 
besieged by the Tartars, under 
Genghiz Khan, in June, 1220. 
The garrison harassed the Tar- 
tars by numerous sorties, and 
little progress was made with 
the siege, but some of the in- 
habitants, hoping to save the 
city from pillage, opened the 
gates to the besiegers. After 
heroic efforts [to defend the 
city against the overwhelming 
hordes of the enemy, Alub 
Khan put himself at the head 
of 1,000 picked horsemen and 
cut his way out. The survivors 
of the garrison, now reduced to 
30,000, were put to the sword. 

Samaghar (Rebellion of Aurung- 
Fought June, 1658, between 
the army of the Great Mogul, 
Shah Jehan, under Dara, and 
the forces of his rebellious sons, 
Aurungzebe and Marad. Dara 
was totally defeated, and his 
army dispersed, and three days 
later the rebels occupied Agra, 

where Shah Jehan was impri- 
soned and Aurungzebe seized 
the crown. 

Sampford Courtney (Arundel* i 
The final engagement with 
the rebels, fought August 17, 
1549. when Arundel was de- 
feated by the Royal troops, 
under Lord Russell, with a loss 
of 700 killed and many prisoners, 
including most of the ring- 
leaders in the rising. 

San Giovanni (Wars of the 
French Revolution). 
Fought June 17, 1799, be- 
tween the French, under Mac- 
donald, and the Russians, under 
Suwaroff. After three days* 
hard fighting, the French were 
forced to retreat, having suf- 
fered a loss of 6,000 killed and 
wounded and 9,000 prisoners. 
The Russian losses were about 

San Isidoro (Paraguay War). 

Fought April, 1870, between 
the Paraguayans, under Lopez, 
and the allied army of Brazil, 
Argentina and Uruguay, under 
General Camera. Camera at- 
tacked Lopez's entrenchments 
and drove him out, forcing him 
to take refuge in the mountains 
with the small remnant of his 

San Jacinto (Texan Rising). 

Fought April 2, 1836, when 
the Mexican army, under Santa 
Anna, about 5,000 strong, was 
routed and almost destro3red 
by the Texans, under General 
Houston. The survivors, with 
Santa Anna and his staff, were 
taken prisoners, and Texas was 
freed from the Mexican yoke. 



San Jacinto. 

Fought February 12, 1867, 
between the adherents of the 
Emperor Maximilian, under 
Miramon. and the Mexican Con- 
stitutionalists, under Escobedo. 
Miramon was defeated, and his 
army surrendered, he himself 
escaping with difficulty from 
the field. 

San Juan. See El Caney. 

San Lazaro (War of the Austrian 
Fought June, 1746, between 
the Austrians, 40.000 strong, 
under Prince Lichtenstein, and 
the French and Spaniards, under 
Marshal Maillebois. The alUes 
attacked the Austrian entrench- 
ed camp, and after an obsti- 
nate conflict, lasting nine hours, 
were repulsed with a loss of 
10,000 killed and wounded. 

Sanna's Post (Second Boer War). 
Fought March 31. 1900. when 
a force of cavalry, with 2 R.H.A. 
batteries and a considerable 
convoy, under Colonel Broad- 
wood, was ambushed by a party 
of Boers, under De Wet, while 
crossing a donga. The guns 
were just entering the donga 
when the Boers opened fire, and 
4 guns of Q battery succeeded 
in getting clear and opening 
fire, stuck to their work till 
only 10 men of the l>attery were 
left standing. Broadwooid suc- 
ceeded in extricating his force, 
but at a cost of 19 officers and 
136 men killed and wounded, 
426 prisoners. 7 guns, and the 
whole of his convoy. General 
Colville's column was within a 
few miles, but though the firing 
was heard, he failed to reUeve. 
This is also known as the action 
of Komspruit. 

San Sebastian (Peninsular War). 
This town was besieged July 
10, 18 1 3. by the British, under 
General Graham, and was de- 
fended by a French garrison, 
under General Rey. An assault 
on July 25 was repulsed, and 
pending the arrival of heavy 
guns from England, the siege 
resolved itself into a blockade. 
Active operations were resumed, 
and on the 31st the town was 
taken by storm. Rey, how- 
ever, still held out in the citadel, 
and it was only after further 
bombardment that he sur- 
rendered on September 9. The 
besiegers' losses amounted to 
over 2,500 killed and wounded. 

San Sebastian(Fir8t Carlist War). 
This fortress, held by a garri- 
son of Cristinos and a small 
detachment of the British 
legion, under Colonel Wylde, 
was besieged by the Carlists, 
under Sagastibelza, February, 
1836. The siege was carried 
on in desultory fashion, with 
constant fighting between the 
outposts. tLU June, 1836. when 
General Evans, with 10,000 
British and Spanish troops, 
occupied the advanced Carust 
positions, and forced them to 

Santa Luda (Rio Grande Rising). 
Fought 1842, between the 
Brazilian Government troops, 
under General Caxias, and the 
rebels. 6,000 strong, under Feli- 
ciano. The rebels were totally 

Santarem (Dom Miguel's Re- 
Fought February 18. 1834, 
when the Portuguese Govern- 
ment troops, under Marshal 



Saldanha, totally defeated the 
" Miguelists/' under Dom Mi- 

Santa Vittoria (War of the 
Spanish Succession). 
Fought July 26, 1702, when 
4 regiments of Prince Eugene's 
army, under General Visconti, 
were attacked by 15,000 
French and Spaniards, under 
the Due de Vendome. The Im- 
perialists were forced to aban- 
don their camp and retire with 
the loss of their baggage, but lost 
only 500 men, while their quaU- 
fied success cost the allies nearly 
2,000 killed and wounded. 

Santiago (Spanish - American 
Fought July 3, 1898, between 
the American fleet of 4 battle- 
ships and 3 cruisers, under 
Admiral W. T. Sampson, and 
the Spanish fleet of 4 armoured 
cruisers and 3 torpedo-boats, 
under Admiral Cervera. The 
Spaniards endeavoured to es- 
cape from the blockaded har- 
bour of Santiago, but were 
unsuccessful, the whole squad- 
ron being destroyed. The 
Americans suffered hardly any 
damage, the Spanish gunnery 
being very inefficient, and lost 
only I man killed. 

Sapienza (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought 1490 between the 
Turkish fleet, under Kemal 
Reis, and the Venetians. The 
Venetians suffered a severe re- 
verse, this being the first naval 
victory of the Turks in the 

Saragossa (War of the Spanish 
Fought August 20, 1700, be- 
tween 25,000 Spaniards, and a 

force of Austrians, British, 
Dutch and Portuguese troops, 
23.000 in number, under the 
Archduke Charles. The Portu- 
guese in the right wing gave 
way, leading a large force of 
Spaniards in pursuit, but the 
left and centre stood their 
ground, and finally repulsed 
the enemy, with a loss of 4,000 
prisoners, besides killed and 
wounded. The Archduke at 
once took possession of Sara- 

Saragossa (Peninsular War). 

In June, 1808, siege was laid 
to this city by the French, 
under Marshal Lefebvre. A 
successful defence was made, 
and the marshal's forces being 
insufficient to effect a prompt 
capture, he raised the siege m 
August. In December of the 
same year it was again besieged 
by the French, under Moncey 
and Mortier, and defended by a 
Spanish garrison, under Pala- 
fox. A most heroic defence 
was made, notable for the bravery 
of Agostina, the maid of Sara- 
gossa, who took the place of 
her wounded lover on the ram- 
parts, and helped to serve the 
guns, but despite all the efforts 
of Palafox, the place was 
stormed, and, after very severe 
house to house fighting, cap- 
tured, February 21. 1809. 

Saratoga. See Stillwater. 

Sardis (Wars of Alexander's 
Fought B.C. 280, between the 
troops of Pergamus, under Eu- 
menes, and the Syrians, under 
Antigonus Soter. Eumenes 
gained a signal victory, and 
annexed a large part of the 
dominions of Antigonus. 



SibrkAny (Hungarian Rising). 

Fought December 30, 1848, 
between the Austrians. under 
Windischgratz, and the Hun- 
garians, under General Percrel. 
Perczel had been entrusted by 
Gorgey with the defence of the 
Sdrkiny defile, but on being 
attacked by the Austrians, his 
division made little resistance, 
and fled in disorder, thus forcing 
Gorgey to retire from the Une 
he had chosen to defend. 

Sauchie Bam (Rebellion of the 
Fought June 18, 1488. be- 
tween the rebel Barons, under 
Angus '' BeU-the - Cat." and 
the troops of James III of Scot- 
land, under the king. The 
royal army was totally defeated 
and James slain. 

Saucourt (Norse Invasion of 
Fought 861 between the 
Neustrians. under Louis III. 
and the invading Norsemen, 
when Louis gained a brilliant 

Sauroren (Peninsular War). 

Fought July 28, 1813, be- 
tween the French. 25,000 strong, 
under Soult. and the British, 
12.000 strong, under WelUng- 
ton. Soult attempted to turn 
the British left in order to drive 
them from a strong position, 
but after severe fighting he was 
repulsed, with a loss of about 
3.000. The British losses were 
about 2,600. Soult renewed 
his attempt to force Welling- 
ton's Unes on the 30th, but was 
again repulsed, with a loss of 
2,000 killed and wounded and 
3,000 prisoners. The British 
loss amounted to 1,900. 

Savage's Station. See Seven 
Days* Battle. 

Savandroog (Second Mysore War ). 
Siege was laid to this place 
December 10, 1791, by a column 
of Lord CornwaLllis' army, about 
4,000 strong,. It was de- 
fended by a strong garrison 
of Mysoris, and was con- 
sidered impregnable, but a 
practicable breach having been 
effected, it was taken by storm 
eleven days later, the garrison 
offering Uttle re^stance. The 
assailants did not lose a man. 

Saxa Rubra (Revolt of Maxen- 
Fought October 28, 312, be- 
tween the Imperial troops, 
under Constantine, and the 
legions of Italy, under Maxen- 
tius. The Italian cavalry, 
posted on the wings, was routed 
by Constantine's horse ; the 
infantry, thus left unsupported, 
fled from the field, only the 
Prctorians making a brave re- 
sistance, and dying where they 
stood. Maxentius escaped, but 
crosing the Tiber into Rome by 
the Milvian Bridge, was forced 
by the crowd of fugitives into 
the river and drowned. 

Scarpheia (War of the Achaean 
Fought B.C. 146, between the 
Romans, under Matellus, and 
the Achxans, under Critolaus. 
The Greeks were totally de- 
feated with heavy loss, Critolaus 
being killed. 

Scio (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought July 5, 1769, between 
a Russian fleet of 10 sail of the 
line, under Admiral Spiritoff, 
and 1 5 Turkish ships, with some 
small vessels, under the Capitan 

■^— * fZ -.«- 

■■T-.T- ■S ,-_ 



Pasha. After a severe engage- 
ment, in which both the flag- 
ships were blown up. the Turks 
were driven into the Bay of 
Tchesme, where a few days 
later their fleet was destroyed 
by fire-ships. 

Schipka Pass (Russo - Turkish 

Fought August 21, 1877, and 
following days, when the Rus- 
sians, 7,000 strong, under Gene- 
ral Darozhinsky, holding the 
pass, were attacked by 25,000 
Turks, under Suleiman Pasha. 
The Russians were driven from 
point after point of their de- 
fences, and were on the verge 
of being overwhelmed, when 
the arrival of reinforcements 
enabled them to assume the 
offensive and recover their lost 
positions, and on the 26th fight- 
ing ceased. The Russian losses 
amounted to 4.000, including 
Darozhinsky, while the Turks 
lost about 11,500. 

On September 16 Suleiman, 
reinforced to 40,000 men, made 
an attempt to carry the Rus- 
sian position on Mount St. 
Nicholas, but was repulsed with 
a loss of 3,000, the Russians 
losing 31 officers and about 
1 ,000 rank and file. 

By January 8, 1878, the Rus- 
sian force in the Schipka had 
been increased to 60,000 men, 
under General Radetski, while 
the Turks, numbering 40,000 
were under Vessil Peisha. Gene- 
ral Mirsky, with 25,000 men, 
attacked the Turkish entrench- 
ments and drove them out of all 
their positions, and on the fol- 
lowing day Vessil Pasha sur- 
rendered with 36,000 men and 
93 guns. The Russians lost 5, ooo# 

Schwechat (Hungarian Rising). 
Fought October 30, 1848, 
between the Austrians, under 
Prince Windischgratz, and the 
Hungarians, under General 
Moga. The Hungarian militia 
made a very feeble stand against 
the Austrian regulars, and were 
driven back all along the line 
with considerable loss. 

Scutari (Ottoman Wars). 

This place, held by a Venetian 
garrison, under Antonio Lore- 
dano, was besieged by the 
Turks, under Suleiman Pasha, 
May, 1474. The garrison held 
out stoutly till the middle of 
August, when Suleiman raised 
the siege. 

Four years later, in June, 
1478. Mohammed II invested it, 
the garrison now being under 
the command of Antonio di 
Lezze. Though few in numbers, 
the Venetians withstood a con- 
tinuous bombardment, repuls- 
ing two serious assaults, until 
September 8, when Mohammed 
retired, leaving behind him 
only a blockading force. When 
on the conclusion of peace the 
place was handed over to the 
Turks only 450 men and 150 
women were aUve in the town. 
In the first assault the Turks 
lost 12,000 men, and an even 
greater number, it is said, in 
the second. 

Sebastopol (Crimean War). 

This fortress was besieged 
by the allied French and British 
armies, under Marshal St. 
Amaud and Lord Raglan. Sep- 
tember 28, 1854. It was de- 
fended by a large force of Rus- 
sians, under Prince Mentschi- 
kofif, with General Todleben as 
his principal engineer officer. 



The besiegers were too few for 
a complete investment, and 
though the harbour was closed 
by the British fleet, under Sir 
Edmund Lyons, the Russians 
were throughout the siege en- 
abled to obtain reinforcements 
and provisions from the north 
side. The batteries opened 
on October 17, and from 
that time till September 8, 
1855, the town was more or 
less continuously bombarded. 
On that day the Malakoff, an 
important part of the southern 
defences, was stormed by the 
French, and the place became 
untenable, the allies entering it 
unopposed on the following 
day. The Russians, during the 
later days of the bombardment, 
are said to have lost as many 
as 3,000 men a day. 

SecchU, The (War of the Polish 
Fought September 14, 1734, 
when the Imperialists, under 
Count Kdningscgg» surprised 
the camp of the French army, 
under the Due de Broglie, cap- 
turing 5,000 prisoners, 100 guns 
and the whole of the stores, 
baggage and ammunition. 

Secessionville (American Civil 
Fought June 15, 1862, when 
6,000 Federals, under General 
Benham. attacked the strong 
position of Secessionville, cover- 
ing the road to Charleston, 
which was held by 2,000 Con- 
federates, under General Evans. 
The Federals were repulsed 
with a loss of 600 men, the Con- 
federates losing 200. 

Secunderbagh (Indian Mutiny). 

Fought November 16. 1857, 
during the second relief of Luck- 

now, by Sir Colin Campbell. 
The S^underbagh, a walled 
enclosure of strong masonry, 
held by a large body of rebels, 
was, after a bombardment of 
about an hour and a half, taken 
by storm by the 93rd High- 
landers and the 4th Punjabis, 
with very heavy loss to the 
enemy, over 2,000 dead bodies 
being afterwards carried out 
of the enclosure. 

Sedan (Franco-German War). 

This battle, the most decisive 
of the war, was fought Septem- 
ber I, 1870, The French, under 
Marshal Macmahon, who was 
wounded early in the action, 
were driven from all their posi- 
tions by the Germans, under 
the King of Prussia, and com- 
pelled to retire into Sedan, 
where they laid down their 
arms. The Emperor Napoleon 
III was among the prisoners, 
and one of the results of the 
surrender was his dethrone- 
ment and the proclamation of 
a republic in Paris. The battle 
is remarkable for the charge of 
the Chasseurs d'Afrique, under 
General Margueritte, in the 
neighbourhood of Floing. The 
brigade was cut to pieces and 
the general killed. The Ger- 
mans lost in the action 460 
officers and 8,500 men ; the 
French 3,000 killed, 14,000 
wounded, and 21,000 prisoners, 
while 83,000 subsequently sur- 
rendered in Sedan. The Ger- 
mans took 419 guns, 139 for- 
tress guns and 66,000 rifles. 

Sedgemoor (Monmouth's Re- 


Fought July 5, 1685, between 

the Royal troops, under the 

Earl of Faversnam, and the 


■ avMM 



rebels, under James, Duke of 
Monmouth. Monmouth at- 
tempted a night attack on 
Faversham's camp, but the 
alarm was given, and the Royal 
troops falling upon their assail- 
ants, put Monmouth's cavalry 
to flight, and though his in- 
fantry made a sturdy resistance 
they were at length overpowered 
and routed with heavy loss. 
This defeat put an end to the 

Segesw&r (Hungarian Rising). 

Fought July 31, 1849, be- 
tween the Hungarians, under 
General Bem, and the Russians, 
under General Luders. The 
Russians, after a severe engage- 
ment, were totally defeated. 

Segikahara (Rebellion of Hide- 
Fought September 16, 1600, 
between the troops of the Sho- 
gun Tokugawa Tyeyasa, 80,000 
strong, and 130,000 rebels, un- 
der Mitsunari. The rebels were 
utterly routed with the loss 
of 30,000 killed, among whom 
was Mitsunari. and the rebel- 
Uon was suppressed. 

Seine Mouth (Hundred Years' 
Fought August 15, 141 6, 
when the English fleet, under 
Bedford, sailed into the Seine with 
the object of revictualling Har- 
fleur, which the French were 
besieging. The blockading 
force, consisting of 8 large 
Genoese carracks, besides 
smaller vessels, attacked the 
EngUsh fleet, and after six 
hours' hard fighting were totally 
defeated, with a loss of 5 car- 
racks and 5 other ships, while 
Bedford'succeeded in throwing 
supplies into the town. 

Selby (Ovil War). 

Fought April 11, 1644, be- 
tween the Royalists, 3,300 
strong, under Colonel John 
Bellasis, and a slightly superior 
force of Parliamentarians, under 
Sir Thomas Fairfax. B^lasis 
had occupied Selby with the 
object of preventing a junction 
between Fairfax's troops and 
those of the Scots at Durham. 
He was attacked by Fairfax 
and totally defeated, with the 
loss of 1,600 men and all his 
artillery and baggage. 

Selinus (Second Carthaginian 
Invasion of Ssdly). 
This city was besieged by the 
Carthaginians, 100.000 strong, 
under Hannibal, b.c. 409. An 
attempt by the Syracusans, 
under Diocles, to relieve came 
too late, for after resisting 
stubbornly for nine days, the 
garrison, hopelessly outnum- 
bered, were overpowered ; and 
the place stormed and sacked, 
all the survivors being carried 
off into captivity. 

Seminara (Italian Wars). 

Fought 1495 between 6,000 
Spaniards and Neapolitans, un- 
der Gonsalvo de Cordova and 
Ferdinand of Naples, and a 
largely superior French army, 
under D'Aubigny. The Nea- 
politans fled almost without 
striking a blow, and though 
the Spaniards fought well, they 
were overpowered by numbers, 
and in the end totally routed, 
only Gonsalvo with 400 Spanish 
cavalry making an orderly re- 

Sempach (War of Sempach). 

Fought July 9, 1386, between 
6,000 Austrians, under Duke 



Leopold, and 1,500 Swiss Con- 
federates. The Swiss gained a 
complete victory, the Austrians 
losing 1,500 killed and wounded, 
while only 120 Swiss fell. The 
battle is celebrated for the 
heroic action of Arnold von 
Winkelried, who broke the line 
of the Austrian spearmen at 
the cost of his Ufe, and enabled 
his followers to penetrate their 

Senef! (Wars of Louis XIV). 

Fought August II. 1674. be- 
tween the French, 45,000 strong, 
under Condd, and the Flemings 
and Spaniards, 60,000 strong, 
under the Prince of Orange. 
Orange, finding Condi's posi- 
tion too strong to attack, began 
a retreat towards Le Quesnay, 
thereby exposing his flank. 
Cond6 took instant advantage 
of this error, and dispersed the 
vanguard of the allies, but the 
Prince took up a strong position 
at Seneff, from which Condd 
was unable to dislodge him, 
and the conflict ended in a 
drawn battle, after seventeen 
hours' hard fighting. 

Senegal (Napoleonic Wars). 

The French garrison of this 
place surrendered, July 13, 
1809, to a British force of i 
frigate and 2 brigs, with some 
transports carrying troops, un- 
der Captain G. H. Columbine. 

Senekal (Second Boef War). 

Fought May 29, 1900, when 
a British force, under General 
Rundle, attacked the Boers, 
strongly posted on the Bid- 
dulpl^berg. The attack was 
made amidst great bush fires, 
in which many of the wounded 
perished, and was unsuccessful, 
the British losses amounting to 

7 officers and 177 men killed 
and wounded. 

Senlac Se0 Hastings. 

Sentinum (Third Samnite War). 
Fought B.C. 298, between five 
Roman legions, under Q. Fabius 
Maximus and Publius Decius, 
and the Samnites and Gauls, 
under Gellius Rquatius. The 
Roman left was disordered by 
the war-chariots of the Gauls, 
but was rallied by Decius, who 
restored the battle, but at the 
cost of his life. On the right 
the Samnites were routed, and 
Fabius then fell upon the Gauls 
in flank, and broke them. Mean- 
while the Samnite camp was 
attacked, and Ec^uatius slain, 
the Romans gaimng a signal 
victory. The losses of the 
victors amounted to 8,200, while 
the Gauls and Sainnites lost 
2 5 ,000 killed and 8 .000 prisoners. 

Sepeia (Argive War). 

Fought B.C. 494, between the 
Spartans, under Cleomenes, and 
the Argives. The Spartans, by 
a ruse, succeeded in surprising 
the Argives while the soldiers 
were dining, and totally routed 
them. This defeat deprived 
Argos of the paramountcy in 
the Peloponnesus. 

Seringapatam (Second Mysore 
This city was besieged, Feb- 
ruary 5, 1792, by 22,000 British 
and native troops, with 86 guns, 
under Lord Comwallis, and 
defended by a Mysoci garrison, 
under Tippu Sahib. On the 6th 
an assault upon the outlying 
works was successful, all the 
redoubts commanding the city 
being carried, at a cost to the 
assailapta of 530, while the 


tffc — TT^ T I - ^' 



Mysoris lost 20,000. On the 
approach of reinforcements, 
under General Abercromby, on 
the 1 6th, Tippu consented to 
treat, and peace was signed in 
the following month. 

Seringapatam (Third Mysore 
The second siege by General 
Harris, opened April 6. 1799, 
when the city was defended by 
a garrison of 20,000, under 
Tippu. On May 3, the breach 
was declared practicable, and 
the place was stormed by 4,000 
men. under General Baird. 
Tippu was slain in the rout 
which followed the assault. 
The British losses during the 
siege amounted to 1,464. About 
8,000 Mysoris fell in the assault. 

Seringham (Seyen Years' War). 
Fought 1753, between 1,000 
British troops, under Major 
Laurence, and the French, with 
their Mahratta and Mysori aUies, 
under M. Astruc. The French 
attacked in force an isolated 
post, held by 200 Sepoys, and 
carried it before Major Laurence 
could come up. He then at- 
tacked, and in turn carried the 
position, driving off the French, 
and the Mahrattas who came 
up to their support, and cap- 
tured three guns. 

Seskar (Russo-Swedish Wars). 

Fought 1790, between the 
Swedish fleet, under the Duke 
of Sudermanland, and a Rus- 
sian squadron, under Admiral 
Kruze. The Swedes were total- 
ly defeated, after a severe 
engagement, which lasted from 
daybreak till far into the night. 

SeU (Yoshinaka's Rebellion). 

Fought 1 183, between the 
army of Yoritomo, under his 

brothers Noriyori and Yoshi- 
tsune, and that of Yoshinaka. 
The rebels were completely 
defeated, and Yoshinaka killed. 

Seven Days' Battles (American 
Civil War). 
A series of actions fought by 
General Lee, with 100,000 Con- 
federates, against General 
M'Clellan, with 95,000 Federals. 
Lee's object being to reUeve 
Richmond. On June 26, 1862. 
General Hill, with 1,400 Con- 
federates, attacked M'CalVs 
division, in a strong position at 
Beaver's Dam Creek, which 
attack M'Call repulsed, at small 
cost to his force. On the 27 th, 
General Porter. 35,000 strong, 
posted on the Chickahominy 
at Gaines' BAill, was attacked 
by 54.000 Confederates, under 
Lee in person. The Southerners 
advanced under a heavy artil- 
lery fire, and after severe fight- 
ing, drove the Federals across 
the river, and captured 20 guns. 
On the 28th, M'Clellan prepared 
to withdraw to the James River, 
his centre having been pierced, 
and commenced his retreat. On 
the 29th. 4 Confederate divi- 
sions, under Longstreet, aided 
by an armoured train, came up 
with Sumner's corps at Savage's 
Station, but was repulsed, Sum- 
ner thus inflicting a serious 
check upon the pursuing co- 
lumns. On the 30tn. 3 divisions, 
under General Jackson, over- 
took the Federal rearguard, 
under General French, near the 
White Oak Swamp, and an 
artillery duel followed, which 
cost the Federals some guns. 
Two divisions, under Long- 
street, also attacked M'Call'a 
division, and routed it. M'Call 
being captured. By([the even- 



ing of the 30th, M'Clellan reach- 
ed Malyem Hill, overlooking 
the James River, and deter- 
mined to oppose here the 
further advance of the Con- 
federates, On July I St, the 
Confederates attacked, but the 
Federals held their ground 
throughout the day, and on the 
2nd retired in good order and 
practically unmolested. The 
Federals admit a loss of 15,249 
men and 25 guns during the 
operations, but Confederate 
accounts put the figures much 
higher, and claim 5 1 guns. The 
losses of the Southerners were 
also very heavy, especially at 
Malvern Hill, but Lee's object 
was accomplished, and Rich- 
mond was relieved. 

Sevenoaks (Cade's Rebellion). 

Fought June x8, 1450, be- 
tween the rebels, under Cade, 
and the royal troops, under 
Sir Humphrey Stafford. The 
force under Stafford was quite 
inadequate for the work in 
hand, and was routed, Stafford 
being killed. 

Seven Pines. See Fair Oaks. 

Shahjehan (Tartar Inyasion of 
Kharismia. ) 
This city was besieged 1221, 
by the Tartars, under TuH Khan, 
and was obstinately defended 
by the garrison under a Turkish 
general named Bugha. For 
twenty-one successive days the 
besiegers delivered assaults, 
which were repulsed, but finally 
the inhabitants made terms with 
Tuli Khan, and opened the gates 

Shaldiran (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought August 24, 15x4, be- 
tween 120.000 Turks, under 
Selim I, and about 80,000 Per- 
sians, under the Shah Ismael. 

The wing led by the Shah in 
person was victorious, but the 
Persian left was totally routed, 
and in endeavouring to restore 
the battle on that side Ismael 
was wounded, whereupon the 
army was seized with panic, and 
took to flight. 

Shannon and Chesapeake (Se- 
cond American War). 
A famous frigate action.fought 
May 29, 181 3, between the 
British frigate Shannon, of 38 
guns, commanded by Captain 
Broke, and the American fngate 
Chesapeake, also of 38 guns, 
under Captain John Lawrence. 
The Chesapeake sailed out of 
Boston Harbour to attack the 
Shannon, and after a brisk 
action was taken by the board 
by the British. The Shannon 
lost 4 officers and 21 men killed, 
and 3 officers and 56 men wound- 
ed ; the Chesapeake, 8 officers 
and 39 men killed, and 9 officers 
and 106 men wounded. Captain 
Lawrence was killed and Cap- 
tain Broke wounded. 

Sheerness (Dutch Wars). 

Fought June 7, 1667. and 
following days, when the Dutch 
fleet, under de Ruyter, sailed up 
the Med way as far as Upnor 
Castle, and destroyed 7 ships of 

Sherifimuir (RebeUion of the 
Fought November 13, 171 5. 
between 3,500 royal troops, 
under the Duke of Argyle, and 
9,000 Highlanders, under the 
Earl of Mar. Argyle's left wing 
was routed by the Macdonalds, 
and his left and centre, though 
at first they held their own. were 
in the end compelled to retire. 




and Argyle effected a retreat in 
good order to Stirling. 

Sherstone (Danish Inrasion). 

Fought 1 016. between Ed- 
mund Ironside, and Knut, the 
rival claimants to the throne. 
The battle was indecisive. 

Shijo Nawate (War of the North- 
em and Southern Empires). 
Fought 1339, between the 
army of the Northern Emperor, 
under Takaugi and Tadayoshi, 
and the troops of the Southern 
Emperor, under Kusunoki Ma- 
satsura. Masatsura was attack- 
ed at Yoshino. which place was 
temporarily the Imperial resi- 
dence. Feeling that he was too 
weak to defend it, he marched 
out uith his whole force to meet 
his assailants, and fell fighting 
to the last, the Northern troops 
gaining a complete victory. 
Japan was soon afterwards 
again united, under the rule of 
the Northern line. 

Shiloh (American Civil War). 

Fought April 6 and 7, 1862, 
between the Confederates, 43,000 
strong, under General Johnston, 
and the Federals, 40,000 strong, 
under General Grant. The Con- 
federates attacked Grant's posi- 
tion on the west of the Tennessee 
river, and surprised the Federals, 
driving back the first line in 
confusion. By nightfall. Grant 
was practically defeated, but 
Johnston failed to take advan- 
tage of his opportunity, and 
Grant being reinforced by 20,000 
men during the night, was able 
on the 7th to assume the offen- 
sive. After severe fighting the 
Southerners were driven from 
the field with a loss of 9,740 
killed and wounded and 959 
prisoners. General Johnston be- 

ing among the killed. The 
Federals lost 9,617 killed and 
wounded, and 4,044 prisoners. 

ShinowAra (Yoshinaka's Rebel- 
Fought April, 11 S3, between 
the troops of the rebel Daimio 
YoshinaKa, and the Japanese 
Imperial army, consisting of 
100,000 horsemen, under Taira- 
no-Kore. The Imperial troops 
were defeated with a loss of 
20,000 killed. 

Shirogawa (Satsuma Rebellion), 
Fought September 24, 1876. 
when the last renmants of the 
rebels, under Saigo, were de- 
feated by the Imperial army, 
under Pnnce Taruhito. The 
rebels were practically anni- 
hilated, and most of the leaders 
of the revolt killed. Saigo, 
after the defeat, committed 
Hara-kiri on the field. 

Sholapur (Third Mahratta War). 
Fought May 10, 18 18, when 
a body of cavalry, under General 
Pritzen, formi&g part of General 
Monro's force, attacked and 
dispersed the retreating rem- 
nant of the Peshwa's army. 
Sholapur surrendered on the 
15 th, the operations having cost 
the British only 97 killed and 
wounded, wtiile the loss of the 
Mahrattas exceeded 800 killed. 

Sholingur (First Mysore War). 

Fought September 27, 178 1. 
between the British, 10,000 
strong, under Sir Eyre Coote, 
and the Mysoris, numbering 
about 80,000, under Hyder Ali. 
Hyder was surprised in the act 
of striking camp, and though a 
series of cavalry charges enabled 
him to withdraw his guns in 
safety, it was at a cost of 5,000 



men that he eventually made 
good his retreat. The British 
loss did not exceed 100. 

Shrewsbury (Perqr's Rebellion)* 
Fought July 21, 1403, when 
the royalists, under Henry IV. 
met and defeated the insurgents, 
under Hotspur. Hotspur was 
killed, and Douglas and Wor- 
cester taken prisoners. The 
battle was the baptism of fire 
of Henry, Prince of Wales 
(Henry V), who displayed great 
bravery, and was severely 

Sidassir (Third Mysore War). 

Fought March 6, 1799, be- 
tween the advance guard of 
General Stuart's force, com- 
posed of three regiments, under 
Colonel Montresor, and 12,000 
Mysoris, under Tippu Sahib. 
Montresor 's small force with- 
stood the attack of Tippu 's 
troops for over six hours, and 
their ammunition was all but 
exhausted when Stuart came up, 
and drove back the enemy with 
a loss of 2,000 men. The British 
lost 143 killed and wounded. 


Fought July 9, 1553, between 
the Germans, under Maurice, 
Elector of Saxony, and the 
Brandenburgers, under the 
Margrave Albert. The Bran- 
denburgers were defeated, but 
Maurice was wounded in the 

action, and died two days later 



A series of actions extending 
over a hundred days, in 656, 
between the Moslems, under 
the Caliph Ali. and the adherents 
Moawiyeh, the son of Abu So- 
phian, a pretender to the Caliph- 
ate. In the course of these 

engagements Ali lost 25,000, 
and Moawiyeh 45,000 men, but 
the latter was undefeated, and 
the sanguinary conflict was 
ended by an unsatisfactory 

Sikajoki (Finland War). 

Fought April 18. 1808, be- 
tween the Swedes, under General 
Klingspor, and the Russians, 
under General Bouxhoevden. 
The Russians endeavoured to 
outflank the Swedes by moving 
out on to the ice at the mouth 
of the Sikajoki river, at the 
same time assailing them in 
front. Both attacks were re- 
pulsed, and after eight hours 
fighting, Klingspor took the 
offensive, and drove the Rus- 
sians from the field, with heavy 
loss. The Swedes lost 1,000 
killed and wounded. 

Silistria (Crimean War). 

This fortress was besieged by 
the Russians in 1854, and was 
defended by a Turkish garrison, 
who received valuable assist- 
ance from two English officers. 
Captain Buller and Lieutenant 
Nasmyth. Many attempts to 
storm the place were repulsed, 
and though no efiorts were made 
to relieve them, the |arrison held 
out until June 22, when the Rus- 
sians raised the siege, having 
suffered a loss of over 12,000 

Silpta. See Elinga. 

Simnitza (Russo-Turkish War). 
Fought June 26, 1877. be- 
tween the Russians, under the 
Grand Duke Nicholas, and the 
Turkish garrison of Sistova. 
On the night of the 26th. the 
Russian advance-guard. 15.000 
strong. under Dragomiroff, 

«. .' • :_ .:--:■ 



crossed the Danube in boats, 
and then, under Skobeleff. drove 
the Turks headlong from their 
entrenchments. On the morn- 
ing of the 27th, Sistova was 
occupied, the Russians having 
lost 820 only in the operations. 

Singara (Persian Wars). 

Fought 348, between the 
Romans, under Constantius, and 
the Persians, in largely superior 
force, under Sapor II. The 
Persian king, having posted the 
major part of his army on the 
heights overlooking Singara, en- 
gaged the Romans with a com- 
paratively small force of light- 
armed troops, who were easily 
routed by the legionaries. The 
pursuit, however, was carried 
too far, and when night fell, the 
Romans, exhausted by their 
efforts, bivouacked under the 
heights. During the night. 
Sapor led his best troops to the 
attack, and routed the weary 
Romans, with terrible slaughter. 

Singara (Persian Wars). 

This fortress, held by a Roman 
garrison, was captured, after a 
brief siege, by the Persians, 
under Sapor II, in 3^. The 
garrison was sent into captivity 
and the fortress dismantled. 

Sinnaca (Parthian War). 

At this place the renmants of 
the army of Crassus, after the 
battle of Carrhae, B.C. 53, sur- 
rendered to the Parthians. Only 
5, 000 men were with the eagles. 

Sinope (Crimean War). 

Fought 1853, when the Rus- 
sian fleet attacked the Turkish 
fleet of 9 sail, lying in the har- 
bour of Sinope. No quarter 
was given, and the Turkish 
fleet was totally destroyed. 

Over 4,000 Turks were killed, 
and it is said that only 400, 
almost all wounded, escaped the 

Sinzheim (Wars of Louis XIV). 
Fought October 4, 1674, be- 
tween the French, under Tu- 
renne, and the Imperialists, under 
General Caprara and the Duke 
of Lorraine. The French gained 
a signal victory. This action 
is also known as the Battle of 

SiUbaldi (Third MahratU War). 
Fought November 24, 18 17, 
between a small force of Madras 
native troops, and some Bengal 
cavalry, in all about 1,300 men, 
under Colonel Scott, and the 
army of Nappa Sahib, Rajah of 
Nagpur, 18,000 strong, with 36 
guns. The Sepoys held their 
ground for 18 hours, and even- 
tually beat off their assailants, 
at a cost to themselves of about 
300 men. 

Skalitz (Seven Weeks* War). 

Fought June 28, 1866, be- 
tween the 5th Prussian Army 
Corps, under General Steinmetz, 
and the 6th and 8th Austrian 
Corps, under General Ramming. 
The Austrians were defeated, 
and Skalitz occupied by the 
Prussians, who captured 4,000 
prisoners and 8 guns. 

Slivnitza (Servo-Bulgarian War). 
Fought November 17, 18 and 
19, 1885, between the Servians, 
28.000 strong, under King Milan, 
and Bulgarians, at first 10,000 
in number, but reinforced on 
the night of the 17 th and during 
the 1 8th, by a further 5,000, 
under Prince Alexander. On 
the 17 th, Prince Alexander, who 
occupied a position strong a- 



gainst a frontal attack, but very 
vulnerable on his left, made a 
strong attack on the Servian 
left, to distract attention from 
his weak flank. This attack 
was repulsed, and on the follow- 
ing day the Servians attacked 
Alexander's left. Having been 
reinforced, however, he was able 
to beat them off, while a frontal 
attack was also repulsed with 
loss. On the 19 th the Servian 
attacks were again unsuccessful, 
and by 3 p.m. they were in full 
retreat, pursued by the Bulgar- 
ians. The Servians lost about 
2,000, the victors 3,000 in killed 
and wounded, in the three days. 

Sluys (Hundred Years' War). 

Fought June 24, 1340, when 
the English fleet of 250 sail, 
under Sir Robert Morley and 
Richard Fitzalan, attacked the 
French fleet of about 200 sail, 
under Hugues Qui^ret, lying in 
Sluys Harbour. Practically the 
whole of the French fleet was 
captured or destroyed, and 
Qui^ret was killed. The French 
lost 25,000 men, the EngUsh 

Smolensko (Russo - Swedish 
Fought September 22, 1708, 
when Charles XII of Sweden, 
with 4,000 infantry and 6 regi- 
ments of cavalry, attacked a 
force of 16,000 Cossacks and 
Tartars. The king with one 
regiment was in the course of 
the action cut ofi from the rest 
of his troops by a body of Tar- 
tars, and had a narrow escape. 
His immediate following was 
reduced to 5 men. when he was 
rescued by a cavalry charge. 
In the end the Swedes routed 
the Cossacks with heavy loss. 

Smolensko (Campaign of Mos- 
Fought August 17, 1 81 2, be- 
tween 175,000 French, under 
Napoleon, and 1 30,000 Russians, 
under Bagration, of whom about 
50,000 and 60,000 respectively 
were actually engaged. Bagra- 
tion's corps occupied the town 
of Smolensko, which Napoleon 
attacked, carrying two of the 
suburbs. During the night the 
Russians set fire to the place, and 
evacuated it, having lost in the 
action about 10,000 killed and 
wounded. The French lost 9,000. 

Sobraon (First Sikh War). 

Fought February 10, 1846. 
between the British, about 
15,000 strong, and 25,000 Sikhs, 
under Runjur Singh. The 
Sikhs were strongly entrenched 
on the Sutlej, and Sir Hugh 
Gough, with feigned attacks on 
their centre and right, succeeded 
in pushing home his assault on 
their left, and after hard fighting 
drove the defenders to the river, 
where many perished. The 
British lost 2,383, the Sikhs 
about 8,000. 

Soczawa (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought 1676, between the 
Poles, under John Sobieski 
and the Turks, under Moham- 
med IV. The Poles, who had 
been reinforced by the Lithuan- 
ians, under Paz, totally routed 
the Turks, who were greatly 
superior in numbers, and drove 
them in confusion into Kami- 
niec, with the exception of which 
fortress, the whole of Poland 
was thus freed from the Otto- 
man invaders. 

Sohr (War of the Austrian 
Fought September 30. 1745. 



between x 8.000 Prussians, under 
Frederick the Great, and 35,000 
Austrians. under Prince Charles 
of Lorraine. The Prussians at- 
tacked the Austrian position 
and the Austrians, failing to 
display their usual courage 
made no stand against the steady 
advance of the I^ussian infantry, 
and were driven back in con- 
fusion, with a loss of 6,000 killed, 
wounded and prisoners, and 22 
guns. The Prussians lost be- 
tween three and four thousand 


Fought 486, and notable as 
the first miUtary exploit of 
Clovis, the founder of the Mero- 
vingian dynasty, who here de- 
feated Syagrius. Count of Sois- 
sons, and annexed his dominions. 

Solebay (Dutch Wars). 

Fought May 28, 1672, when 
the French and English fleets, 
together about 140 sail, under 
the Comte d'Estr6es and the 
Duke of York, were surprised at 
anchor, by a Dutch fleet of 115 
ships, under de Ruyter. The 
French were first attacked, but 
soon edged out of the fight, and 
the bulk of the work fell to the 
English. The battle was inde- 
cisive, for though the Dutch 
lost five or more ships, and the 
English one only, the allied 
fleet was too crippled to take 
the offensive for over a month 
after the action. 

Solferino (Franco-Austrian War). 
Fought June 24, 1859, be- 
tween 150,000 Austrians, under 
the Emperor Francis Joseph, 
with Generals Wimpffen and 
Scholick in actual command, 
and the French and Piedmont- 
ese, under Napoleon III and 

Victor Emmanuel. The French 
attacked the Austrian position 
on the heights round Solferino, 
which were held by Scholick, 
and after very hard fighting, 
they were captured by the corps 
of Macmahon and Baraguay 
d'HiUiers. Meanwhile Wimp- 
ffen. with three Army Corps, 
attacked the French left, but 
was held at bay throughout the 
day by Marshal Kiel's corps, 
and when night fell, the Aus- 
trian centre being broken. 
Francis Joseph had no option 
but to retreat, and consequently 
recrossed the Mincio. The Aus- 
trians lost 22,000 killed, wound- 
ed and missing. The allies' 
losses were 18,000, of which 
number the Piedmontese corps 
of 25,000 lost 4,000. 

Solway Moss (Scottish Wars). 

Fought December 14, 1542, 
between the Scottish invading 
army, under Oliver Sinclair, 
and a band of 500 EngUsh 
borderers, under Thomas Dacre 
and John Musgrave. The Scots 
were totally defeated, and many 
important nobles captured. 

Somnauth (Mahmud's Twelfth 
Invasion of India). 
This city, one of the ,holy 
places of India, was captured 
by the Afghans, under Sultan 
Mahmud of Ghuzni, in 1024. 
According to tradition, he car- 
ried of! the great gates of the 
city to Ghuzni ; and certain gates 
purporting to be the same, but 
which afterwards proved to be 
of later date, were brought back 
to India with a flourish of 
trumpets, after the capture of 
Ghuzni by the British in 1842. 

Son-Tai (Tongking War). 
This fortress, defended by a 



garrison of 35,000 Chinese, in- 
cluding 10,000 " Black Flags." 
under Lin Yung Ku, was attack- 
ed by the French, under Admiral 
Courbet, with 7 river gun-boats 
and force of 7,000 men, Decem- 
ber 14, 1883. On this day the 
outer defences were carried, and 
the garrison driven into the 
citadel. During the night the 
French were surprised by a 
sortie, which however they re- 
pulsed, after severe fighting. On 
the 1 6th they stormed the cita- 
del, losing in the three davs 92 
officers and 318 men killed and 
wounded. The Chinese lost 
about 1,000. 

Sorata (Inca Rising). 

This city was b^ieged, 1780, 
by the revolted Peruvians, under 
Andr6s, the last of the Incas. 
The fortifications, well provided 
with artillery, proved impreg- 
nable, but Andres divert^ 
certain mountain torrents a- 
gainst the walls, and thus opened 
a large breach, through which 
the Peruvians entered the city, 
and massacred the whole of the 
garrison and inhabitants. Of 
20,000 souls, it is said that only 
one priest escaped. 

South Mountain (American 
avU War). 
Fought September 14, 1862, 
between the Federals, under 
C^neral M'Clellan, and the Con- 
federates, under General Lee. 
Lee's object was to hold M'Clel- 
lan in check while Jackson cap- 
tured Harper's Ferry, and to 
this end he posted General D. HiU 
with 1 5, 000 on South Mountain. 
Here HiU was attacked, and 
driven to the upper slopes, but 
being reinforced by a portion of 
Longstreet's command, he main- 

tained his position there, with- 
drawing on the morning of the 
15 th. Each side lost about 
2.500 men, but Lee had gained 
his object, as the delay to 
M'Clellan ensured the capture 
of Harper's Ferry. 

Southwark (Cade's Rebellion). 

Fought July 5. 1450, between 
the rebels, under Cade, and the 
citizens of London, under 
Matthew Gough. The Lon- 
doners endeavoured to hold 
London Bridge, to prevent the 
plundering expeditions of Cade's 
followers into the city, but were 
driven back, and the central 
drawbridge set on fire. The 
Londoners lost heavily, among 
the killed being Gough. 

Southwold Bay (Dutch Wars). 

Fought 16^5. between the 
EngUsh fleet, under the Duke of 
York, and the Dutch fleet, under 
Admiral Opdam. The English 
were completely victorious, the 
Dutch losmg 18 ships and 7,000 
men. The EngUsh lost one 
ship only, and 700 men. 

Spanish Galleons. See Vigo Bay. 

Sphacteria. See Pylos. 

Spicheren (Franco - German 
Fought August 6, 1870, be- 
tween the Germans, under Von 
Alvensleben, and a superior 
French force, under General 
Frossard. After an obstinate 
encounter, the French were 
driven from all their positions 
^4th heavy loss, and compelled 
to retreat on Metz. The Ger- 
mans lost 223 officers and 4,648 
men. The battle is remarkable 
for the storming of the Rote Berg 
by I company of the 39th 
Regiment and 4 companies of 

«,'.'.. -•^■- 



the 74th Regiment, under 
General von Fran9ois, who was 
killed. These 5 companies main- 
tained their position throughout 
the afternoon, in face of a 
vastly superior force. This 
action is also known as the 
Battle of Forbach. 

Spion Kop (Second Boer War). 

General Buller's second at- 
tempt to break through the 
Boer lines on the Tugela, and 
relieve Ladysmith, is Imown by 
this name. The operations 
commenced on the 19th, 24,000 
men being employed. On that 
day Sir Charles Warren's divi- 
sion commenced to turn the 
Boer right, and gradually drove 
them from ridge to ridge till 
the evening of the 22nd, when 
by a night surprise, Spion Kop, 
the centre of the position, was 
seized. It was, however, found 
impossible to get artillery up 
the steep slopes, and the brigade 
holding the hill lost about a 
third of their strength in the 
course of the 23rd, including 
the Brigadier, General Wood- 
gate. At nightfall. Colonel 
Thorney croft, who had been 
appointed to the command, 
abandoned the hill, and on the 
following day General BuUer 
decided to recross the Tugela. 
The British losses during the 
operations amounted to 87 
officers and 1,647 men. 

Spira (War of the Spanish Suc- 
Fought November 15, 1703, 
between the French, under 
Marshal Tallard, and the Im- 
perialists, under the Prince of 
Hesse, each side being about 
20,000 strong. After a severe 
engagement, the Imperialists 

were overpowered by the French 
cavalry, and totally defeated 
with a loss of 6,000 killed, 
wounded and missing. Among 
the prisoners was the Prince of 

Splitter (Swedish Invasion of 
Fought January, 1679, be- 
tween 16,000 Swedes, under 
Field-Marshal Horn, and 10,000 
Brandenburgers, under the 
Elector Frederick William. The 
Swedes were utterly routed, 
Horn being taken prisoner, and 
not more than 1,500 succeeded 
in making their way to Riga. 

SpottsylTanIa (American Civil 
A continuation of the Battle 
of the Wilderness, fought May 
10 to 12, 1864. between the 
Confederates, under General Lee, 
and the Federals, under General 
Grant. Lee's position covering 
Richmond was attacked on the 
loth by Grant, and the day 
ended with both armies in their 
original positions, while the 
losses, especially on the side of 
the assailants, were very heavy. 
On the 1 2 th Grant renewed the 
attack, and General Hancock, 
on the right surprised the first 
line of the Confederate defences, 
and compelled General Johnson 
and his division to surrender. 
With this exception, entailing 
the loss of about a mile of ground 
Lee held his own throughout 
the day, and Grant had suffered 
too severely to renew the attack. 
The losses from the 5 th, the date 
of the first Battle of the Wilder- 
ness, to the 12th inclusive, were : 
Federals, about 50,000 killed 
and wounded, Confederates, 
about 12.000. 



Spurs. See Courtrai. 

Spurs. See Guinegate. 

SUdtiohn (Thirty Years' War). 
Fought August 9, 1623, be- 
tween the army of the Protestant 
Princes of Germany, about 
22,000 strong, under Duke Chris- 
tian of Brunswick, and the Im- 
perialists, under Tilly. The 
Protestants were utterly routed 
and dispersed, Christian fleeing 
to Holland. 

Stafiarda (War of the Revolu- 
Fought 1690, between the 
French, under Marshal Catinat, 
and the Imperialists, under 
Victor Amadeus of Savoy. The 
Imperialists met with a crushing 

Stamford Bridge. 

Fought September 2$, 1066. 
between the English, under 
Harold, and the Norse invaders, 
under Harold Hardrada and 
Tostig. The Norsemen were 
surprised by Harold in their 
camp, and totally defeated, both 
Hardrada and Tostig being 
killed, and the survivors driven 
to their ships. 

Stamford Bridge (Wars of the 
An encounter between the 
retainers of Sir Thomas Neville, 
and those of Lord Egremont, 
which developed into a pitched 
battle, in August, 1453. It is 
considered to be the beginning 
of the Wars of the Roses. 

Standard, The (Scottish Wars). 
Fought at Luton Moor, near 
Northallerton, in 11 38, between 
the Scots, under David, and the 
English, under Thurstan, Arch- 
bishop of York, and Raoul, 

Bishop of Durham. The Scots 
were routed, and fled in disorder. 
The battle derives its name 
from the fact that the banner of 
St. Cuthbert of Durham, which 
was held to ensure victory, that 
of St. Peter of York, and those 
of other saints, were carried in 
a waggon in the midst of the 
Enghsh army. 

Stavrichani (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought August 28, 1739, be- 
tween 30,000 Russians, under 
General Munnich, and the 
Turkish army, under Veli Pasha. 
The Russians stormed the 
Turkish entrenched camp, driv- 
ing the Turks headlong into the 
Danube, where thousands perish- 
ed, and capturing all their guns 
and baggage. Munnich follow- 
ed up this success by the capture 
of Choczin. 

Steinkirk (War of the Revolu- 
Fought August 8, 1692, t>e- 
tween the EngUsh. under Wil- 
liam III, and the French ,under 
Marshal Luxembourg. The En- 
glish attacked the French camp 
at daybreak, and broke and 
dispersed a brigade. Luxem- 
bourg, however, ralUed his 
troops, and after a severe en- 
gagement, repulsed the English 
attack, though WilUam was 
able to withdraw his forces in 
good order. 

Stillwater (American War of 
Fought October 7, 1777, be- 
tween the British, 6,000 strong, 
under General Burgoyne, and 
the Americans, under General 
Gates. The Americans occu- 
pied a strongly entrenched posi- 
tion, which was attacked by 




Burgoyne. After a severe en- 
counter, the attack was repulsed 
at all points, and the British 
driven back upon their camp 
at Saratoga, with heavy loss, 
including General Fraser, mor- 
tally wounded. The Americans 
followed up their success by an 
assault upon the British camp, 
in which they succeeded m 
effecting a lodgement, and on 
the following day, Burgoyne 
withdrew, and took up a fresh 
position on the heights near 
the Hudson. On October 15, 
Burgoyne, surrounded by the 
Americans, and finding that 
no aid could reach him, sur- 
rendered with 5,790 men, his 
total losses during the cam- 
paign having amounted to 4,689. 

Stirling (Scottish Wars). 

Fought September 11, 1297, 
between the Scots, under Sir 
William Wallace, and the Eng- 
lish, 50,000 strong, under the 
Earl of Surrey. Wallace fell 
upon the English army as it 
was crossing a narrow bridge 
over the Forth, and practically 
annihilated it. This battle is 
also called the Battle of Cam- 

Stockack (Wars of the French 
Fought 1799, between the 
French, under Jourdan, and the 
Austrians, 60.000 strong, under 
the Archduke Charles. The 
French were defeated and driven 
back upon the Rhine. 

Stoke (Lambert Simnel's Rebel- 
Fought June 16, 1487, be- 
tween the royal troops, under 
Henry VH, and the rebels, under 
John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln, 
who was aided by 2,000 German 

mercenaries, under Martin 
Schwarz. The King, whose 
force was superior in numbers, 
completely defeated the rebels, 
Simnel and all the rebel leaders 
being taken prisoners. 

Stolhofien (War of the Spanish 
Fought May 22, 1707, when 
Marshal Villars, with 45 French 
battalions, stormed and cap- 
tured the lines of Stolhofifen, 
which were held by the Impe- 
rialists, under the Marquis of 
Baireuth. The French took 50 

Stone Creek. S^^Murfreesboro. 

Stormberg (Second Boer War). 

Fought December 10, 1899. 
when General Gatacre, with 
about 3,000 men, made a night 
march to attack the Boer posi- 
tion at Stormberg. He was 
misled by his guides, and came 
unexpectedly under a heavy 
Boer fire. The position was 
too strong to carry, and Gatacre 
was forc^ to retire, with a loss 
of 89 killed and wounded, and 
633 prisoners. 

Stralsund (Thirty Years* War). 

This place was besieged, July 
5, 1628, by the Imperialists, 
under Wallenstein, who had 
sworn to take it in three days. 
It was defended mainly by the 
inhabitants, aided by a small 
garrison of Swedes and Scots. 
An assault on the 8th was re- 
pulsed, and though on the 9th 
some of the outworks were gain- 
ed, the town still held out, and 
finally, after a siege of 1 1 weeks, 
Wallenstein was compelled to 
withdraw his troops, having 
suffered a loss of over 1 2,000 men. 



Stralsund (Dano-Swedish Wars). 
The town was again besieged, 
October 19, 171 5, by an army 
of Prussians and Danes, 36,000 
strong, under Frederick WilUam 
III of Prussia and Frederick IV 
of Denmark, and was defended 
by a Swedish garrison, under 
Charles XII. At the end of 
three months, the besiegers 
succeeded in seizing the island 
of Rugen. which commanded 
the town, and an attempt by 
Charles to retake it ended disas- 
trously, the king escaping with 
difficulty, and severely wounded, 
while the whole of his force was 
killed or captured. On October 
10, the allies captured the horn- 
work, and on the 20th, the place 
being no longer defensible, 
Charles left the town and em- 
barked for Sweden on the only 
ship remaining in the harbour. 
The garrison immediately after- 
wards surrendered. 

Stratton (CitU War). 

Fought May 16, 1643, between 
the Parliamentary troops, under 
General Chudleigh, and the 
Cornish Royalists, under Sir 
Ralph Hopton. The Royalists 
attacked the Parliamentarian 
position on Stratton Hill, and 
after severe fighting defeated 
them, capturing 1,700 prisoners, 
including Chudleigh, 13 guns 
and all their baggage and muni- 
tions of war. 

Suero, The (Civil War of Ser- 
Fought B.C. 75, between the 
rebels, under Sertorius, and the 
Roman army, under Pompey. 
The Roman right, under FN[>m- 
pey, was broken and defeated, 
but Afranius turned defeat into 
victory, capturing the Sertorian 

camp, and routing and dispers- 
ing the rebel army. 

Suddusain (Second Sikh War). 

Fought July 1, 1848, when a 
force of Bhawalpuris and British 
18,000 strong, under Lieutenant 
Edwardes, encountered 12.000 
Sikhs, under Malraj. The Sikhs 
attacked, but were beaten off, 
largely owing to the superiority 
of the British artillery, and 
defeated with heavy loss. 

Sudlej Springs (American Civil 
Fought August 29, 1862, be- 
tween the Federab, under 
General Pope, and the Con- 
federates, under Jackson. Jack- 
son, by a forc^ march, had 
succeeded in taking up a strong 
position in Popes rear, and 
defied all attempts to dislodge 
him, repulsing the Fedex^ 
attacks with a loss of over 8,000 

Sugar-loaf Rock (Seven Years' 
Fought September 20. 1753, 
between the British, about 3,000 
stronff, under Major Laurence, 
and the French army which was 
besieging Trichinopoly. under 
M. Astruc. Laurence attacked 
before daybreak, and the native 
auxiUaries with the French 
army were seized with a panic 
and fled, leaving the Europeans 
unsupported. In the end the 
French were defeated, with a 
loss of 100 killed and 200 prison- 
ers, including Astruc. The 
British lost 40 killed and wound- 

Surinam (Napoleonic Wars). 

This place, held by a Dutch 
garrison, was captured. May 5. 
1804, by a Bntish squadron. 


:^'Ar??W_-.. 2_:ia 



under Commander Hood, to- 
gether with 2,000 troops, under 
Sir Charles Green. 

Sursuti, The (Mohammed Ghori*s 
Fought 1 191, between the 
Aghans, under Mohammed 
Ghori, and the Hindus, under 
the King of Delhi, with 200.000 
horse and 300 elephants. The 
Afghans, who were greatly out- 
numbered, were surrounded, and 
utterly routed, Mohammed 
Ghori escaping with difficulty 
from the field. 

Sursuti, The (Mohammed Ghori*s 
Fought 1 192, when Moham- 
med Ghori, on the field where 
he had suffered defeat in the 
previous year, encountered the 
Rajputs and Delhi men, under 
the Rajah of Ajmir. The 
Afghans, numbering 1 20,000, 
completely routed the Rajputs, 
and captured the Rajah. 

Sveaborg (Finland War). 

This place was besieged by 
the Russians, under General 
Suchtelen, in February, 1808, 
and was defended by a garrison 
of 7,000 Swedes and Finns, under 
Admiral Cronstedt. The siege 
was conducted under consider- 
able difficulties, the transport 
of breaching guns being almost 
impossible. However, lack of 
supplies compelled the Admiral 
to sign an armistice, on April 3, 
by which he agreed to surrender 
if not relieved by at least five 
ships of war on May 3. This 
being still unbroken at that 
date, he handed over the town 
to the Russians, with 200 guns, 
and 2 frigates and 19 transports, 
which were ice-bound in the 

Sveaborg (Crimean War). 

The town, which had become 
an important Russian arsenal, 
was lx)mbarded by a British 
fleet, under Admiral Dundas, 
August 9 to II, 1854. By the 
latter date, the arsenal and 
storehouses had been destroyed , 
and Dundas withdrew, making 
no further attempt to destroy 
the fortifications. 


Fought 433 B.C., between a 
Corinthian fleet of 1 50 sail, and 
a Corc3rrean fleet of no sail, 
aided by 10 Athenian triremes. 
The Corcyrean right wing was 
defeated, and would have been 
destroyed, but for the assist- 
ance of the Athenians, and the 
arrival of a reinforcement of 20 
Athenian ships caused the 
Corinthians to retire. The 
Corcyreans offered battle on 
the following day, but the 
Corinthians declined. Both 
sides claimed the victory, but 
the advantage lay with the 
Corinthians, who captured 
several ships. 

Syracuse (Athenian Expedition 
to Sicily). 
Siege was laid to this city by 
the Athenians, under Alcibiades, 
Lamachus and Nidas, who with 
a fleet of 134 galleys, took pos- 
session of the harbour and 
effected a landing in the autumn 
of 415 B.C. Alcibiades was 
soon recalled, and Lamachas 
killed in a skirmish, while Nicias 

? roved weak and incompetent, 
he siege works were not pressed 
and in the following year, Gylip- 
pus of Sparta succeeded in get- 
ting through the Athenian lines, 
and bringing a considerable 
force to the aid of the S3rracusans, 



capturing at the same time the 
advanced positions of the be- 
siegers. Early in 413, Demos- 
thenes arrived from Athens, 
with a fleet of 73 triremes, and 
made a desperate attempt to 
recover the lost ground. He 
was, however, totally defeated, 
and in a series of sea-fights 
which followed, the Athenian 
fleet was completely destroyed. 
This disaster forced the Athen- 
ians to raise the siege, and was, 
in addition, a death-blow to the 
naval supremacy of Athens. 

Syracuse (Second Carthaginian 
Syracuse was again besieged. 
B.C. 387, by about 80,000 Car- 
thaginians, under Himilco, aided 
by a powerful fleet, and de- 
fended by Dionysius, with about 
an equal number of troops. A 
fleet of 30 Lacedaemonian tri- 
remes arrived to the succour of 
the Syracusans, and meanwhile 
a pestilence had carried off 
thousands in the besiegers' 
camp. At this juncture Diony- 
sius decided on a joint sea and 
land attack upon the Cartha- 
ginians, which was completely 
successful. Leptinus, with 80 
galleys, surprised the Cartha- 
ginian fleet wliile the crews were 
ashore, and completely des- 
troyed it, while Dionysius storm- 
ed Himilco's defences,and utterly 
routed the besiegers, Himilco 
and his principal officers escap- 
ing from Sicily, and leaving the 
army to its fate. 

Syracuse (Second Punic War). 

In 213 B.C. Syracuse, then in 
the hands of the pro-Cartha- 
ginian faction, was besieged by 
the Romans, 25,000 strong, 
under M. Marcellus. and a fleet 

under Appius Claudius. The 
city was defended by a garrison 
under Hippocrates. The siege 
is specially notable for the pre- 
sence in the city of Archimedes, 
whose military engines played 
an important part in the defence, 
especially against the fleet. 
During the winter, the revolt 
of other Sicilian towns drew off 
a portion of the besiegers, and 
during the spring and early 
summer of 212, only a partial 
blockade could be maintained. 
Then however, taking advan- 
tage of a festival in the city, 
Marcellus stormed and cap- 
tured the upper portion of the 
town. An attempt to force 
the Roman lines by a Cartha- 
ginian relieving force, under 
Himilco, was repulsed, and 
shortly afterwards the rest of 
the city was captured by 

Szigeth (Ottoman Wars). 

This small place, held by 
a Hungarian garrison, under 
Count Zrinyi, was besieged by 
the Turks, under Solyman the 
Magnificent, in 1566. ^ The siege 
was prosecuted withTvigour but 
was fatal to the great Sultan, 
who died on the night of Sep- 
tember 4. On the following day, 
however, the Turks stormed 
and sacked the town, and Count 
Zrinyi and his little garrison 
perished in the flames. 

Tabraca (Rerolt of Gildo). 

Fought 398, between 5.000 
picked Roman legionaries, under 
Mascazel, and the revolted 
Africans. 70.000 strong, under 


tm mm 




Gildo. At the first onslaught 
of the legionaries, all the Roman 
soldiers serving under Gildo 
deserted, and the Africans tak- 
ing to flight, Mascazel gained an 
almost bloodless victory. Gildo 
was captured and committed 
suicide in prison. 

Ta^na (Peniyio-Chillan War). 

Fought May 26, 1880, between 
the ChiUans, under General 
Baquedano, and the Peruvians, 
the ChiUans gaining a signal 
victory. The Peruvian losses 
were very heavy, including 197 
officers. Following up their 
victory, the Chilians captured 
the fortress of Ari9a. 

Tacubaya (Mexican Liberal Ris- 
Fought April 11, 1859, be- 
tween the Mexican Government 
troops, under Marquez, and the 
Liberals, under DegoUado. The 
Liberals were completely routed, 
with the loss of all their artillery 
and^munitions of war. 

Tagina (Second Gothic War). 

Fought July, 552, between 
the Goths, under Totila, King of 
Italy, and 30,000 Imperial troops, 
under Narses. The Romans 
withstood the charge of the 
Goths, broke their cavalry, and 
then drove their infantry from 
the field, ^^'ith a loss of about 
6,000. Totila was overtaken 
and slain in the pursuit. 

Tagliacozzo (Guelfs and Ghibel- 
Fought 1268, between the 
Guelf party, under Charles of 
Anjou, the usurper of the throne 
of Naples, and the Ghibellines, 
under Conradin, the rightful 
heir, and Frederick, Duke of 

Austria. The Ghibellines were 
utterly routed, and their leaders, 
including Ccmradin and the 
Duke, captured and beheaded. 

Taiken Gate (Hogen Insurrec- 
Fought 1 1 57, between the 
Japanese rebels, under Shitoku, 
and the Imperial troops, under 
Bifukumonia and Tadamichi. 
The rebels were utterly routed. 
This battle is remarkable for the 
fratricidal nature of the conflict, 
many of the greatest families of 
Japan having representatives in 
both armies. 


Fought 1242, between the 
French, under Louis IX, and 
the English, under Henry III, 
with whom were alUed the 
rebellious vassals of the French 
crown, the Comtes de Marche 
and de Foix. The aUies were 
defeated, and Henry withdrew 
his forces from France. 

Takashima (Chinese Invasion 
of Japan). 
After the wreck of the Chinese 
fleet, in 1281, the survivors, 
under Chang Pak, took refuge 
on the island of Takashima. 
Here they were attacked by the 
troops of Kiushiu, under Shoni 
Kagesuke. They were almost 
without exception killed or 
captured, only three out of the 
vast host returning to China. 

Taku Forts (Second China War). 
Fought June 25. 1859, when 
an attempt was made by the 
British to carry the forts at the 
mouth of the Peiho River. 
Eleven Ught-draught gunboats 
crossed the bar, and tried to 
silence the batteries, but with- 



out success, and at 5 p.m. an 
attempt was made to carry the 
defences by a land attack. A 
force of 600 marines and blue- 
jackets, under Captain Van- 
sittart, was landed, but after 
severe fighting was driven back 
to the boats, with a loss of 68 
killed, and nearly 300 wounded. 
Six of the gunboats were sunk 
or disabled, and their crews also 
suffered heavily. 

On August 21, i860, a second 
and successful assault was made 
on the forts by a force of 1 1 ,000 
British and 7,000 French troops, 
under Sir Hope Grant. After 
a brief bombardment, the small 
north fort, garrisoned by 500 
Chinese, was stormed by 2,500 
British, and 400 French, 400 of 
the garrison faUing, while the 
British lost 21 killed and 184 
wounded. In the course of the 
day the remaining forts sur- 
rendered without further fight- 

Talana Hill (Second Boer War). 

Fought October 20, 1899, 
between 4,000 Boers, under 
General Lucas Meyer, and a 
British force of equal strength, 
under General Symons. The 
Boers occupied a strong position 
on the heights of Dundee, from 
which they were dislodged by 
the British infantry, with a loss 
of about 300. The British lost 
19 otticers, 142 men killed and 
wounded, and 331 prisoners, 
the latter a detachment of 
cavalry and mounted infantry, 
who were surrounded by a 
superior force of Boers, and 
surrendered. General Symons 
was mortally wounded. The 
action is also called the battle of 

Talavera (Peninsular War). 

Fought July 28, 1809, be- 
tween 19,000 British and 34,000 
Spaniards, under Sir Arthur 
Wellesley, and 50.000 French, 
under Marshals Jourdan and 
Victor, with Joseph Buonaparte 
in nominal command. The 
British repulsed all the attacks 
on their position, at a cost of 
6,200 killed and wounded. The 
Spanish losses were returned at 
1,200, but the figures are doubt- 
ful, as they took practically no 
part in the fighting. The French 
lost 7,389 killed, wounded and 
missing, and 17 guns. 

Talkhan (Tartar Invasion of 
This fortress was captured, 
1 22 1, by the Tartars, under 
Genghiz Khan, after an obstin- 
ate defence of seven months, in 
which thousands perished on 
both sides. 

Talneer (Third MahratU War). 
By the treaty of January 6. 
18 1 8, this fortress was sur- 
rendered by Holkar to the 
British, but on Sir Thomas 
Hislop, with a BriUsh force, 
arriving to take possession, on 
February 17, the commandant 
refused to hand it over. Though 
warned of the consequences, he 
fired upon the British, where- 
upon Hislop opened fire, and in 
the afternoon of the same day 
the place surrendered. By 

some misunderstanding, how- 
ever, the Arab garrison of 300, 
were drawn up at one of the 
gates, and on the approach of 
two British officers and some 
Sepoys, cut them down. No 
quarter was then'^'given, the 
garrison being killed to a man. 
and the commandant hanged. 



Tamai (Soudan Campaigns). 

Fought March 13. 1884, when 
4,000 British, under General 
Graham, attacked and defeated 
the Mahdists, under Osman 
Digna, destroying their camp. 
The British fought in two 
squares, one of wluch was mo- 
mentarily broken by the Mah- 
(lists, who captured the naval 
gims. The second square, how- 
ever, moved up in support, and 
the Mahdists were repulsed and 
the guns recovered. The Brit- 
ish lost 10 officers and 204 men 
killed and wounded ; the Der- 
vishes over 2,000 killed. 


Fought 457 B.C., between the 
Spartans, and their Pelopon- 
nesian allies, and about 14,000 
Athenians and others, including 
a body of Thessalian cavalry. 
The battle was stubbornly con- 
tested, both sides losing heavily, 
but the desertion during the 
action of the Thessahans turned 
the scale, and the Spartans 
were victorious, though at a cost 
which deterred them from their 
intended attack upon Athens. 

Tan j ore (Seven Years* War). 

This place was besieged, 
August, 1758, by the French, 
under Lally-Tollendal, and was 
defended by a garrison, under 
Monacji. After five days' bom- 
bardment, the walls were still 
insufficiently breached, and ow- 
ing to lack of ammunition, Lally 
determined to retire. Hearing 
this, Monacji made a sortie, and 
nearly succeeded in surprising 
the French camp. He was with 
difticulty beaten ofif, and the 
French withdrew, with the loss 
of all their siege guns and heavy 


The fortress was besieged, 
August 20, 1773, by a British 
force, under General Joseph 
Smith, and defended by a gar- 
rison of 20,000 men, under the 
Rajah, Laliaji, and his \1zier 
Monacji. On September 16. a 
breach having been effected, the 
besiegers delivered an assault 
at midday, when their garrison 
were taking their usual noon- 
day rest, and meeting with little 
opposition, made themselves 
masters of the place. 

Tansara Saka (Satsuma Rebel- 
Fought 1876, when the rebels 
in a very strong position were 
attacked by the Imperial troops, 
under Prince Taruhito, and 
after very severe fighting, driven 
out with enormous loss. The 
Imperialists also suffered se- 

Tarapaca (Peruvio-Chilian War). 
Fought November 17, 1879, 
and resulted in the defeat of 
the Peruvians with heavy loss. 

Tarento (Italian Wars). 

This fortress, held by a Nea- 
poUtan garrison, under the 
Conde di Potenza, was besieged 
by about 5,000 Spaniards, under 
Gonsalvo de Cordova, in August, 
1 50 1. Gonsalvo endeavoured to 
reduce the place by blockade, 
but found his forces melting 
away by desertion, and was forced 
to have recourse to more active 
measures. The north front of 
Tarento being bounded by a 
lake, was unfortified, and Gon- 
salvo. with incredible labour, 
transported overland some of 
the smaller vessels of the Span- 
ish fleet lying in the Bay of 



Tarento, and launched them on 
the lake. The town was then 
at his mercy, and surrendered, 
being entered by the Spaniards, 
March i, 1502 

Tarragona (Peninsular War). 

This city was besieged by the 
French, 40,000 strong, under 
General Suchet, in May, 181 1, 
and defended by a gamson but 
little inferior in numbers. The 
outer defences were stormed 
one by one, and by June 21, 
the besiegers had effected a 
lodgement in the lower town. 
On the 28th, the upper town 
was taken by storm, and the 
survivors of the garrison, 8,000 
in number, laid down their arms. 
The French lost about 6,000 
during the siege. 

Tashkessen (Russo - Turkish 
Fought December 28, 1877, 
between 2.000 Turks, under 
Valentine Baker Pasha, and a 
Russian division, under General 
Kourloff. In order to cover 
Shakir Pasha's retirement from 
the Shandumik heights. Baker's 
greatly inferior force withstood 
throughout the day, the deter- 
mined onslaughts of the Rus- 
sians, when Baker finally with- 
drew, having effected his object. 
He had lost 800 men, and had 
inflicted a loss on his assailants 
of 32 officers and over 1,000 

Tauris ((ayH War of Cesar and 
Fought B.C. 47, between the 
Pompeian fleet, under Marcus 
Octavius, and the Caesareans, 
under Pubhus Vatinius. The 
Caesarean fleet consisted of 
merchant vessels, temporarily 

equipped with beaks, but Va- 
tinius. though his ships were 
inferior both in number and 
quaUty, boldly attacked the 
Pompeians. and after severe 
fighting, completely defeated 
them, compelling Octavius to 
abandon the Adriatic. 

Taus (Hussite Wars). 

Fought August 14, 143 1, be- 
tween the Hussites, under John 
Ziska. and the ImperiaUsts. 
under the Emperor Sigismund. 
The Hussites gained a signal 

Tayeizan (Japanese Revolution). 
Fought 1868, when the adher- 
ents of the Shogun made their 
last stand in Tokyo at the Tay- 
eizan temple in the Park of 
Uyeno. They were defeated 
after a sharp conflict, leaving 
the ImperiaUsts in undisputed 
possession of the Shogun 's 

Tchemaya (Crimean War). 

Fought August 16, i«5S, be- 
tween three Russian divisions, 
under General Gortschakoff. and 
three French and one Sardinian 
division, under General Marmora. 
The Russians attacked the alUes' 
position on the Tchernaya. and 
after severe fighting, were re- 
pulsed with a loss of 5.000 killed 
and wounded. The allies lost 

Tchesme (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought July 7, 1770, between 
the Russian fleet of 50 sail, under 
Count Alexis Orloff. and the 
Turkish fleet of nearly 100 sail 
of the Une. under Hassan Bey. 
With the exception of one ship, 
which was captured, the whole 
of the Turkish fleet was des- 



Tearless Battte. 

Fought B.C. 368, when a force 
of Arcadians endeavoured to 
cut off a Spartan army, under 
Archidamus, in a narrow defile 
in Laconia. They were repulsed 
with heavy loss, and not a single 
Spartan was killed, whence the 
engagement came to be called 
the Tearless Battle. 


Fought B.C. 473, when the 
Spartans defeated the combined 
forces of the Arcadian League 
and the Argives. under the walls 
of Tegea. Though victorious, 
the Spartans were too much 
reduced in numbers to venture 
upon the attack of Te^ea, which 
had been the object of the ex- 

Tegyra (Boeotian War). 

Fought B.C. 373, when Pelo- 
pidas. with the Sacred Band of 
300 Thebans, routed a large 
force of Spartans in a narrow 
pass near Orchomenus, slaying 
600. including their two generals 

Telamon (Conquest of Cisalpine 
Fought B.C. 225, when the 
Gauls, marching upon Rome, 
found themselves caught be- 
tween two Roman consular 
armies, and though fighting 
desperately, were cut to pieces. 

Tel-el-Kebir (Arabi's RebelUon). 
Fought September 13, 1882, 
when the British. 17.000 strong, 
under Lord Wolseley, after a 
night march across the desert, 
attacked and stormed Arabi's 
entrenchments, which were de- 
fended by 22,000 Egyptians. 
The British lost 339 killed and 
wounded, the Egyptian loss 
was very heavy. 

Tel-d-Mahuta (Arabi't Rebd- 
Fought August 24, 1882, when 
the Egyptians attempted to 
oppose the march of the British 
advance guard, under General 
Graham, to Kassassin. They 
made, however, but a feeble 
resistance, and were driven off 
with heavy loss. 

Te-li-ssu (Russo-Japanese War)* 
Fought June 14 and 15, 1904. 
between 35,000 Russians, under Stakelberg, and al>out 
40,000 Japanese, under General 
Oku. The Japanese attacked 
the Russian position, but the 
Russians held their ground 
throughout the 14th, at a cost 
of about 350 killed and wounded 
On the 15 th, however, their 
flank was turned, and after hard 
fighting in which they suffered 
heavily, two batteries of artil- 
lery being absolutely cut to 
pieces, they retreated in some 
disorder, leaving over 1,500 
dead on the field. The Japan- 
ese, who lost 1,163 ill th^e two 
days, captured 300 prisoners 
and 14 guns. The total Rus- 
sian losses were about 10,000. 

Tellicherry (First Mysore War). 
This place, held by a small 
British garrison, and very im- 
perfectly fortified, was besieged 
June, 1780, by a Mysore force, 
under Sirdar Ali Khan. Aid was 
sent to the garrison from Bom- 
bay, and a most gallant defence 
was made till January 18, 1782, 
when reinforcements arrived, 
under Major Abington, who, 
aided by the garrison, stormed 
the Mysori. entrenchments, cap- 
turing all their guns, 60 in 
number, and 1,200 prisoners, 
among whom was Sirdar Ali. 



Temesvar (Hungarian Rising). 

Fought August 9, 1849, be- 
tween the Austrians, under 
Haynau. and the Hungarians, 
under Dembinski. The latter 
was totally routed, and his army 
dispersed, this being the last 
stand made by the Hungarians 
in the war. On the 13th, Gorgey 
and his army surrendered to 
the Russians at Vill4gos. 


Fought September 28, 1106, 
between the English, under 
Henry I, and the Normans, 
under Robert of Normandy. 
Henry's brother. Robert was 
totally defeated and made pri- 
soner, and Henry annexed Nor- 
mandy to the crown of England. 

Tergoes (Netherlands War of 
This fortress was besieged, 
August 16, 1572, by the Dutch 
Patriots. 7,000 strong, under 
Jerome de 't Zeraerts, and was 
defended by a small Spanish 
garrison. c5n October 20, a 
force of 3,000 Spanish veterans, 
under Colonel Mondragon, suc- 
ceeded in crossing the '' Drowned 
Land." with a loss of only 9 
men drowned, and relieved the 
town, 't 2^raert's troops refus- 
ing to face this unexpected 


Fought 687, between the 
Neustrians, under Thierry III, 
and the Austrasians, under 
Pepin d'Heristal, the Maire du 
Palais. The Neustrians were 
routed, and Thierry captured. 

Tettenhall (Danish Invasion). 

Fought 910, between the 
Danish invaders, and the West 

Saxons, under Edward the 
Elder. The Danes were de- 

Tetuan (Morocco War). 

Fought February 4, i860, 
when 30.000 Spaniards, under 
Marshal O'Donnell, stormed the 
Moorish entrenchments outside 
Tetuan, held by about 40,000 
Moors. Three days later Tetuan 
was entered by the Spaniards. 

Tcuttingcn (Thirty Years' War). 
Fought November, 1643, be- 
tween the French, under the 
Mar^chal de Rantzau. and the 
Imperialists, under the Count 
de Merci. The Imperialists sur- 
prised the French camp, and 
totally routed them, Rantxau. 
being captured with most of his 
superior officers.and all his 
artillery and baggage. 

Tewkesbury (Wars of the Roses). 
Fought May 4, 1471, when 
the Yorkists, under Edward IV. 
defeated the Lancastrians, under 
Prince Edward, Somerset and 
others, with heavy loss. Prince 
Edward and other leading Lan- 
castrians were killed, and Mar- 
garet of Anjou promptly sur- 

Texel (Dutch Wars). 

Fought June 2, 1653. between 
a British fleet, under Monk, and 
a Dutch fleet, under Van Tromp. 
The action was undecided, but 
on the following day. Monk 
having been reinforced by 18 
ships, under Admiral Blake, 
renewed the attack, and signally 
defeated Van Tromp, with a loss 
of II ships and 1,300 prisoners 
taken, and 6 ships sunk. The 
British lost 20 ships and 363 
killed and wounded. 



Thala (Numidian Revolt). 

In the year 22, this fortress, 
defended by no more than 500 
Roman veterans, was attacked 
by a large force of nomads, under 
Tacfarinas. The Romans sal- 
lied out, and inflicted so severe 
a defeat upon Tacfarinas that 
his army was dispersed. 

Thapsus (Civil War of Cesar 
and Pompey). 
Fought April 6, B.C. 46, be- 
tween the Caesareans, consisting 
of 10 legions, under JuHus 
Caesar, and the Pompeians, 14 
legions, in addition to cavalry, 
light troops, and 100 elephants, 
under Metellus Scipio and Juba. 


This city was captured by the 
Macedonians, under Alexander 
the Great, in September, 335 
B.C. The Thebans were block- 
ading the Macedonian garrison, 
which held the citadel, and 
the Cadmea; Perdiccas, one of 
Alexander's captains, without 
orders, broke through the earth- 
works outside the city. Before 
the Thebans could shut the 
gates, Perdiccas effected an en- 
trance into the city, and being 
joined by the garrison of the 
Cadmea, soon overcame the 
resistance of the Thebans. Six 
thousand of the inhabitants 
were massacred, and the city 
was razed to the ground. 

Thermopylae (Third Persian In- 
Fought 480 B.C., when 300 
Spartans and 700 Thespians, 
under Leonidas, defended the 
pass of Thermopylae, leading 
southwards out of Thessaly, 

against the Persian host, under 
Xerxes. They kept the Per- 
sians at bay until a considerable 
force having passed the moun- 
tains by another part, they were 
attacked in the rear. They then 
retired to a hillock, and fought 
till the last man felL 

Thermopylae (War with Anti- 
Fought B.C. 191, between 
40.000 Romans, under Glabrio, 
and the army of Antiochus the 
Great. King of Asia, Antiochus 
was entrenched at Thermo- 
pylae, where he was attacked by 
the Romans, and a post held 
by 2,000 ^toUans being sur- 
prised, his flank was turned, and 
he was disastrously defeated. 
Antiochus escaped from the 
field with barely 500 men. 

Thetford (Danish Invasion). 

Fought 870, between the 
Danish invaders, and the East 
Anglians, under Edward. The 
latter were defeated and Edward 

Thorn (Russo-Swedish War). 

Siege was laid to this place by 
the Swedes, under Charles XII. 
September 22, 1702. It was 
defended by a garrison of 5,000 
Poles, under General Robel, who 
made a gallant defence, but 
after a month's siege, he was 
compelled by famine to sur- 


Fought B.C. 282, when a Ro- 
man consular army, under Caius 
Fabricius, routed the Lucanians 
and Bruttians, who were besieg- 
ing Thurii. The siege was 
raised, and the Tarentine coaU- 
tion temporarily broken up. 




Fought July, 1 187. between 
the Saracens, under Saladin, and 
the Christians of Jerusalem, 
under Guy de Lusignan. Sala- 
din gained a signal victory, 
capturing the King, the Grand 
Master of the Templars, and the 
Marquis de Montferrat. Follow- 
ing up his success, Saladin 
recovered in succession. Acre, 
Jaffa, and other important 
places, and in the month of 
Ck:tober of the same year, re- 
captured Jerusalem. 

Ticinus (Second Punic War). 

Fought B.C. 218. between 
26,000 Carthaginians, under 
Hannibal, and 25,000 Romans, 
under P. Cornelius Scipio (the 
Elder). The Romans were de- 
feated with heavy loss, Scipio 
being severely wounded. 

Ticonderoga (Seren Years' War). 
Fought July 8, 1758, between 
Montcalm, with 3.600 French 
and Canadians, and the British, 
1 5 ,000 strong.including 6,000 reg- 
ulars, under General James Aber- 
cromby. Montcalm was strong- 
ly intrenched on a ridge in front 
of Fort Ticonderoga, his posi- 
tion being furthered strength- 
ened by an abatis. Aber- 
cromby made no attempt to 
turn the position, but without 
waiting for his guns, ordered 
the regulars to take the Unes by 
storm. Notwithstanding the 
gallantry of the troops, who 
advanced six times to the 
assault, the position proved 
impregnable, and Abercromby 
was forced to withdraw, with a 
loss of 19.44 killed and wounded, 
the French losing ^77 only. The 
42nd Regiment (Black Watch) 
showed conspicuous bravery, 

losing half the rank and file, and 
25 officers killed and wounded. 
On July 22, 1759. a British 
force of XI. 000 men under 
General Amherst, arrived before 
Ticonderoga, which was held by 
about 3,500 French and Cana- 
dians, under Bourlamaque. On 
the 23rd, Bourlemaque with- 
drew to the Isle-aux-Noix, on 
Lake Champlain, leaving only 
400 men, under H6b6court, 
with instructions to hold Am- 
herst before the place as long as 
possible. On the 26th, how- 
ever, H6b6court set fire to the 
magazine and retired. 

Ticonderoga (American War of 
This place was invested, 
June 22. 1777, by the British, 
under General Burgoyne, and 
was defended by 5,000 Ameri- 
cans, under General St. Clair. 
After a brief siege, the Amer- 
icans evacuated the Fort. July 5. 

Tifiis (Tartar Invasion of the 
Fought 1386, between the 
Tartars, under Tamerlane, and 
the troops of the Caucasian 
tribes, under the Queen of 
Georgia. The Queen issued 
from Tiflis to offer battle to the 
Tartars, but her forces could 
not stand against them, and 
were cut to pieces. 

Tigranocerta (Third Mithridatic 
Fought B.C. 69, when the 
Romans, 10,000 strong, under 
Lucullus. who was besieging the 
city, were attacked by 200,000 
Pontic and Armenian troops, 
under Tigranes. ^Tigranes had 
failed to occupy some high 
ground which commanded the 

^ :^:-_ 



position of his cavalry. This 
Lucullus seized, and attacking 
the Pontic cavalry in rear, 
broke it, He then attacked and 
routed the infantry, with a loss 
according to the Roman account 
of 100,000. The Romans lost 
5 men only. 

Tigris (Persian Wars). 

Fought 363, when the Romans 
under JuUan, crossed the Tigris 
in the face of a large Persian 
army, strongly entrenched on 
the opposite bank. At the first 
assault, though an attempt at 
a surprise failed, the Romans 
stormed the Persian lines, and 
after 12 hours' fighting, drove 
them from the field. The Ro- 
mans only admitted a loss of 75 
men, while they claimed that 
the Persians lost 6,000 killed. 

Tippermuir (Gvil War). 

Fought September i, 1644, 
between the Covenanters, 6,700 
strong, under Lord Elcho, and 
about 3,000 Scottish Royalists, 
under Montrose. The Coven- 
anters were totally defeated, 
with a loss variously estimated 
at from 1,300 to 2,000 killed, 
and 800 prisoners, while the 
Royalist loss was trifling. Fol- 
lowing up his victory Montrose 
occupied Perth. 

Toba (Japanese Revolution). 

Fought 1868, between the 
troops of Aiza and Kuwana, 
under the Shogun Yoshinobu, 
and the army of Satsuma and 
Choshu. The Shogun was to- 
tally defeated, and abandoned 
his invasion of Satsuma, return- 
ing with his troops to Yedo by 
sea, surrendering shortly after- 
wards to the Imperial forces. 

Tofrek (Soudan Campaigns). 
Fought March 22, 1885, when 

General McNeill, with 3 battal- 
ions of Indian, and li of British 
troops, was surprised in his 
zariba, by about 5,000 Mahdists. 
One of the native regiments 
broke and fled, but the Berk- 
shires and Marines, made a 
gallant defence, though the 
zariba was forced, as did the 
other native regiments. After 
twenty minutes* fighting the 
attack was beaten off, the Mahd- 
ists leaving 1,500 dead on the 
field. The British lost 294 
combatants and 176 camp- 
followers, killed, wounded and 


Fought 496, between the 
Franks, under Clovis, and the 
Alemanni. The Franks, after 
a desperate conflict, began to 
give way, but were rallied by 
Clovis, who leading a charge in 
person, utterly routed the Ale- 
manni. This victory gave the 
Franks undisputed possession 
of the territory west of the 

Tolentino (Hundred Days). 

Fought May 2, 1815, between 
50,000 Italians, under Murat, 
and 60,000 Austrians, under 
General Bianchi. The Italians 
were routed and dispersed, and 
Murat compelled to flee from 

Tolenus (Social War). 

Fought B.C. 90. bijtween the 
Romans, under Lupus, and the 
revolted Marsians. Lupus was 
attacked while crossing the 
Tolenus, and totally routed 
with a loss of 8,000 men. 

Tondeman's Woods (Seven 
Years' War). 
Fought February 14, 1754, 
when a convoy to revictual 



Trichinopoly, escorted by 180 
British and 800 native troops, 
was attacked by 12,000 Mysore 
and Mahratta horse, under 
Hyder AU and Morari Rao, 
supported by a small French 
force. The Sepoys at once laid 
down their arms, but the Euro- 
peans made a gallant defence, 
until the arrival of the French 
force, when, hopelessly out- 
numbered, they also surrendered. 
The convoy and the whole 
detachment were captured. 

Torgau (Seven Years* War). 

Fought November 3, 1760, 
between the Prussians, under 
Frederick the Great, and the 
Austrians, under Count Daun. 
The Austrians, besides being 
numerically superior, occupied 
a strong petition at Torgau. 
Frederick divided his forces, and 
while one portion, under Ziethen, 
attacked in front, he himself led 
the rest of his army round the 
position, and fell upon the Aus- 
trian rear. Both attacks were 
repulsed, but during the night. 
Ziethen, finding the heights 
badly guarded, gained them, 
and seized the batteries, turning 
a defeat into a signal victory. 
The Austrians lost 20,000, the 
Prussians, 13,000. and the vic- 
tory gave Frederick possession 
of the whole of Saxony. 

Tore (War of the Castilian Suc- 
Fought March i, 1476, be- 
tween the Portuguese, and the 
Spanish supporters of Joanna 
for the throne of Castile, 8,500 
strong, under Alfonso of Portu- 
gal, and the adherents of Isa- 
bella, about equal in numbers, 
under Ferdinand the Catholic. 
Ferdinand, after a long march. 

attacked the Portuguese at 4 
p.m., and at the end of two 
hours' fighting, signally defeated 
them with heavy loss. 

Toulon (War of the Spanish Suc- 
An attack was made upon 
the fortress by a combined 
Dutch and British fleet, under 
Sir Cloudesley Shovel, July 17, 
1707. The allies failed to gain 
a footing in the town, but 8 
French ships lying in the har- 
bour and 130 houses were 
destroyed by fire. 

Toulon (War of the Austrian 
Fought February 11, 1744, 
between a British fleet of 27 sail 
of the line, and 8 frigates, under 
Admiral Matthews, and a com- 
bined French and Spanish fleet 
of 28 Une-of-battle ships. The 
British fleet suffered a serious 
reverse, in consequence of which 
the Admiral and four captains 
were tried by court-martial and 
cashiered. The British lost 274 
kine<i and wounded, the allies 
about 1,000. 

Toulon (Wars of the French 
On August 29, 1793, Toulon, 
which had opened its gates to 
the British, and was held by a 
small garrison, under Lord 
Mulgrave. was besieged by the 
French, under Dugommier. By 
December 18, most of the land- 
ward defences had been carried, 
and the place having become 
untenable. Lord Mulgrave car- 
ried off his troops by sea. 
This siege is chiefly memorable 
as being the first important 
appearance of Napoleon, who 
commanded the artillery. 



Toulouse (Peninsular War). 

Fought April lo, 1814, be- 
tween 38,cxx) French, under 
Soult, and 24,cxx> E^tish and 
Spaniards, under Wellington. 
The French entrenchments in 
front of Toulouse were attacked 
by the British, who after severe 
fighting captured some of the 
outworks. The victory, how- 
ever, was incomplete, and was 
in effect of no value, as Napoleon 
had on this date already sur- 
rendered to the allies in Paris. 
The French lost about 3,000 
killed and wounded, the aJlies, 
4,659, of whom 2,000 were 

Toumay (Netherlands War of 
This place was besieged, Oc- 
tober I, 1 58 1, by the Royal 
troops, under Alexander of 
Parma, and in the absence of 
the Governor, Prince Espinay, 
was gallantly defended by the 
Princess, who held out until 
November 30, when, by an 
honourable capitulation, she 
was allowed to march out at the 
head of the garrison, with all 
the honours of war. 

Toumay (War of the Spanish 
Succession ). 
The town was besieged by the 
British, under the Duke of Marl- 
borough, July 8, 1709, and was 
defended by a Frenth garrison 
under M. de Surville. After 56 
days of open trenches, the gar- 
rison surrendered, having suf- 
fered a loss of 3,000 men. 

Tours (Moslem Invasion of 
Fought 732, between the 
Franks, under Charles Martel, 
and the Saracens, under Abder- 
rahman Ibu Abdillah. The 

battle lasted several days— 
according to the Arab chroni- 
clers, two, while the Christian 
accounts say seven — and ended 
in the fall of Abderrahman, 
when the Saracens, discouraged 
by the death of their leader, 
owned defeat, and fled, losing 
heavily in the pursuit. 

Towton (Wars of the Roses). 

Fought March 29, 1461, when 
Edward IV, immediately after 
his proclamation, marched a- 
gainst the Lancastrians, under 
Henry VI, and vigorously at- 
tacked their entrenched position 
at Towton. Aided by a heavy 
snowstorm, blowing in the faces 
of the defenders, Edward de- 
feated them all along the line, 
with heavy loss, among the 
killed being Northumberland, 
Dacre and de Mauley. Henry 
and Margaret escaped from the 
field, and fled northward. 

Trafalgar (Napoleonic Wars). 

Fought October 21, 1805, be- 
tween the British fleet of 27 
sail of the line and 4 frigates, 
under Nelson, with Collingwood 
second in command, and the 
combined French and Spanish 
fleets, numbering 33 sail of the 
line and 7 frigates, under Ad- 
miral Villeneuve. Nelson at- 
tacked in two lines, and destroy- 
ing the enemy's formation, 
completely defeated them, 20 
ships striking their colours. 
Nelson fell in the moment of 
victory, while the Spanish Ad- 
miral was killed, and Villeneuve 
captured. Most of the prizes 
were lost in a heavy gale which 
sprang up after the battle, but 
the destruction of Villeneuve's 
fleet put an end to Napoleon's 



scheme for an invasion of Eng- 
land. The British lost 1,587 
killed and wounded, the losses 
of the allies being far heavier. 

Trautenau (Seven Weeks' War). 
Fought June 27, 1866, be- 
tween the First Prussian Army 
Corps, under General von Bonin, 
and the loth Austrian corps, 
under General Gablenz. The 
Prussians at first drove back the 
Austrians. but General Gablenz 
advancing in force, fell upon 
the Prussians, wearied with a 
long march, and compelled them 
to retreat, with a loss of 1,277 
killed and wounded. Owing 
to the superiority of the needle- 
gun, the Austrians, though vic- 
torious, suffered a loss of 5,732. 

Travancore (Second Mysore 

Fought December 28, 1789, 
when Tippu Sahib, with about 
15.000 Mysoris, made a night 
attack upon the British Unes. 
Having thrown down a portion 
of the rampart, a small advance 
party were hsistening to open 
the gate, when they were as- 
sailed by a detachment of the 
garrison, and hurled back into 
the trench. This repulse threw 
the advancing troops into con- 
fusion, and they were routed 
with a loss of over 2,000. 

Trebbia (Second Punic War). 

Fought December B.C. 218, 
between 26,000 Cathaginians, 
6,000 being cavalry, under 
Hannibal, and 40,000 Romans 
under the Consul Sempronius. 
Sempronius' colleague, Scipio, 
had been wounded a few days 
before in a skirmish, and Sem- 
pronius, contrary to his advice, 
being in sole command, crossed 

the Trebbia to attack the Car- 
thaginians. The Romans fought 
with determination, and the 
issue was for some time in 
doubt, but finally a charge of 
the Carthaginian horse, under 
Mago, against their left flank, 
threw the legionaries into con- 
fusion, and they were routed 
with enormous loss. 

Trebbia (Wars of the French 
Fought June 19 to 21, 1799, 
between the French, under Mac- 
donald, and the Russians, under 
Suwaroff. After a severe con- 
flict the French were totally 
defeated and driven beyond the 
Apennines, being obliged shortly 
afterwards to evacuate Italy. 

Trebizond (Ottoman Wars). 

This city, where the last re- 
presentative of the family of 
Comnenus had taken refuge 
after the fall of Constantinople, 
was besieged by the Turks, 
under Mohammed II, in 1461. 
After a brief resistance the city 
surrendered, and the last vestige 
of the Empire of the East was 
swept away. 

Treveri (Gallic War). 

Fought B.C. 55, between the 
Romans, 50,000 strong, under 
JuUus Cxsar, and 300,000 Asi- 
petes, a German tribe, who had 
made a raid into Garni. The 
C'crmans were routed with 
enormous loss ; indeed, the 
action was less a battle than 
a massacre, and very few suc- 
ceeded in recrossing the Rhine. 

Tricameron (Invasion of the 
Fought November, 533, be- 
tween the Romans, under Beli- 
sarius, and the Vandals, under 

■.Jt.Z'''w^ ■•— ••^" 



Gelimer and Zano. The Romans 
were drawn up behind a stream, 
and were attacked by the Van- 
dals, though only the wing under 
Zano displayed any vigour in 
the assault. In the end the 
Vandals were defeated with a 
loss of 800, t^e Romans losing 
50 only. This defeat put an 
end to the Vandal domination in 


This place was captured, after 
a three months' siege, by the 
Mahrattas, March 26, 1741. It 
had been provisioned for a long 
siege by Chunda Sahib, but the 
Mahrattas retired to a distance 
of 250 miles, whereupon the 
avarice of Chunda Sahib im- 
pelled him to sell the grain 
which he had in store. The 
Mahrattas. who had been count- 
ing upon this, retraced their 
steps, and the garrison were in 
a very short time starved into 

Trincomalee (Seven Years' War). 
Fought August 10, 1759, be- 
tween a British s<}uardon of 12 
sail, under Admiral Pococke, 
and a French fleet of 14 sail, 
under the Comte d'Achfe. After 
an engagement lasting two hours, 
the French were worsted, but 
saiUng better than the British, 
as usual at this period, eluded 
pursuit and lost no ships. 

Trincomalee (First Mysore War). 
Fought September 3, 1767, 
between the British, under 
Colonel Smith, and the Mysore 
army, under Hyder Ali. Hyder 
attacked the British camp, but 
was beaten off with a loss of 
2,000 men while the British 
lost 170 only. 

On September 26 of the same 
year, a second engagement took 
place near Trincomalee, when 
Colonel Smith, with 12.000 
British and native troops, came 
unexpectedly upon the united 
armies of Hyderabad and My- 
sore. 60.000 strong, under Hyder 
AU. while rounding a hill which 
separated them. The superior 
discipline of the British enabled 
them to take full advanta^ of 
the surprise, and they inflicted 
an overwhelming defeat upon 
their opponents' disordered 
masses. Hyder AU lost over 
4.000 men and 64 guns, the 
British loss being 150 killed 
and wounded. 


A naval action was fought off 
this place April 12. 1782, be- 
tween II Bntish ships, under 
Sir Edward Hughes, and 12 
French vessels, under Suffren. 
After a sanguinary action with 
no decisive result, the two. 
fleets, both too seriously damaged 
to renew the conflict, sep- 
arated, the British making for 
Trincomalee, and the French 
for their base to repair damages. 

Chi Septembers, 1782, another 
indecisive flght took place be- 
tween the same Admirals off 
Trincomalee, the British having 
1 2 and the French 1 5 sail. Both 
squadrons were compelled after 
the action to return to their 
respective bases to refit. 

Trinidad (Wars of the French 
This island was captured from 
the French, without resistance, 
by a naval and miUtary expedi- 
tion under Admiral John Harvey 
and Sir Ralph Abercrombie, 
February 17, 1797. 



Trinkitat (Soudan Campaigns). 

Fought March 29, 1884, when 
the British, 4,000 strong, under 
General Graham, totally de- 
feated 6,000 Mahdists, under 
Osman Digna, after five hours' 
severe fighting. The British 
casualties amounted to 189 
killed and wounded ; the Mahd- 
ists lost about 2.000. This 
action is also known as the 
Battle of £1 Teb. 

Tripoli (Moslem Conquest of 
Fought 647, between the in- 
vading Moslems, under Abdal- 
lah, and 1 20,000 Imperial troops 
and African levies, under the 
Prefect, Gregory. The Moslems 
gained a signal victory, Gregory 
being among the slain. 

Trivadi (Seven Years' War). 

Fought 1760, between 5,000 
Mysoris. under Hyder Ali, and 
a British force of 230 European 
and 2,700 native troops, under 
Major Moore, Notwithstanding 
his inferior numbers. Moore 
attempted to prevent the junc- 
tion of Hyder AU with the 
French, and was totally de- 

Trout Brook (Seven Years' War)* 
A small skirmish, in which 
the advance guard of Abcr- 
cromby's army, marching on 
Ticonderoga, fell in with a 
French scouting column. 350 
strong, under Langy. July 6, 
1758. The French lost 150 
killed and wounded and 148 
prisoners, and the affair would 
be without importance but for 
the fact that Lord Howe, who 
was the brain of Abercromby's 
staff, was killed in the fight. 
His death was followed by the 

disaster of Ticonderoga. and as 
Parkman says {Montcalm and 
Wolfe, chap, xx.) : " The death 
of one man was the ruin of 
fifteen thousand." 


The siege and destruction of 
this city by the Hellenes, though 
all the details are legendary, 
may be accepted as a historical 
fact, and the date may be put 
approximately at 1 100 B.C. 


Fought 593, between the 
Neustrians, under Queen Frede- 
gond. and the Austrasians. 
under Childebert II. The Aus- 
trasian army was totally routed 
and fied from the field. 

Tsushima (Mongol Invasion of 
Fought 1 4 19 between the 
Chinese and Koreans, and the 
ships of the Barons of Kiushiu. 
The Japanese gained a signal 
victory, and from that time 
were no more troubled by 
foreign invasion. 

Tudela (Peninsular War). 

Fought November 23, 1808. 
between 30.000 French, under 
Lannes, and 45,000 Spaniards, 
under CastaAos and Palafox. 
The Spaniards were totally de- 
feated, ^nth a loss of alx>ut 9.000 
killed and wounded, 3,000 pri- 
soners and 30 guns. The French 
losses were small. 

Tunis (First Punic War). 

Fought B.C. 255 between 
15,000 Romans, under Regulus. 
and 16,000 Carthaginians, of 
whom 4.000 were cavalry, with 
100 elephants, under Xanthip- 
pus, the Spartan. The Romans 
were broken by a cavalry charge, 
and their rout was completed by 



the elephants, and all but 2,500 
fell on the field. Regulus was 
captured, and Tunis at once 
occupied by the Carthaginians. 

Tunis (Ninth Crusade}. 

This city was besieged by the 
French Crusaders, under Louis 
IX in 1270. While before the 
walls of the place, which offered 
an obstinate resistance, Louis 
died of a fever, and the crusaders 
at once raised the siege and 

Turbigo (Franco-Austrian War). 
Fought June 3, 1859, when 
the advance guard of Marshal 
Macmahon's corps, under the 
Marshal in person, was attacked 
by a portion of the Austrian 
division of Clam-Gallas, while 
simultaneously 4,000 Austrians 
assailed the bridge over the 
canal near the Ticino, which the 
French main body was crossing. 
After severe fighting both at- 
tacks were repulsed with con- 
siderable loss. 

Turcoing (Wars of the French 
Fought 1794 between the 
French, under Sou ham. and the 
British, under the Duke of York. 
The British were defeated and 
driven back upon Toumay. 

Turin (Revolt of Maxentius). 

Fought 312, between the 
legions of Gaul, 40,000 strong, 
under Constantine, and the 
troops of Maxentius. consider- 
ably superior in number. The 
charge of Maxentius' heavy 
cavalry failed, and he was driven 
back into Turin with enormous 

Turin ((War of the Spanish Suc- 
cession ). 
This place, held by an Im- 

perialist garrison, 10,000 strong, 
under the Duke of Savoy, was 
besieged by a French army of 
68 battalions and 80 squadrons, 
with artillery and engineers, 
under the Duo de la Feuil- 
lade, May 26, 1706. On 
June 17 the Duke of Savoy 
left the city to orgainse a relief 
force. Count Daun taking the 
command. The garrison held 
out stoutly till September 7. 
when the approach of a large 
reUeving force under Prince 
Eugene compelled the French 
to raise the siege. About 5.000 
of the garrison perished either 
in action or by disease. In the 
action which preceded the re- 
tirement of the French, the Im- 
periaUsts lost i.soo.the French 
2,000 killed and wounded and 
6,000 prisoners. 

Tumhout (Netherlands War of 
Fought August 22, 1597, be- 
tween the Dutch, under Prince 
Maurice of Nassau, and the 
Spaniards under the Archduke 
Albert. The Spaniards were 
totally defeated, and this vic- 
tory may be said to have set 
the seal of the Independence of 
the Netherlands. 

Tyre (Alexander's Asiatic Cam- 
This strongly fortified city, 
built on an island separated 
from the mainland by a channel 
1,000 yards wide, was besieged 
by the Macedonians under Alex- 
ander the Great, B.C., 332. Alex- 
ander at once commenced the 
construction of a mole across 
the channel but was much 
hampered by the Phoenician 
galleys, which issued from the 
two fortified harbours, and de* 



stroyed his military engines. 
He therefore collected in Sidon 
a fleet of 250 ships from the 
captured Phoenician cities, and 
holding the Tyrian galleys in 
check, completed his mole. It 
was some time, however, before 
a breach could be effected, but 
in August, 332, an assault was 
delivered, headed by Alexander 
in person, and the city was 
stormed and taken. Eight 
thousand Tyrians fell in the 
storm, and about 30,000 were 
sold into slavery. 


Ucles (Mohammedan Empire in 
Spain ). 
Fought 1 109, between the 
Spaniards, under Don Sane ho 
of Castile, and the Moors, under 
Ali. The Spaniards were de- 
ifcated. with a heavy loss of the 
Christian chivalry, among tho 
killed being Don Sane ho. 

Uji (Taira War). 

Fought 1 1 80 between the 
adherents of the Taira clan, 
under Shigehira, and the Japa- 
nese, who had risen against the 
domination of the Taira at the 
Court of the Empror Antoku, 
under Prince Yukiiyc and Yori- 
masa. The Taira gained a com- 
plete victory, Yukiiyc being 
killed, while Yorimasa com- 
mitted suicide in the field. 

Ulundi (Zulu War). 

The last battle of the war, 
fought August, 1879, between 
5,000 British, under Lord 
Chelmsford, and about 20,000 
Zulus. The Zulus were routed 
with a loss of over 1.500, the 
British losing only 15 killed 
and yS wounded. 

Upsala (Dano-Swedish Wars). 

Fought 1520, between the 
Danes, under Otho of Krumpen, 
and the Swedes, under Christina 
Gyllenstiema, widow of the 
Administrator, Sten Sture. The 
Danes, in superior force, were 
strongly entrenched at Upsala. 
They were vigorously attacked, 
but the advantage of position 
and numbers enabled ttiem to 
beat off their assailants ^%ith 
heavy loss, though only after 
severe lighting. 

Upsala (Dano-Swedlsh Wars). 

Fought 1 521, when 3,000 
Swedes, under Gustavus Vasa, 
defeated the troops of the 
Bishop of Upsala, who was 
holding the city in the Danish 
interest. After his victory Gus- 
tavus occupied the city. 

Urosan (Invasion of Korea). 

1 his j>IaLe. luld by a Japanese 
garrison under Kiyumasa, was 
bcsii'jjed 1505 by the Chinese 
and Koreans, under Tik Ho. 
The j^arrison had been reduced 
to such straits that they had 
eaten their horses, when the 
approach of a relieving force, 
under Toyotomo Hideaki and 
Mori Hidemoto, forced Tik Ho 
to withdraw. While retreat- 
ing, however, he was attacked 
by the Japanese and totally 

Ushant (Wars of the French 
Revolution ). 
This action, generally known 
as the '* (ilorious First of June," 
was fought June 1, 1794, be- 
tween a British fleet of 25 sail 
of the line, under Lord Howe, 
and 26 French ships, under 
Villaret. After four hours' 
fighting the French were de- 
feated, >^'ith a loss of 6 ships 



captured, and one, the Vengeur, 
sunk. The sinking of this ship 
was elaborated by the French 
into a fable, to the efiect that 
she refused to surrender, and 
went down with all hands and 
colours flying. She had, however, 
undoubtedly struck her colours, 
and her captain and over 200 
of her crew were rescued by the 
boats of the British fleet. The 
French admitted a loss of 3,000 
men, besides prisoners, while the 
British lost 922 killed and 

Utica (CiTil War of Caesar and 
Fought B.C. 49 between the 
Pompeians, under Varus, and 
the Caesarians, under Curio. 
Varus saUied from his entrench- 
ments to attack the Caesarians, 
but was signally defeated, his 
troops fleeing in disorder, and 
opening the way for the occupa- 
tion of Utica by Varus. 

Utica (Moslem Conquest of 
Fought 694 between 40,000 
Moslems, under Hassan, and 
a large force of Greeks and 
Goths in the Imperial service. 
The ImperiaUsts were defeated 
and driven out of Africa, and 
Hassan followed up his victory 
by the destruction of Carthage, 
which thenceforth ceased to 
exist, except as an obscure 

Utsonomiya (Japanese Revolu- 
Fought 1868, between the 
forces of the Shogun, under 
Otori Keisuke, and the Imperial 
troops, imder. Saigo Takamori. 
The ImperiaUsts were com- 
pletely victorious. 

Vaalkranz (Second Boer War). 

General Buller's third attempt 
to pierce the Boer lines on the 
Tugela. On February 5, 1900, 
he seized Vaalkranz, under 
cover of a feint attack at Brak- 
fontein towards the Boer right. 
The hill was held by a brigade 
during the 6th and 7th, but 
finding further progress im- 
possible, Buller again recrossed 
the Tugela. The British losses 
amounted to 374 killed and 

Valenciennes (Netherlands War 
of Independence). 
Siege was laid to this place in 
December, 1566, by a force of 
Spaniards and Germans, merce- 
naries, under Noircarmes. The 
operations were somewhat in- 
dolently conducted, insomuch 
that he and his six heu tenants 
were derided as the " Seven 
Sleepers," but towards the end 
of February Noircarmes began 
to press on his siege works, and 
on March 23 his batteries opened 
fire, the city surrendering on 
the following day. 


Defended by a Spanish garri- 
son under Francisco de Manes- 
ses, Valenciennes was besieged 
June, 1566, by the French, 
under Turenne and La Fert6. 
The French encamped in two 
divisions on the opposite side 
of the Scheldt, and when the 
city was on the point of sur- 
rendering, La Ferte's division 
was attacked by 20,000 Spani- 
ards, under Cond6, and totally 
routed with a loss of 400 ofl5cers 
and 4,000 men, before Turenne 
could come to his assistance. 



In consequence of this defeat, 
Turenne was forced to abandon 
the siege and retire. 


Fought 1047, between the 
Normans* under William of 
Normandy, with aid from 
Henri I of France, and the 
rebel Norman Barons. The 
rebels were totally defeated. 

ValetU (Wars of the French 
The capital of Malta, held by 
a French garrison, 60,000 strong, 
under General Vaubois, was 
besieged September, 1798, by a 
force of British and Maltese, 
under Sir Alexander Ball. Vau- 
bois held out for two years, but 
on September 5, 1800, was com- 
pelled by famine to surrender. 
The Maltese lost during the 
siege 20,000 men. 

Valmy (Wars of the French 
Fought September 20, 1792, 
between the French, 70,000 
strong, under Dumouriez. and 
the Prussians, under the Duke 
of Brunswick. The battle con- 
sisted in the main of an artillery 
duel, in which the French had 
the upper hand, and after night- 
fall the Prussians retired, re- 
crossing the frontier two days 


This city, entirely open and 
undefended, was bombarded 
March 31, 1866, by the Spanish 
fleet under Mendez NuJicz. By 
this disgraceful action Val- 
paraiso was reduced to ashes. 

Valutinagora (Moscow Cam- 
Fought August 19, 18 1 2, be- 
tween Ney's corps, about 30,000 

strong, and a strong rear-guard 
of Barclay de Tolly's army, 
about 40,000 strong, under Bar- 
clay de Tolly in person. The 
Russians were strongly posted 
in marshy ground, protected by 
a small stream. The French, 
attacking resolutely, carried the 
Russian position in the face of 
enormous natural difficulties. 
Each side lost about 7,000 men. 


Fought 1058, between the 
Normans, under William of 
Normandy, and the French and 
Angevins, under Henri I of 
France. The Normans gained 
a complete victory, and the 
French king shortly afterwards 
made peace. 

Varese (Italian Rising of 1858). 
Fought May 25, 1859, be- 
tween 3,000 Garibaldians. under 
Garibaldi, and 5,000 Austrians, 
under General Urban. The 
Austrians were repulsed after 
hard fighting, and suffered con- 
siderable loss. This action is 
also known as the Battle of 

Varmas (South-American War 
of Independence). 
Fought 18 13 between the 
Colombian Patriots, under Boli- 
var, and the Spanish Royalists. 
The latter were defeated. 

Varna (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought November 10, 1444, 
between the Turks, under 
Amuraith II, and the Hunga- 
rians, under King Ladislaus. 
The Hungarians attacked the 
Turkish camp, but were beaten 
off ^^ith heavy loss, the King 
being killed. On the following 
day Amurath stormed the Hun- 
garian entrenchments, practi- 





cally the whole of the defenders 
being put to the sword. 

Varna (Ottoman Wars). 

This fortress, held by a 
Turkish garrison of 20,000 men, 
was besieged July, 1828, by 
the Russians, under Prince 
McntschikolT, and though a 
feeble attempt to relieve it was 
made by Omar Vrione Pasha, 
the place was taken by storm 
on October 11. 

Varus. Defeat of (Germanic 
The site of this famous battle 
is supposed to be between the 
rivers Ems and Lippe, not far 
from the modern Detmoldt. In 
A.D. 9 the Roman army, under 
Quintilius Varus, was attacked 
while on the march and en- 
cumbered by a heavy baggage- 
train, by the Germans, under 
Arminius or Hermann. The 
country was thickly wooded 
and marshy, and the Romans 
could make but Uttledefence.with 
the result that they were almost 
annihilated. Varus committed 
suicide on the field to avoid 
falling into the hands of the 

Vasaq (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought 1442, between 80,000 
Turks, under Shiabcddin Pasha, 
and 15,000 Hungarians, under 
John Huniades. The Turks 
were utterly routed, with a loss 
of 20,000 killed and wounded, 
and 5,000 prisoners, including 
the Pasha. 


See Champ-Aubert. 


This city was besieged B.C. 
400 by the Romans, the siege 

being carried on in a desultcny 
fashion for seven years. At the 
end of this period the citizens 
of Capua and Valerii made an 
attack upon the Roman camp, 
and inflicted a signal defeat 
upon the besiegers. M. Furius 
Camillus was then appointed 
dictator, and a determined at- 
tempt was made to end the 
siege, with the result that Veii 
fell B.C. 393. Rome's greatest 
rival in Italy was thus destroyed. 

Veleneze (Hungarian Rising). 

Fought September 29, 1848, 
between the Hungarians, under 
General M6ga, and the Croats, 
under the Ban, Jellachich. 
The battle was indecisive, and 
was followed by a three days* 

Velestinos (Greco-Turkish War). 
Fought May 5, 1897, l^tween 
a Turkish division under Hakki 
Pasha, and the Greeks, 9.000, 
under Colonel Smolenski. The 
Greeks occupied a strong posi- 
tion at Velestinos, where they 
were attacked by the Turks, but 
held their own throughout the 
day. After nightfall, however 
his line of retreat being threat- 
ened. Colonel Smolenski with- 
drew to Volo, where he em- 
barked his troops on the 7 th. 

Velletri (Italian Rising of 1848). 
Fought May 19, 1849, be- 
tween 10,000 Garibaldians, 
under Roselli, and the Nea- 
poUtans, 10,000 strong, under 
Ferdinand, King of Naples. 
The advance guard, under Gari- 
baldi, attacked the town of 
Velletri, which made a poor 
defence, and was evacuated 
during the night. The losses 
of the Garibaldians were smalL 



VercellaB (Cimbric War). 

Fought July 30, loi B.C.. be- 
tween 50,000 Romans, under 
Marius, and the Cimbri, under 
Boiorix. The Cimbri were al- 
most annihilated, and their 
king slain. 

VerneuU (Hundred Years* War) 

Fought August 18. 1424. be- 
tween 3,000 English, under the 
Duke of Bedford, and 18,000 
French and Scots, under the 
Constable Buchan and the Earl 
of Douglas. The men-at-arms 
on both sides fought dis- 
mounted, but the French could 
make no impression upon the 
English archers, who were pro- 
tected by a barricade of stakes, 
and in the end were utterly 
routed, leaving over 4.000 dead 
on the field, among them 
Buchan and Douglas. The Due 
d'AIencon was taken prisoner. 

Verona (Revolt of Maxentius). 

This place was besieged 312 
by Constantine, with the legions 
of Gaul, and was defended by a 
body of rebels, under Pompei- 
anus. After a sortie had been 
repulsed. Pompeianus escaped 
through Constantine's lines, 
and raised a force for the relief 
of the city. He was, however, 
met and defeated by Constan- 
tine, many thousands of the 
Italians, including their leader, 
fallinf;. and Verona at once sur- 

Veseris (Latin War). 

Fought near Mount Vesuvius, 
B.C. 33Q, between the Romans, 
under Manlius Torquatus and 
Decius Mus. and the Latin army. 
The Roman left was repulsed, 
but Decius Mus, sacrificing him- 
self for the army, sprang into 
the midst of the enemy and 

was slain, and his soldiers fol- 
lowing him, renewed the con- 
flict. Manlius now brought up 
his veteran reserve, and the 
Romans breaking the Latin 
line, slew or captured nearly 
three-fourths of their oppo- 
nents. The Roman loss, how- 
ever, was so heavy, that they 
were unable to pursue. 


Fought 1 157. between the 
adherents of Swe5m III of Den- 
mark, and those of his succes- 
sor Waldemar. Swe5m was 
totally defeated and fled, but 
falling into a morass in his 
flight was overtaken and slain. 

Vicksburg (American CiTil War). 

This city, held by a Confedt- 
rate garrison, was invested June 
24. 1862, by a fleet of 13 Federal 
gunboats, under Admiral Farra- 
gut, aided by a land force of 
4.000 men, under General Wil- 
liams. After a bombardment 
which made no impression on 
the defences, Farragut reim- 
barked the troops, and with- 
drew, July 24. In the course 
of the siege Captain Brown 
with the Arkansas, a small river 
steamer, coated with iron, and 
carrying eight guns, attacked 
the Federal flotilla. which 
mounted 200 guns, and ran the 
gauntlet successfully, losing 14 
men killed and wounded. 
The Federals lost 82. 

On January 9. 1863, *h® city 
was again invested by two 
Federal corps, under General 
M'Clemand. aided by a flotilla 
of gunboats, under Admiral 
Porter. It was defended by a 
garrison of 3.000 Confederates, 
under General Churchill. On 
the nth an attack by the 


.*■ ■ > ■ . 1 " J. ' 



combined forces overpowered 
the garrison of the fort, but the 
town defences still held out, and 
the siege was not pressed. On 
May 18, the siege was renewed 
by three army corps of General 
Grant's army, the garrison being 
now commanded by General 
Pemberton. On the 22nd an 
unsuccessful assault cost the 
Federals 2.500, and a regular 
siege commenced, with the result 
that on July 4, Pemberton sur- 
rendered with 25,000 men 
and 90 guns. 

Vienna (Ottoman Wars). 

This city, held by a garrison 
of 16,000 men, under Count de 
Salm, was besieged by Solyman 
the Magnificent, at the head of 
120,000 Turks, in September, 
1529. From the 27th of that 
month till October 14, the gar 
rison withstood a series of as 
saults. culminating in an attempt 
to storm the breach, which were 
repulse<l with heavy loss. Soly- 
man thereupon raised the siege 
and withdrew. 

Vienna (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought September 12, 1683, 
between 300,000 Turks, under 
Kara Mustapha Pasha, and 
70,000 Christians, under John 
Sobieski. The Turks were be- 
sieging Vienna, and Sobieski 
marched to its relief, with 
30,000, bringing up the avail- 
able forces to 70,000, of which 
he was given the command. 
With this army he attacked 
the Turkish lines, and after a 
sanguinary engagement, lasting 
throughout the day, routed the 
Turks with enormous loss. Six 
Pashas were killed, and Mus- 
tapha only escaped capture by 
a precipitate flight. 

Vigo Bay (War of the Spanish 
Fought October 12, 1702, 
when the combined fleet of 30 
British and 20 Dutch ships, 
under Sir George Rooke, forced 
the boom at the entrance to 
Vigo Harbour and destroyed 
the French and Spanish fleet 
anchored therein. Of the men- 
of-war, II were burnt and 10 
captured, while 11 Spanish 
galleons, with treasure, were 
taken. This action is generally 
called the afiair of the Spanish 

Villach (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought 1492, between the 
Turks, under Ali Pasha, and a 
Christian army, under Rudolph 
de Khevenhuller. During the 
battle 1 5,000 Christian prisoners 
in the Turkish camp broke oat, 
and fell upon the rear of the 
Turks, who were in consequence 
totally defeated. The Chris- 
tians lost 7,000 killed, the Turks 
10,000 killed and 7,000 prisoners, 
including Ali. 

Villa Viciosa (War of the Spanish 
Fought December 10, 17 10, 
when 13,000 Imperialists, under 
Staremberg, retreating into Cata- 
lonia, after the defeat of Stan- 
hope at Brihnega, were attacked 
by 20,000 French, under Philip 
of Anjou and Marshal Vendome. 
Staremberg's left wing was cut 
to pieces, but his right and 
centre more than held their own, 
driving back the French with 
considerable loss, and capturing 
some guns. Staremberg was, 
however, too weak to take 
advantage of this partial suc- 
cess, and continued his retreat 
after the action. 



Villeta (Paraguayan War). 

Fought December 11, 1868, 
between the Paraguayans, under 
Lopez, and the armies of Brazil, 
Uruguay and Argentina. Over- 
whelmed by vastly superior 
numbers, Lopez was forced 
to withdraw his forces to the 
entrenched camp at Angostura. 

Villiers (Franco-German War). 

A determined sortie from 
Paris, under General Ducrot, 
on November 30, 1870, directed 
against the Wurtembergers. 
The operations lasted till De- 
cember 3. The French, who 
had at first gained some suc- 
cesses, were finally repulsed, 
with a loss of 424 officers and 
9.053 men. The Germans lost 
156 officers and 3,373 men. 


Fought B.C. 121, between the 
Romans, under Q. Fabius Maxi- 
mus, and the Arvemi. The 
Arvemi were completely de- 
feated, and compelled to sue 
for peace. 

Vinegar Hill (Irish Rebellion). 

Fought June 20, 1798, when 
the British regulars, under 
General Lake, attacked the 
camp of the Irish rebels, 16,000 
strong, under Father Murphy. 
Little resistance was made, and 
the rebels were driven out of 
their camp with a loss of 4,000 
killed and wounded, and 13 

Vimiera (Peninsular War). 

Fought August 21, 1808, be- 
tween 18,000 British and Portu- 
guese, under Sir Arthur Wel- 
lesley, and 14,000 French, under 
J unot . The French were signal - 
ly defeated, losing 2,000 men 
and 13 guns, but the victory 

was not followed up by Sir 
Harry Burrard, who was in 
supreme command, and the 
French were allowed to evacuate 
Portugal unmolested, under the 
Convention of Cintra. The 
British lost 720 killed and 


Fought 717, between the 
Austrasians, under Charles 
Martcl and the Neustrians, under 
Chilperic II. The Neustrians 
were defeated. 


See Mars La Tour. 

Vittoria (Peninsular War). 

Fought June 21, 1813, be- 
tween 80,000 British, Portu- 
guese and Spanish troops, under 
Wellington, and about 70,000 
French, under Joseph Buona- 
parte. After severe fighting the 
French were defeated at all 
points and made a somewhat 
disorderly retreat, losing 6,000 
killed, wounded, and pri- 
soners, 143 guns, and almost all 
their baggage and treasure. The 
allies lost 5,000. This battle 
fmally closed the era of French 
domination in Spain, and opened 
to Wellington the road to the 

Vdgelinseck(Appenzel Rebellion). 
Fought May 15, 1402, be- 
tween 5,000 troops, of the Swiss 
Imperial towns, and 900 rebels 
of Appenzel and Schwyz. After 
a brief engagement, the rebels 
were driven from the field, with 
a loss of 250 men. 


Fought April, 175 1, between 
Mohammed All's army, 5,600 
strong, under Abdul Wahab 
Khan, aided by 1,600 British, 







under Captain Gingen, and 
Chunda Sahib's troops, 17,000 
strong, together with a battalion 
of Frenchmen. Captain Gingen, 
though greatly outnumbered, 
insisted on attacking, but was 
repulsed, his Europeans not 
showing their usual steadiness, 
and forced to retreat with con- 
siderable loss, 

Volturno (Unification of Italy). 

Fought October i, i860, be- 
tween 20,000 Italians, under 
Garibaldi, and 40,000 Neapoli- 
tans, under Afan de Riva. 
Garibaldi's position in front of 
Capua was attacked by the 
Neapolitans, who, after hard 
fighting, were repulsed all along 
the line, with heavy loss. The 
Garibaldian casualties were 
2.023 killed and wounded. The 
Neapolitans lost 2,070 prisoners, 
but their losses in killed and 
wounded are unknown. In 
consequence of this victory. 
Garibaldi almost immediately 
captured Capua. 


Fought 507, between the 
Franks, under Clovis, and the 
Visigoths, under Alaric II. 
Alaric was endeavouring to effect 
a junction with Theodoric, King 
of the Ostrogoths, when he was 
attacked by Clovis, and totally 
defeated. Alaric fell in the 


Wagram (Campaign of Wag- 
Fought July 6, 1809, between 
1 50,000 French, under Napoleon, 
and 140,000 Austrians, under 
the Archduke Charles. Na- 

poleon crossed the lesser arm of 
the Danube from the Island of 
Lobau, on the night of the 4th 
and 5th July, and driving the 
Austrian advanced posts before 
him, prepared to attack their 
main position. An attack upon 
them on the evening of the 5th 
was repulsed. On the 6th the 
Austrians attacked the French 
right, under Davoust, but were 
unsuccessful ; later, however, 
the French centre and left were 
compelled to give ground, but 
Napoleon bringing up the artil- 
lery of the Guard and Mac- 
donald's corps, checked the 
Austrian advance, while Davoust 
carried the heights on the Aus- 
trian left, outflanking them, and 
rendering their position unten- 
able. By three o'clock they 
were in full retreat, having lost 
about 24,000 killed and wounded, 
9,000 prisoners, including 12 
generals, and 20 guns. The 
French lost 18,000 killed and 

Waizan (Hungarian Rising). 

Fought April 10, 1849, be- 
tween the 3rd Hungarian corps, 
under Damjanics. about 7,000 
strong, and two Austrian bri- 
gades, under Gotz and Jablo- 
nowski. Damjanics attacked the 
Austrians and drove them out 
of Waizan with heavy loss, 
among those who fell being 
General Gotz. 

Wakamatsu (Japanese Revolu- 
The last stand of the Shogun's 
followers was made at the Castle 
of Wakamatsu. which was 
stormed by the Imperialists, 
September 22, 1868, The resist- 
ance to the new regime was thus 
completely broken. 



Wakefield (Wars of the Roses). 
Fought December 30, 1460, 
between the Lancastrians, under 
Somerset, and the Yorkists, 
under Richard, Duke of York. 
The Lancastrians advanced 
from Pontcfract and offered 
battle to Richard, who, though 
weakened by the absence of 
foraging parties, accepted the 
challenge. Somerset prepared 
an ambush, into which the Duke 
fell as he marched out of Wake- 
field, and the Yorkists were 
defeated with heavy loss. The 
Duke and many other nobles 
were killed, and Salisbury cap- 
tured and beheaded. 

Waltersdorf (Campaign of Fried- 
Fought February 5, 1807, be- 
tween the French, under Ney, 
and the Prussian corps of Les- 
tocq. The Prussians were de- 
feated with a loss of about 3,000 
killed, wounded and missing. 

Wandewash (Seven Years* War). 
Fought January 22, 1760, 
between the British, with 1,900 
European and 3.350 native 
troops, under Colonel Coote, 
and the French, 2.250 Europeans 
and 1,300 natives, under Lally- 
ToUendal. The French army 
was accompanied by 3,000 
Mahratta horse, who took no 
part in the action. After severe 
fighting Lally was defeated, with 
a loss of 600 Europeans, besides 
natives, the British losing 190 

Wandewash (First Mysore War)* 
This fort, defended by a small 
native garrison, under Lieu- 
tenant Flint, who had only one 
other European with him, was 
besieged, December, 1780, by 
the Mysoris, under Hyder AU. 

Flint held out with the utmost 
gallantry till January 22, 1781, 
when the approach of Sir Eyre 
Coote forced Hyder Ali to raise 
the siege. The garrison had 
then only one day's ammunition 

Warburg (Seven Years' War). 

Fought July 31. 1759, be- 
tween the French, 35,000 strong, 
under the Chevaher de May. 
and a largely superior force of 
Prussians and British, under 
Prince Ferdinand. The French 
were in danger of their flanks 
being turned, and after a brief 
engagement, retired, having lost 
1,500 killed and wounded and 
1,500 prisoners. 

Warsaw (Second Polish Rising). 
This city, which was held by 
a garrison of 30,000 Poles, under 
General Dembinski, was attack- 
ed by the Russians, 60,000 
strong, under General Paskie- 
witsch. The first onslaught on 
the Polish entrenchments was 
made on the 6th September, 
1 83 1, and the Poles, were driven 
from their first line. On the 
7 th a further assault was 
made, notable for the defence 
of the Wola redoubt, where, 
when it was finally captured by 
the Russians, only eleven men 
remained aliv; out of a garrison 
of 3,000. On the 8th the last 
defences were overcome, and the 
city capitulated. The Poles had 
9,(xx> killed in the defence. 
The Russi(ins admitted a loss 
of 63 officers and 3,000 men 
killed, and 445 officers and 7,000 
men wounded. 

Wartemberg (Campaign of Leip« 
Fought October 3, 18 13, when 
Blucher, with 60,000 Prussians, 


r>.-- ■» <■ 1w ■ •■---• 



defeated 16,000 French, under 
Bertrand, posted in a very 
strong position, protected by a 
dyke and a swamp. Aided by 
the ground, the French with- 
stood the Prussian attack for 
over four hours, but finally 
Blucher turned their right flank 
and drove them from their posi- 
tion. The Prussians lost about 
5,000. The French admit a 
loss of 500 only. 

Wartzburg (Wars of the French 
Fought 1796, between the 
French, under Jourdan, and the 
Austrians. under the Archduke 
Charles. The Archduke inter- 
posed between the armies of 
Jourdan and Moreau, who were 
endeavouring to effect a junc- 
tion, and inflicted a severe defeat 
upon Jourdan, forcing him to 
retire to the Rhine. 

Waterloo (Hundred Days). 

Fought June 18, 1815, be- 
tween 24,000 British, and 43,500 
Dutch, Belgians and Nassauers, 
in all 67,655 men, with 156 guns, 
under the Duke of Wellington, 
and the French, 71,947 strong, 
with 246 guns, under Napoleon. 
Wellington posted his troops 
along the line of heights cover- 
ing the road to Brussels, with 
advanced posts at the farms of 
Hougoumont and La Haye 
Sainte. Napoleon attacked 
this position with the utmost 
resolution, but the British 
squares held their ground against 
the French cavalry and artillery 
throughout the day, and though 
the French captured La Haye 
Sainte, and obtained a footing 
in Hougoumont, the arrival of 
Blucher, with the Prussian 
army, on the French right, 

enabled Wellington at last to 
assume the offensive, and drive 
the enemy headlong from the 
field, utterly routed. The Brit- 
ish lost about 15,000. the Prus- 
sians 7,000 in the battle. The 
losses of the Dutch and Belgians 
were very small, as they left 
the field early in the day. The 
French loss was never officially 
stated, but it was doubtless 
enormous, and the army practi- 
cally ceased to exist as an organ- 
ized force. 

Watigaon (First Burmah War). 
Fought November 15, 1825, 
when Brigadier-General M*- 
Donell, with four native regi- 
ments, advanced in three col- 
umns, against a large force of 
Burmans, under Maha Nemyo. 
The columns failed to keep 
touch, and were repulsed in 
detail, with a loss of 200 men. 
including the Brigadier. 

Watrelots (Netherlands War of 
Fought January, 1567, be- 
tween 1,200 Flemish Ptotest- 
ants, under Teriel, and 600 
Spaniards, under the Seigneur 
de Rassinghem. The Protest- 
ants were defeated and 600 
took refuge in an old graveyard, 
where they held out till the last 
man had fallen. 

Wattignies (Wars of the French 
Fought October, 1793, when 
the French, under Jourdan, at- 
tacked the Austrians, under 
the Duke of Coburg, and drove 
him from his position, forcing 
him to raise the siege of Mau- 

Wavre (Hundred Days). 

Fought June 18,1815, between 



the French, under Grouchy, 
and the Prussians, 27,000 strong, 
un<Icr Thielmann, who had been 
entrusted by Blucher with the 
task of containing Grouchy, 
while the main Prussian army 
marched on Waterloo. Grouchy, 
who was anxiously expected at 
Waterlooo, mistook his instruc- 
tions, and wasted the day in 
attacking Thielmann, whom he 
defeated, but uselessly. 

Wednesfield (Danish Invasion). 
Fought in 911, between the 
Danes and the West Saxons, 
under Edward the Elder. The 
Danes were defeated. 

Wei-hai-Wei (Chino - Japanese 
On February 4, 1895, the 
boom protecting Wei-hiai-Wei 
harbour was cut, and the Chin- 
ese fleet attacked by 10 Japan- 
ese torpedo-boats, who succeed- 
ed in sinking one battleship, at 
the cost of two torpedo-boats. 
On the following night the at- 
tack was renewed by four boats, 
and three Chinese ships were 
sunk. On the 9th another 
battleship was sunk by the 
Japanese land batteries, where- 
upon Admiral Ting, the Chinese 
commander, surrendered, and 
he and his principal officers 
committed suicide. 

Weissenburg (Franco-German 
The opening engagement of 
the campaign, fought August 4, 
I S70. between the advance-guanl 
of the Third German Army, 
under the Crown Prince of 
Prussia, and a portion of Mar- 
shal Macmahon's army, under 
General Abel Donay, who fell 
in the battle. The Germans 

carried the French position, and 
capturetl the town of Weissen- 
burg, at a cost of 91 officers and 
1,460 men. The French lost 
2,300 killed, wounded and pri- 

Wepener (Second Boer War). 

This place was invested by a 
strong force of Boers, under De 
Wet, April 9, 1900, and was 
defended by 1,700 men of the 
Colonial Division, under Colonel 
Dalgety. Notwithstanding the 
Boer's great preponderance in 
artillery, and a succession of 
bold assaults on the trenches, 
the garrison held out gallantly 
till April 25, when they were 
reheved by General Rundle, 
having lost 300 killed and 
wounded in the course of the 

Werben (Thirty Years* War). 

Fought July 22, 163 1, be- 
tween the Swedes, 16,000 
strong, under Gustavus Adol- 
phus, and 26,000 Imperialists, 
under Count Tilly. Tilly at- 
tacked Gustavus' entrenchments 
in front of Werben, but his 
troops could not face the fire of 
the Swedish batteries, and being 
thrown into disorder, were then 
charged by the cavalry, under 
Baudissen, and repulsed. The 
attack was renewed a few days 
later with a similar result, and 
Tilly then drew off his forces, 
having suffered a loss of 6,000 

Wertingen (Campaign of Auster- 
Fought October, 1805, be- 
tween the cavalr>' of Murat's 
corps, and nine Austrian bat- 
talions, strongly posted in and 
round Wertingen. TheAustrians 



were defeated, losing 2,cxx>' 
prisoners and several guns, and 
had the French infantry been 
nearer at hand, it is probable 
that the whole force would have 
been captured. 

White Oak Swamp. 

See Seven Days' Battles. 

Wiazma (Moscow Campaign). 
Fought November 3, 181 2, 
when the corps of Eugene Beau- 
hamais and Davoust were at- 
tacked during the retreat from 
Moscow, by the Russians, under 
KutusojS, and suffered a loss of 
4.000 men. 

Wilderness, The (American Civil 
Fought May 5 to 8, 1864, be- 
tween the Army of the Potomac, 
150,000 strong, under General 
Grant, and 53,000 Confederates, 
under General Lee. Lee's ob- 
ject was to intercept Grant's 
advance on Richmond, and 
early on the morning of the 5th 
he attacked the approaching 
Federal columns, and after a 
hard-fought day, succeeded in 
arresting the progress of Grant's 
right wing. On the 6th, Lee 
almost succeeded in breaking 
Grant's centre, but at the critical 
moment, Longstreet, who was 
to lead the attack, was fired 
up>on and dangerously wounded 
by his own troops. The Federal 
right wing, however, was driven 
back in confusion, and Lee on 
his side ' lost no ground. The 
two following days minor skir- 
mishes took place, leading up to 
the great battle of Spottsylvania. 
The Confederates lost about 
8,000 in the two days' fighting. 
The Federal losses were far 
heavier, amounting to 15,000 in 
the second day alone. 

Williamsburg (American Civil 
Fought May 5,1862, between 
the Confederates, under General 
Magruder, and the Federals, 
under General M'Clellan. Ma- 
gruder occupied a very strong 
position and held the Federals 
at bay throughout the day, but 
being greatly outnumbered, 
withdrew during the night. 
The Federals lost 2,228 killed, 
wounded and missing, the Con- 
federate loss being much smaller. 

Wilson's Creek (American Civil 
Fought August 6, 1 861, be- 
tween 6,000 Federals, under 
General Lyon, and 16,000 Con- 
federates, under General M'- 
Culloch. General Lyon divided 
his force into two colunms, for 
the attack on M'Culloch's posi- 
tion, and that led by himself 
surprised the Southerners, and 
gained a partial success. They 
ralUed, however, and beat him 
off, Lyon falling, the other 
column being also repulsed. The 
Federals lost i ,236, and the Con- 
federates 1,095 lolled, wounded 
and missing. 

Wimpfen (Thirty Years' War). 

Fought April 26, 1622, be- 
tween 14,000 Palatinate troops, 
under the Margrave of Baden, 
and the ImperiaUsts, under 
Count Tilly and Gonsalvo de 
Cordova. Tilly attacked the. 
Margrave's camp, which was 
not entrenched, and though a 
brilliant cavalry charge cap- 
tured his guns, it was not sup- 
ported by the Palatine infantry, 
and the ImperiaUsts rallying, 
drove off the cavalry in disorder, 
recovered the guns, and then 
routed the infantry, with a loss 



of 2,000 killed and wounded, 
and all their artillery, baggage 
and camp equipment. 

Winchester (American Civil War ). 
Fought June 14, 1863, when 
7.000 Federals, under General 
Milroy, were defeated by three 
Confederate divisions, under 
General Ewell. and forced to 
retreat with heavy loss, includ- 
es 3*700 prisoners and 30 guns. 

Winkovo (Moscow Campaign). 

Fought October 18, 18 12, 
when Murat. with 30,000 men, 
forming the advance-guard of 
the retiring French army, was 
attacked by the Russians, under 
Count Orlof! Dcnnizo£F, and 
driven from his position, with 
a loss of 2,000 killed, 1,500 
prisoners, and all his baggage 
and artillery. 

Wisby (Dano-Swedish Wars). 

A three days' battle, fought 
161 3, between the fleet of Gus- 
tavus Adolphus of Sweden, and 
that of Christian IV, of Den- 
mark. The action was very 
obstinately contested, and final- 
ly the fleets separated without 
any decisive result. 

Wisloch (Thirty Years' War). 

Fought April 16, 1622, be- 
tween the troops of the Count 
Palatine, under the Count von 
Mansfeldt. and the Imperialists, 
under Count Tilly. Tilly at- 
tacked and drove in the Palat- 
inate rearguard, but failing to 
check the pursuit, was con- 
fronted by the main body, and 
defeated with a loss of 3.000 
killed and wounded, and aU his 
guns. This victory enabled 
Mansfeldt to effect a junction 
with the army of the Margrave 
of Baden. 

Worcester (Civil War). 

Fought September 3, 165 1, 
between 12.000 Royalists, under 
Charles II, and about 30,000 
ParUamentarians, under Crom- 
well. Charles attacked Crom- 
well's wing, and was repulsed 
and driven into Worcester, 
where he was met by the other 
wing of the Parliamentary army, 
under Fleetwood. The Roysd- 
ists were utterly routed and 
dispersed, losing 3.000 killed, 
among whom was the Duke of 
Hamilton, and a large number 
of prisoners, including Lords 
Derby, Lauderdale and Ken- 
mure, and five generals. Charles 
himself esca];)ed with difliculty. 
This was the last pitched battle 
of the Civil War. 

Worth (Franco-German War). 

Fought August 6. 1870. be- 
tween the Third German Army, 
under the Crown IMnce of 
Prussia, and the French, under 
Marshal Macmahon. After a 
closely contested engagement, 
the French were driven from all 
their positions, and made a hasty 
retreat beyond the Vosges. The 
Cuirassier division of General 
Bonnemain was completely cut 
to pieces in charging the German 
infantry, near Elsasshausen. 
The German losses amounted to 
489 officers, and 10,153 men, 
while the French lost 10.000 
killed and wounded, 6.000 
prisoners, 28 guns and 5 mitrail- 

Wrotham Heath (Wyatt's In- 
Fought January'. 1554, when 
the Kentish insurgents, under 
Sir Henry Isley. were totally 
defeated by the Royal troops, 
under Lord Abergavenny. 


«- . — -^ ' 

ipi "l A 



Wargaom (First BAahratta War). 
Fought January 12, 1779, 
when a British force, 2,600 
strong, under Colonel Cock- 
bum, retreating from Poonah, 
was attacked by the Mahratta 
army, under Mahadaji Sindhia, 
and Hari Pant. The British 
succeeded in beating off the 
attack, and making good their 
position in the village of War- 
gaom, but at a loss of 352, in- 
cluding 15 officers, and ulti- 
mately a convention was signed 
by Sindhia. under which the 
British retired unmolested. 

Wynandael (Napoleonic Wars). 

Fought September 28, 1808, 
between the British, under 
General Webb, and the French 
under the Comte de la Motte. 
The French, with 40 battalions 
and 40 squadrons, attempted to 
intercept a convoy of supplies 
for the army besieging Lille, 
and were totally defeated, by a 
far inferior force, with a loss of 
7,000 men. 

Gothic monarchy, and the begin- 
ning of the Moorish domination 
in Spain. 

Xeres (Moslem Empire in Spain). 
Fought July 19 to 26, 711, 
between 90,000 Spaniards, under 
Rodcric, and 12,000 Moslems, 
with a numerous force of African 
auxiliaries, under Tarik. On the 
fourth day the Moslems suffered 
a severe repulse, leaving 16,000 
dead on the field, but the defec- 
tion of Count Julian, with a 
large part of the King's forces, 
revived their courage, and finally 
the Christians were routed and 
dispersed. Roderic fled from 
the field, but was drowned in 
crossing the Guadalquivir. This 
victory marks the fall of the 

Yalu (Chine- Japanese War). 

Fought September 17, 1894, 
between the Chinese fleet of 
2 battleships and 8 cruisers, 
under Admiral Ting, and the 
Japanese fleet of 10 cruisers, and 
2 gunboats, under Admiral Ito. 
The two fleets met at the mouth 
of the Yalu, the Chinese steam- 
ing out in Une abreast. Ito 
attacked in line ahead, using his 
superior speed to circle round 
the enemy's ships. Two of the 
Chinese vessels hauled out of the 
line and fled without coming 
into action, while two more were 
set on fire, and made for the 
shore. The remaining 6 ships 
fought well, and a little before 
sundown Ito retired, leaving 
the crippled Chinese fleet to 
make its way to Port Arthur. 
The Japanese lost 294 killed 
and wounded, of whom 107 fell 
on the flagship, the Maisushima, 
while the Chiyada, which was 
the next ship in the Une, had 
not a man touched. The 
Chinese losses are unknown. 

Yalu. See Kiu-Uen-cheng. 


Fought 1582, between the 
adherents of the Ota family, 
then predominant in Japan, 
and the followers of the rebel 
Mitsuhide. Mi tsu hide sustained 
a crushing defeat. 

Yashima (Taira War). 

Fought 1 1 84, between the 
adherents of the Taira family. 



and the rebels, under Yoshi- 
tsune. The Taira forces were 

Yawata (War of the Northern 
and Southern Empires). 
Fought January, 1353, be- 
tween the armies of the Northern 
and Southern Emperors of Ja- 
pan. The army of the latter, 
led by Moroushi, gained a signal 

Yenikale, Gulf of (Ottoman 

t^ Fought July, 1790, between 
the Turkish fleet, and the Rus- 
sians, under Admiral Onscha- 
kofif. The battle was fiercely 
contested, but eventually both 
fleets drew off without any 
decisive result. 

Yermuk (Moslem Invasion of 
Fought November, 636, be- 
tween 140,000 Imperial troops, 
under Manuel, the General of 
HeracUus, and 50,000 Moslems, 
under Khaled. The Moslem 
attack was thrice repulsed, but 
they returned to the charge, 
and after a long and sanguinary 
engagement, drove their op- 
ponents from the field with 
enormous loss. The Moslems 
lost 4,030 killed. 

Yorktown (American War of 
The entrenched position of 
Lord Comwallis, with 6,000 
British troops at this place, 
was invested by Washington, 
with 7,000 French and 12,000 
Americans, in September, 1781. 
The British held out until Oc- 
tober 19, when, surrounded and 
outnumbered, Comwallis sur- 
rendered, having lost during 
the operations, 12 officers and 

469 rank and file, killed and 

Yorktown (American Civil War). 
This small village gives its 
name to the entrenched position 
occupied by General Magnider 
with 11,000 Confederates, which 
was invested by 105,000 Federal 
troops, with 103 siege guns, 
April 5, 1862. On the i6th. an 
unsuccessful attack was made 
upon Magruder's lines, and both 
sides having been reinforced, 
M'Clcllan set about the erection 
of batteries. On May 4, the 
Federals were about to open 
fire, when it was found that the 
Confederates had abandoned 
the position and retired. 

Youghiogany (Seven Years* War). 
A skirmish of no importance 
in itself, but notable as being 
"the shot fired in America 
which gave the signal that set 
Europe in a blaze" {Voltaire, 
Louis XV), and was in a sense 
the cause of the Seven Years' 
War. On May 27, 1754, Wash- 
ington, with 40 Virginians, sur- 
prised a small French detach- 
ment, under Coulon de Jumon- 
ville, despatched probably as a 
reconnaissance by Contrecceur 
from Fort Duquesne. The de- 
tachment, with one exception, 
was killed or captured. , 

Zab, The (Bahram's Revolt). 

Fought 590, betw^een the 
troops of the Persian usurper 
Bahram, and the army of the 
Emperor Maurice, under Narses. 
The usurper's forces were totally 
routed, and Chosroes II restored 
to the throne of Persia. 




Zalaka (Moorish Empire in 
Fought October 26, 1086, 
between 40,000 Moors, under 
AUnoravid, and 300,000 Chris- 
tians, under Alfonso VI of 
Castile. The Spaniards were 
utterly routed, with enormous 
loss. Alfonso, at the head of 
500 horse, cut his way out, and 
with difficulty escaped. 

Zama (Second Punic War). 

Fought B.C. 202, between 
the Carthaginians, under Hanni- 
bal, and the Romans, under 
Scipio Africanus. The Cartha- 
ginians began to attack with 
their elephants, 80 in number, 
but some of these became un- 
manageable, and fell back upon 
the cavalry, throwing them 
into disorder, while the legion- 
aries opened out and allowed 
the others to pass down the 
lanes between their ranks. The 
infantry then closed, and after 
severe fighting, the Romans 
gained a complete victory, 
20,000 Carthaginians falling, 
while as many more were maiie 
prisoners. Hannibal escaped 
from the field at the end of the 

Zamora (Moorish Empire in 
Fought 901, between the 
Spaniards, under Alfonso the 
Great, King of the Asturias, 
and the Moors, under Abdallah, 
King of Cordova. The Moors 
were utterly routed, with heavy 
loss, Alfonso thereby extending 
his dominions as far as the 

Zeim (Russo-Turkish War). 

Fought April 20, 1877, be- 
tween the Russians, under Lor is 
MeUkoff, and the Turks, under 

Mukhtar Pasha. Melikofi at- 
tacked the Turks in a strongly 
entrenched position, but was 
repulsed with considerable loss. 

Zendecan (Turkish Invasion of 
Fought 1039, between the 
Seljuks, under Moghrul Beg, 
and the Afghans, under Musrud, 
Sultan of Ghuzni. The Afghans 
were defeated, and Musnid 
compelled to retire on his 

Zeugminum (Hungarian War). 

Fought 1 168, between the 
Greeks, under Manuel I, Em- 
peror of Constantinople, and the 
Hungarian invaders. The Hun- 
garians were signally defeated, 
and the war. which had lasted 
for five years, came to an end. 

Zeuta (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought September 11, 1679, 
between the Austrians. under 
Prince Eugene, and the Turks, 
under Elwas Mohammed, the 
Grand Vizier. Eugene attacked 
the Turkish army as it was 
crossing a temporary bridge 
over the Theiss. and the cavalry 
being already across, cut it in 
two, and completely routed the 
infantry, driving them into the 
river. The Turks lost 29,000 
men. The Austrians 500 only. 

Ziela (Third Mithridatic War). 

Fought B.C. 67, between the 
Romans, under Triarius, and 
the Pontic army, under Mithri- 
dates. The King attacked the 
Roman camp, and practically 
annihilated them, though him- 
self dangerously wounded in 
the assault. 


Fought August 2, B.C. 47, 
between 7 Roman legions, with 



some Asiatic auxiliaries, under 
Julius Caesar, and the Bos- 
porans, under Phamaces. Phar- 
naces attacked the Romans 
while they were pitching camp, 
but the legionaries quickly 
formed up, and utterly routed 
their assailants. This is the 
occasion of Ca:sar's famous 
despatch, " Veni. vidi, vici." 

Ziezicksee (Flemish War). 

Fought 1302, when the 
Genoese galleys, in the service 
of Phihp IV of France, under 
Grimaldi and FiUpo di Rieti, 
utterly destroyed the Flemish 

Zlotsow (Ottoman Wars). 

Fought 1676, between the 
Poles, under John Sobicski, 
and 20,000 Turks and Tartars, 
under Mohammed IV. The 
Turks were signally defeated. 

Znaim (Campaign of Wagram). 
Fought July 14, 1809, when 
Mass^na, ^ith 8,000 French, 
attacked 30,000 Austrians, 
under the Ptince of Rcuss, and 
drove them into Znaim with 
considerable loss, including Soo 

Zomdorf (Seven Years' War). 

Fought August 25, 1758, be- 
tween the l^ussians, 25,000 
strong, under Frederick the 
Great, and a Russian army, 
under Fermor, which was besieg- 
ing Custria. Frederick attack^ 
the Russian entrenchments, and 
drove them out, with a loss of 
19,000 forcing them to rchn- 
quish the siege. The l^ussians 
lost about 11,000. 

Zummerhausen (Thirty Years' 
Fought 1647, when the French 

and Swedes, under Turenne and 
Wrangel, inflicted a decisive 
defeat upon the Imperialists. 

Zurakow (Ottoman War). 

In 1676, John Sobieski, with 
10,000 Poles, was besieged by 
200,000 Turks and Tartars, 
under Ibrahim Pasha (Shaitan). 
Having 63 guns, Sobieski made 
a sturdy defence, and by con- 
stant sorties inflicted enormous 
loss on the besiegers. At last, 
being unable to make any im- 
pression on the defence, and 
finding his army wasting away, 
Ibraliim consented to treat, 
and withdrew his forces from 
Polish territory. The Turks 
lost enormous numbers during 
the siege ; the Poles lost 3,000. 

Zutphen (Netherlands War of 
Fought September 22, isS6, 
between the Spaniards, under 
Prince Alexander of Parma, 
and the EngUsh, under the Earl 
of Leicester. The Spaniards 
endeavoured to throw a convoy 
of provisions into Zutphen, which 
Leicester was besieging. He 
attempted to intercept it, but 
\%4thout success, and was iorced 
to retire after suffering con- 
(Icrablc loss. Among those 
wlio fell on the English side was 
Sir Phihp Sydney. 

Zuyder Zee (Netherlands War 
of Independence). 
Fought October 11, 1573, 
l)ctween 30 Spanish ships, under 
]k)ssu. and 25 Dutch ships, 
under Admiral Dirkzoon. The 
Spanish fleet fled, after losing 
5 shii)s, only Bossu standing 
liis ground. II is ship, however, 
was eventually captured, after 
losing three -fourths of her crew. 


» : 

I' ■ : 

■ i 


1 i' 

II ' 

u ■ 

1 1 

.1 < 

■ i: 

Abbal 11, 111 

- PMh., 43, 38 



AbdUIata. ■<». I4J, 169. isj 

Am, 94, >30 

— of Cordova, 271 

A .uir. Ka^J. of, >4<i 

Abd-,1-Kid=r, 116 

Akb«. 6b. .)«, .S7 

- Kh,.n, 117 

Abdmihnian Ibn Atxiillih, 331 

Abdul W»tu.b Kl™. ,63 

Al.iric, n7, ail 

-II, ",7. 164 


Ala-ud-Din, to, 74. ijl 
Albemark. Duke of, 9. 73. 99. <» 


Albwt, Archduke. 70. 117, 17*, 183. 1J6 



- -1 HlHD. 10, It, 119 

Alboin. 189 

— Obeidah, 8, III 

AilM«,«rq«. .<». 148 

ffi»f?-— '- 

Aklbiidu, 73. 171. 140 

AklAu, 170 
Alrniuni, lA. tj 

Achntct ildfi Putaa. 99 

Alr>,uidn of Ai^tU. I'M. 1)1 

- Koprih Pwha, iMl. i,j 

- D«pql ol Phcru,. 71 

— or Epiru*, 1S6 

M^m^ i/joc, )6, .,7. 1*6. iSi 

Acldj, llir, m 

— ibe G«Ji, 17.' J4. ■». 101. iij. ti6. 

Adherbll, TV 

><1, 136 

AdiJ Pjih.i. m 

Akunlvi'l A^iJlic ClinpjlGDS 93. ><>■. 

Adour. Hk, 170 

III. 116, :i« 

ytimilius, CofBUl, 46 

AIni... tAI: U»;.p.T. A4 

-PmIib, 103 '^ 

AUiiKMi IV, dI (\jrlui;j1. 319. 15> 

SltallriUi, 71 

- VI. 113^ 371 

;l':th<'lr«l II. S6, 307 

- VIll.<.fOMil.-. 7 

£UirKt>ti, |i 

Arlliu, 93 

— Ihr' 171 '" 

Alan do'Rivj, 3fi4 

- Ihr iLf^ii.-. .«. 

AlEhao Was, 6, 34. J^ ,7. 117, 119, ui. 

Alf-.'J lh< GttjI. ,1. H7. ij8. 107 

13], 1^4, 14a, I'» 

Alm-rrji. 330 

Alr«iiui, 3» 

AliiiiT. Di'r o(, 13H 

Alhci, Covnl uf. Ml 

AjEnn, Coui: 




AUemande, Adm., 131 

AUersheim, 178 

Allied lavasion of France, 41, 55, 67. 131* 
«33. I35i «66, x88, ao8 

Almady, 63 

Almagro, 71, «35 

AlmoDacen, Heights of, 143 

Almocavid, 272 

Alonzo-di'Aguila, 162 

Alub Khan, 220 

Aluinbsu;h, 144 

Alfusiett, 36 

Alvarez Mariano, 97 

Alviani, Gen., 3 

AlvinzL 17, 18, 46, 200 

Amandus xo8 

Amanien. 36 

Amboioruc, 4 

Ambrotio Berocnegra, Don, 133 

American Civil War, 13, 26, 42, 43, 33. 34. 
37, 38, 66, 69, 87, 89, 92, 97, X03, 
"5, 139, 151, X37, X39, X69, 172. 
180, 189, 191, 192, 200, 20X, 202, 
209, 210, 225, 230, 235, 261, 268, 
269, 271 

— Spanish War, 150 

— War of Independence, 32, 34, 39, 42, 

43, 46. 47, 49. 54, 56, 39, 63, 86, 97, 
X02, 103, 139, 190, 202, 237, 249, 

— Wars, 26, 33, 36, 43. 57, 59, 6x, X3X, 
. _, '^ ^75, 203, 229 
Amenco-Mezican War, 13, 42, X63, x86 
Amherst, Gen., X43, 164, 209 

Amiens, Peace of, 134 

Aminias, 2x0 

Amir Daood, X3x 

Ammatas, 31 

Amj^ictyonic War, 34 

Amron, 9, X37 

Amurath II, 64, X30, x6s, 259 

Andres, 233 

Andronicus the Younger, 190 

Angelas, Isaac, 64 

Angostura, 263 

Angiis, 14, 223 

Anjou, Due d', 145, 162 

Anlaf the Dane, 42 

Anson, Adra., 48 

Anstruther, Col., 4X 

Antigonus, 44, 65, 86, 115, 187, 191 

Antigonus Soter, 222 

Antiochus the Great, X9, 2x, X47, 167, 170, 

207, 248 
Antipater, X56 
Antokti, 237 
Antonius, Caius, 70 

— Primus. 68 

Antony, Mark, 3, X69, 193 
Anwar-ud-Diu, 13 
Appenzel Rebellion, 263 
Appius Claudius, 241 
Appleton, Commodc»%, 136 
Apraxine, 7, 102 
Arabi Pasha, X22 
Arabi's Rebellion, 9, X22, 246 
Aratus, 136 

Arbogastes, 17 

Arbuthnot, Adm., 49 

Archelaus, 33, 183 

Archidamus, 130, X93, 246 

Archimedes, 241 

Ardoch, Bioor of, xox 

Aredondo, 4a 

Aremberg, Count, X07, xo8 

Argive War, 227 

Argyle, Duke of, 98, xx3, 229 

Arica, 24a 

Ariovistus, 3, x68 

Aahanti Wars, 2, 14, 77 

Arista, x86 

Aristoeus, 20X 

Aristagonis, 86 

Aristomenes, 136 

** Arkansas," Tht, 26x 

Armagnac War, 206, 2x8 

Arminius, XX4, 260 

Amulf^ of Germany, 83 

Arona, X63 

Arsaus III, X9 

Artaphemes, 86 

Artaxerxes, 70 

Arundel's Rebellion, 88, 2x8, 220 

Arvemi, The, 263 

Asipetes, The, 233 

Aston, Sir Arthur, 80 

Astruc, Mons., 228, 239 

Atahualpa, X3, 203 

Athens, Duke of, 34 

Athol, Earl of, 8x 

Athole, Marquis of, 82 

Atlanta, X89 

Attains, 39, 2XX 

Attila, 33 

Attilius, C, 140, X4X 

Attilius Rqgulus, 83 

Auchmuty, Sir Samuel, 28, X63 

Audley, Lord, 33 

Auerstadt, 118 

Ausereau, 28, 52, 159, x6^ 

Aulus Postumius, X32 

Aurclian, 186, xSkt), 194 

Aurelian's Expedition to Palmyra, xj, 83 

Aurep, Gen., 45, 58 

Aurungzebe, 43, 98, i2X, 220 

Austrasians, The, 247, 2)3, 263 

Ayesha, 28 

Ayub Khan, X2i, X48 


Baber, 187 

Baden, Margrave of, 269 . 
Baden- Powell, Gen., 145 
Bageual, Harvey, 175 
Bagnall, Sir Henry, 36 
Bagration, 112, 161, 233 
Baghasian, 16 
Bag Secq, 2x 
Bahadur 9iah, 60, 77 

lumi, IrtH.. IB, H» 

Balreuth. Muquu ul. ijS 

— II, »'. 1)6 

Bdii R». II, .IS, II? 

BiS Sioch, 60 

a>kfr. Major Heur, 1*3 

— Vikntine, Puhi, S5, »« 
Baldwin I, 4 

— 11,64 

BaUour ol Burkiith, la 
Bill, Sir Aln.. ijg 
BjUld, a>, 105 
tullivun. 114 
B4liiucrd^ r]( 

nrrlohire Rem, Jjo 
flmnikln HimJreii. 191 

llnl[.m.l. Gi-ii.. 76. 166 
BcTVLck, Dake ol, 19J 

Brvrtti, PrIiKc of, 40 
IVHtlu, lis 

nhiRrnt R40 Scindhh, 

BuafUAv d'HI 
Hnitkri, Gap. 

rnin., ij6 

Bubou. Coi., 6), i)J 

Blikmn. Gen.. So 
Blnit. CoiDic <ic, 4 


BualllGta.'Gca.. ]i 
Beatrix ol CulU>. 1 

Bobol, Ad 

BoUviy, >; 

Bttkvllb. Cm., i]4 
Bedford, u6 

- • -, il). >6i 

i^Adm,, 1 4 J, I9« 
i'3. 171 

Butbi. J7 

Botli. Gn., 

Baurbon. Contibte i^I. , 
— FrancHB. dc, J4 
BourlauKiw. 149 



Boyd, Gen., 6x 
Boyle, Bi(r., ao 
Brabant, 211 

— Duke of, 5 
Braddock, Gen., 163 
Bradstreet, Col., gx 
BraM, Gen., 57, 58, 169, 19X 
Braithwaite, Col., 173 
Brakfontein, 258 

Brand, Martin, 104 

Braun, Marshal, 201 

Breckenridge, Gen., X74 

Brennus, xx, an 

Brentford, Barl of, X3 

Brian Boru 62 

Bridgwater, X13 

Bridport Lord, 3X 

Brihtnotn, X49 

British Invasion of Egypt, x, 9 

Britt, Don Jorge, X38 

Broadwood, Col., 23x 

Brock, Gen., 205 

Broglie, Due de, 33, X2S, 205, 223 

Broke, Capt., 229 

Bromhead, Lieut., 2x3 

Brown, Capt., 26x 

— Gen. Jacob, 59, X44 

— Marshal, X43 
Bruce, Capt., X04 

— Robert, 26, 8x, xxs, X42, 138 
Brude, X73 

Brucys, Adm., X77 
Bnme, xx 

Brunehilde, Queen. 87 
Brunswick, Christian, of, 90 

— Duke of, 1x8, 259 

— Ferdinand of, 33 

— Prince of, 47, xxx 
Brutus, 4X, X93 
Brydon, Dr., XX9 
Buccaneers, x86, 200, 203 
Buccelin, 52 

Buchan, Constable, 68, 261 ] 

— Karl of, XX5 
Buchanan, Cipt., 105 
Buckingham, Duke of, X35, 208 
Buda-Pesth, 161 

Biioll, Gen., 191 
Buenzas, 204 
Buerens, Gen., xxo 
RufTalo, 36 

Bugcaud, Marshal, 1x6 
Bugha, 229 
Bnkht-Khan, x79 
Bulbuddur, Singh, 120 
Bulgaria, Prince of, 156 
Buller, Cant., 231 

— Sir Rcdvcrs, 63, 72, X14, X3X. 193, 2361 

Burgoyne, Gen., 237, 249 
Burgundian Wars, 100, 109, 136, 165 
Burgundy, Duke of, X84 
Burleigh, Lord, x 

Burmah, Wars, 78, 120, 123, X27, 185, 266 
Burnabv, Col. Fred., 2 
Burnside, Gen., 92, 2xx 
Burr, Col./ x 23 

Burrard, Sir Harry, 263 
Burrows, Gen., X4is 
Butler, Gen., X92 
Byng, Adm., x6o 

— Gen., 213 

— Sir Geo., xo, 49 
Byron, Adm., xoa 

Cabra, Comte de, X43 

Cabrera, Gen., 6x, X63 

Caceres, Gen., x6o 

Cacina, 47 

Cade, 229, 235 

Cadiz, Marquis of, xo, 24 

Cadmea, 24S 

Cadwallon, X07 

CaKilius Metellus, 20 

C«cina, 68 

Cesar, Julius, 8, 24, 29, 35, 83, 96, x68 , 

X92, X99, 2x3, 253, 273 
Oesar's Camp, X30 
Cairo, X57, 304 
Caius Moenius, 62 
Calabria, X48 
Calder, Sir Robert, 49 
Caliph Omar, X37 
Callicratides, x8, 170 
Callinicus, Seleucus, xs 
Calo-John, 4 
Calvert, Capt., 13 
Calvinas. Domitius, X76 
Calvinus, T. Veturius, 53 
Camalogenus, 5 
Cambrav, 20 

Carabuskenneth, Battle of, 238 
Cambyses, X90 
Camera, Gen., x6, 220 
Cameron, Gen., 95 
Cimillus, M. Furius, 260 
Campaign o# Au8t«rlitz, 84, 267 

Friedland, 33, 72, 73, 87, 93, xo«, 

162, 203, 265 

Jena, 2x5 

Leipsic, 73, 76, 79, x<w, «o6, 123. 

X26, X29, X37, X43, 143 

Moscow, xoo, X84, 233 

the Danube, X4, 23, 82, 103, xo6, 

"2, X53, X59 

Wagram, x, 22, 83, 205. 207 

Campbell, Capt, 60 

- Col., X3, X50 

- of Au(^inbrech, 1x3 

- Sir Archibald, 78, X20, 123, X27, X85 

- Sir Colin, 53, X44, 206, 225 
Cananore, xoo 
Candorcanqui. Battle of, 24 
Canmore, Malcolm, X2, 82 
Cannon. Col., 8x 

Canto a' Irles, Gen., X5x 
Caplan, Pasha, X28 
Caprara, Gen., 232 
Capua, X67. 260, 264 
Caractacus, 47, 183 ^ 1 

Cudlfui, Lord, II 

Cjmr, Sir Peter, n 

Cirinat, 19 

CMiauv 113 

Carliit Wan, ]), no, 111, lij, ifij, : 

Conru^Dou, 145 

Cwriiictoii. Gen,, f4 

Caitlii|iDiaa Invuioas, i, 44, 33, 6g, : 

Cucia*, Geo., i» 

CutiAetii, Dm Antonio, 49 

CuIIrod. Don Petro de, id 

Caitruccio Caatracuc. \t 
Cathcut, Gen.. 11. «} 
Citlnal, Manhal, ji, 137 
Catulm, C. Latatiiu, 4 

ChUian Ovll War. 6], 15} 
^, ChLLua KevaluUoil, 134 

ChUpKlc II, 161 

China Wan, 14) 

ChintM InvMioB of Japan, 74, 141 
10. Cblai>Ja|iia«o War, 119, 194, !<», M 

Chippewa, 144 
ChitdiakoB, Adni., nd 
Chilral C>m[nii!n. 60. Ml 
" Chlj-ada," The, 170 
ChoCiin, ajT 
Chodkkwici. iiS 

CefiienUi, Count di. l6a 

CertW Petiliut. )} 
Gem de Guodaloupe, 134 
Cerveri, Adm., iii 
Cervoni, 163 

Chibriaij*, 173 

Chagre, Hie. 1S6 

Oiamragne, Comte Tlilbaut it, 64 

OunoDi, sir John. 33 

QiaDR Pak, 74. I4> 

Charei, ji). 85 
Charlemittne, ai3 

- XI, w, 81). 131. m. =' 

- XII,^i.B>,9].ii3.i)H, 

- Archduke, i, a>. 34. 3ft 

- Innin,'lhe Vouns Pret 

- M.irtel, ijj, 1*3 

- of AnUra. SI. I"*. 'Jl. ■■ 

- d Ath^n^ ]« 

17a. 174, 193. «»• »4. 119. >]«. 

— of Cvur and Pamper, 7o. Sj. iTa, t9», 

aij. 345. ni 

— of Mariin and Sitna, 63, 68, 116 

— of Sntorlui. J31) 
Clam-Gallu, gH, iM. 197. >)6 

— of Lon-abie. 40. 61, 7i. 

— the Bold, lo'i, iftj 

Chameun d'Atrinup. ijj 
ChaUiam. Lord, 90 
OMbmtotd, Lord, ij7 
Cbenab, River. 106, 116 

" CKci^e^," TlK.'iafl 

1, Earl n 

aarifjil. C 

CIrbnd, C 

... of. 19 
.. 167 

mil. III 
CtmmhrotiK, I3<| 
ClfomniM. 1)6. 117 
Ckoo, 14. lOf 

Cknnaai,' Comte dp, 61, 91 
CtUoid, Lcrd, S9 
CUn, IB, nt J^ J4, t7, T*. iff 
Cloiiei-Sevai, Covnatiaa of, 107 

OiXluin II, n. >7 
Clovta, 197. »J4. 'J<^ «84 

^ Fulviia, tD9 

Codriaglan, Adm., i 
Cdlhonw, Sic Jaha, 

Colli. Gn>., lu, iM 
ColHer, Sil OvKgt, 1 
CoUjagi*L>ad. A^., ' 

— P. Udnlut, ,u 

— Publim, 31 
Cwitctii, BmI <rf, to 
CrimeuWu, 11,13, 

iBi. iBj, loS, .,. 
Cnipus, 108 

Crtltcoden, Gfo., 139 

,SS. ilMtl,I49. 

tioiBteiit, Adm., no 

CrowD Piinoo o( Pnmjj, lifi 

Ciusadm. a, 16. JO. ji. 6* 79. "8. 'S3, 

■Tfi, 13« 
Ctalpfaon, 119 
Cnddilm, loi 

Cumberiini Duke al, 30,90, loj, ij6 

I. 71, 135, IB) 


d'Albrtt.' COnituWe, j 
d'AJeacoB, Due, 5, >6i 
D^lgcty. CoL, aG7 
DalitEl, Geo., iij 
Dalmatli. t^a 

CoriDtbbn War, 66 
CemaUle, Piom 133 
Coramllu, Lutd, 19. 16. 47, 10 

Cala. ijn, iB* 

CotloD, Geo., 7* 

Coukn d* JumnvIUf, 97t 
~ de VUUcn. loi 

CovBiuitsi' Riilni, jg, to, 11 

d'Arpntlan, iCj 
DiriiB. Codonuimat. i; 

Dinud All Puha, 191 

D'Aublgoy, llB 
d'AubuHon, Pion, >o$ 
Djiu,||inlul. III. 117, 139, no, ijj, i» 

d'AunU* it Pila 
d'AiiUll, Horn.. 
- d II. JT4 

>. Gm., A7i 141 

:;}, i6t, 164, iM 

- Cutriei. Gen.. 47 

- Ca»tto, Jum, n 

- Citlml, Uuilul. I J: 

dB QiafolAii, Coaite, 164 

de Colflny, MAnhil. iNS 

— CdigiijF, Mvihil. loj 

— Failly, Cm., 19 
Delnidcn. 76 

de Fenen. Djiran, i]| 

- Craw. tS 

- Kalb. 47 

- Ki^. B], as. Ill, tl6 

- la Fniilb'dF. Due, 1)« 

- la Gaidie, laniei, i>d 

- U Minsk, .1 

' la IKOkfac Kmhtl. iSj 

- U Uottc Count. 170 

- U None. Fiantob. iij 

- la Pole. Sari of UkiiId. i ]7 

Dal Cantoi Ceo., 6], ijj 
da L«vlL Oanlkr. los. 117 

Delioa*. GsL. ija 
de MardiF. Count. 341 

— Mauler, itt 
Dcmbluki. Cn., iii, 147, xH 
de Uedarl, Geo., ji 

— HeLac, Udos., 131 

— Merer, <i™ , IBS 

— PoUonetei. ii] 
da Monltdcl. John. 13 

DemoitlieiM. iSi, 104, 141 

Dfotatta, 'h. ci^ui, jr 
Derby, Lail, 44, lofi, 169 

— Rwlncbam, i6t 

— Rieux, Manhal, 117 

— Rlgny, Adm., 171 

— Ros5T 

— Rityta, 79, 99, 179. 100, 119. 134 

d'Bitakc. Cmiat, to, rn, iSj 
d'&trio, Cotmt, 107, 134 

- Traitanure, Henry, 173 

- Vandemoi] 

- Vere, Dull 

- Wet. '90. »: 


Dewey, Adm., IJl 
de will, 79 

He Zetc^en. Adm.. , 

Diodetlaik >: 

di Potenia. Coodf. 1 

Doetcnff, Gen., 13a 

Dolintiky, Geo., 171 
Doultiu^ Cnaua. 147 
Doni Mlfoelt SMUac 
Duoald, Braa. 99 
— Lord el tba Ma, 11 

• II ll i • I 

- T I— " 



Doo Fk-andtoo de Toledo, 104 

— John of Austria^ 8z, 9;, 138, 3x5 

— Sancho of Castile, 737 

— Sebastian, izo, X13 

Doria. 59» 64. X97 
Dost Mcaammed, I2Z 
Doaav, Gen. Abel, 267 
Dotiglas, 23Z 

— Archibald, 19 

— Arch., Earl of, 105, txa 

— Barl of, 184, 261 

— James, Bar! of, X9 

— Rebellion, 40 
Doveton, Gen., 21 
Dragomiroff, 231 
Drake, 19, 44 

— Mr., 45 
Drepanum, 140 
Dresden, 129 

Drummond, Sir Geo., 144 
Dnisus, 14X, Z48 
Dublin, 207 

Duchambon de Vergor, 30 
Ducrot, Gen., 263 

Duff, Sir James, 97 

Dufour Gen., 98 

du Gast, 34 

Dugommier, 231 

du Guesdin, 23, 57, 60, 62, 164, «73. I99 

Duilius. Caius, 170 

du Lude, Sei^eur, 191 

Dumounes, 1x7, 173, 259 

Duncan, Adm., 48 

Dimdas, Adm., 240 

Dundee, 124 

— Battle of, 209, 243 
Dunkeld, 144 

— Bishop of, XX5 
Dunkirk, X12 
Dunois, X83 
Dupleix, X98 
Dupont, Adm., 29, 57 

— Gen., X06 
Diu-and, Col.. 50 
Durham. Bishop of, 237 
Dumford, Col., X15 

Dutch;Wars, 77, 79, 99, X79. «<». 229, 234, 

235. 247 
d'York, Gen., 56 


Earle, Gen., 125 

Early, Gen., 54, 89, 182 

Ec^lth, 173 

Edhem Pasha, 78, 193 

Edmund Ironsides, 22, 191, 228 

Edward, 248 

— I, 55, 81, 87, 88, 139 

— II, 3, 26, 38, 105 

— Ill, 4, 5, 60, 68, 69 

— ?IV, 27. 84, 85. no, 166, 247, 252 

— the Elder, 247, 267 

— the Black Prince, 173, X97 
Bdwardes, Lieut, X24, x68, 239 

Edwin, X07 

— Earl, 94 
Bgbert, 85, xoo 
Bgerton, Sir Oiarles, zxo 
Bgm(mt, Count, xox, 3x8 

— Philip, 96 
Bgremont, Lord, 179, 237 
Bhrenskidid, Adm., 94 
Eighty-Seventh, RegL, x68 
Elagabalus, xx4 

Blbe, River, X07 

Elcho, Lord, 250 

Bl Hadj Mohammed Pasha, 139 

Blias Khan, x6x 

Eliot, Gen., 98 

Bloffj Sarel, 146 

Blphmstone, Gen., 34, 1x9, 124 

— Sir Keith, 220 
Blsasshaxisenj 269 

Bl Teb, Battle of, 255 

Blwas Mohammed, 273 

Bmin, Malelc X09 

Bmir Hamada, 89 

BncisloUen, 175 

Bnotake, 120 

Bnslin, Battle of, xox 

Bntxheim, Battle of, 232 

Bpaminondas, X39, xsx 

Bpidamnus, X05 

Bporedorix, 3 

Bquathis GeUius, 47, 337 

Bnnschild, Adm., 7 

Bmest of Styria, Duke, 206 

Brrol, Barl <», 99 

Bsk, River, X94 

Bsoobedo, 23 x 

Bspartero, 35, xio, 165, X90 

Bspinay, Prince, 252 

Bsaez, Barl of, 84, 174 

Btampes, x88 

Bthelwulf, x8o 

Etruscan War, 20 

Eudamus, 3X 

Eudes, 164 

Eugene, Prince, 30, 36, 50, 52, 58, 68, 75, 

79. 132, X40, X45, X50, X93, X93, 203, 

222, 272 

of Wurtemberg, X63 

Eugenius, x7 

Eumenes, 65, 187, 19 x, 222 
Euryolocns, i8x 
Burymedon, 204 
Euthydemus, X9 

Bvans, Gen., 26, xio, xx5, 221 
(Am.), 225 

— Sir Ralph, 15 
Bvetzen, 200 
Bwell, Gen., 69, 269 
Exeter, 218 

— Barl of, 2x6 
Bzmouth, Lord, xo 
Byre, Major V'inoent, 20 

Fabricius, Caius, 8, 34 



Pabiu« Mazimus, Q., 1x6, 136, 237, 363 

Faidherbe. Gen., 27, 103, 2x8 

Fairfax, Sir. Thos., 4, 133, X34, X72, 226 

Falkenberg, X46 

Falkemtcin, G«q., X25 

Fnrolcshin, 3 

FarraKut, Adm.. 173, 261 

Fastolfe, Sir John, xio, x88 

Faurc, Gcq., 14 

Faversham, Earl of, 223 

Feidlim, 23 

Feliciaao, lax 

Ferdinand, Archduke, 106, 207 

— Kinff of Naples, X83, 2x0, 226, 260 

— of Brunswick, 68, 160 

— of Hungary, X78 

— Prince, X2i 

— the Catholic, xoo, 142, 149, 231 
Fwmor, 273 

Ferrars, Lord, 18 
Fcrscn, Baron dp, 134 
Fife, Barl of, 1x3 
Filipo de Rieti, 273 
Finck, Gen., 133 
Finland War, 208, 240 
Finnegan, Gen., 180 
Firth, Lord, 38 
Fi«chbach, Gen., 38 
Fitxalan, Richard, 233 
Fitzwalter, Lord. 89 
Flaminiiis, 19, 24, 7} 
Flammock's Rebellion, 33 
Flavins Fimbria, X38 

— Cn«us, X09 
Flertwixxl, 26) 

Flemish War, 67, X62, 273 
Flics, Gen., 132 
Flint, Lieut.. 263 
Floing, 223 

Flores, Gen., 69, 70, xb| 
Floyd, Gen., 149 
Fniz. Comtc de, 242 
Fontanj, FVnedict, 47 
ForKich, Battle of, 236 
Fordc, Col., 113, 134, 206 
Furey, Gon., 134, 16 ? 
Forgacz, Count, iHS 
FocstiT, Gen., 202 
Fort Duqucsnr, loi, 271 

— Lyman, X32 

— Nccr^^ity, 102 
Foumier, Gen., 102 
Frana, 139 
Franri< I, X53 X89 

— II of Naples, 95 

— Joseph, Emperor, 234 
Francisrrj de Mane<iscs, 258 

Mek), 2X1 

Toledo, Don, X04 

— Pizarro, X35 

Franco-Austrian War, X47, 140, 163, 234, 

— German War, 14, 27. 29, 3X, 43. 58, 6^, 

105, X37. 14^. «53. I5». «7H, x88, 
218, 235, 263 

— Mexican War, 3, 134 
Fraaer, Gen,, 74, 238 

Frauenberg, The, X38 
Fredegoud, Queen, 235 
Frederic II, 66, xoo 

— IV, of Denmark, 239 

— Augustus, 62 

— liarb.irossa, X36 

— Charles, Prince, 82, 98, X26, X37, X38, 

x68, 178, X97 

— Duke of Austria, 168, 242 

— Elector of Saxony, x68 

— of Bohemia, 20 x 

— the Great, 60, 72, 109, xii, xx2, 126, 

"9, X39, X40, 143, X62, x8i, 201, 

234» 273 

— William III, 239 

Elector, 89, 207, 236 

French, Gen., 84, 124 

— Canadian Rising, 217 

— Civil Wars. 67 

— Invasion of Egypt, i, 3, 108, X77, 204 
Fresnel, X05 

Freyre, 59 
Frevtag, X12 
Fritigern, X05, X32 
Frossard, Gen., 233 
FulLiIi, The, 1x3 
Fulvius, Cn., 32 

— Q-. 49 

Futtch Mohammed Khan, 124 

Gablen/, Gen., 233 

Giige, (H;n., 43, X39, 202 

Gaines* Mill, 228 

Galba. X99 

Galu.icus, 100 

Gallii: Invasion of the East, 86, 103 

— Ri*\oIt, 15 

— Tribil Wiir?, 3 

— W.irs, 4, 5, 8, 2 1, 29, 35. 4»f 9^. i***. 

100. 253 
G.illityin, I*rince, 60, 79, 122 
Cj.illiis, Ce«;tu*, 11 
G.ilw;iv. L<H-d, 8, 12 
Gatii.irra. 114 
(>.<ri<'t/ki, G4>n., i<)6 
G>;o de l.i Veira, 183 
Gardiner, Ci>l., 12 
GariliMT, Gen., 200 
Garibaldi. 22, 45, X57. i^-). 164. X65, 185, 

212, 260, 264 
G.irnett, Gen., 209 
Gaston de Foix. 207 
Gataere, Gen. Sir W., 2j« 
Gate Pah, 95 
Gates, Gen., 47. 236 
Gaurhos, 163 
Go/er Khan. 184 
Gek Horn, Rittle of, ii^o 
Geljmer, 51, 254 
Gi-Uius Statias, 39 
Gelon, xoK, no 
Gengfaiz Khan, 26, 97, 114. X3I, 123, 123, 

184, X90. 220. 244 


eenMrle, 4^, m 

Gwge II. 7i 

— KinH cpf Haoow 


Crev Geo., toy 

— Sir G«-, IS* 

— de Rulhitt, L«d. 17B 
de Willon, Lord. 179 

Goddard, Gen., 6, tS 
GoMtai <!• BoiiiftcD, s 
Croifiue*. Gen , 9i 

GoUuilin. Adm., 101 
Comiiraksmi. 119. '»' 
Gonulvode Cordova, J 

" Gugltn." 91 
GuBcard. Robert, 61. 

iS= ^It. '„. '..9. 

Gustan" Adolphui, 1 
137, n6, 19S. 
_ V»«, aj7 
GuUuDuiw, 149 
Cumnin, 87 

GuytauT, js . 

Gordon, GfO., ■"] 
■■ Gordon Hlfihlw. 
Getjey. J, "S. "J 

I lily. 1 

181, I9>."3.'*» 

uce, t9T 

Gourko. Ctn-, 7*. W. "1 
Gradchiu, Tiberius, 1! 
Grihain, G™.. »7. '<*■ *" 
_ Gen. Sir G-. "". »44. "46, 
Gwmm«it, Due de. -jl 

Graiaon, Sir TiDnm. 199 

Hidji, ASmBi, 6j 
HidriiniB. FaWm 
Haidu Khin, 97 
Hakld P«^». ™> 
HiJtdene. ai 

HaDipden, JS 
HMiploo, Gen. )7 
— liw.. «o 
Hancock, Gen.. J36 
Hannibat i, ai. 4», 49 

GravH. Adm. 


ca Redoubl. ■ 

GcHH Crown Prince 01. /= 
Greek War of Independence, 1 

ivitia Bedouni, 190 
Me Crown Prince of. 78 
■ "'ai of inde—"''-'" 

Gregory, a(5 
GreovtBe^Sli Rithird, 1. 
Grey, Adoi., i" 


Harold. 107, 53& 
— HMdrada. 94. 17S. 'I* 
Hlroull■»^RoK:bid. iSj 
Harper'. Ferry. US^^ 

Hart, 'Geo.. 194, ' , 
Hartley, Col., iB. 4* 
Harvey, Adm, |ohn, 1}4 

iFM<^bil.'s'. *9. "'. '*' 
Hassan. :sB 

H^^^Ib, Keuu, 104 

^ 31. 94. U3. 147. 

HiwIec, Adm. SH B„ 6, JO, 41 

Miwky, Geo., M 
Hayniu, C«o., 40, 147 
— Hw, 143 


HellsMs, Tbe, i]< 

KcDiitt, 14, M 

— Id B&aaii, 161 

- VI, jS, 178, lit 

- VII. 3j. ]S, j^a 

- Ill, d g;-™',h 

Hoaoiiui, Brnpnor, 1 
Hood, Adm.. 7B 

— Field Marsha], 1 
Hona. J4 
Holhun. Adm., y& 
Hi>lfpur, 1A4, 131 
Hou^vn], III 

— ^WilSm. 41 

. ?■>. 173, 199. >S4 

VVw, V,, 140, 104, ijo. i« 
.^. Mo>3^M. 49.11. ST. 

Hiderari. iiS 
UldcVoabl. Ida 

HuDllry, EitI Pi, 10, 66, ni, lu 

Huny. Sir Jc^o. ti 
Huwin rubi. iii, laB 

Kuml ibbl, 16^* 

KiiKtibait, Go., IJ7 
Minhu, 160, tjv 
Hiiinp. Sir Tbw., 14M. 
KUn(wUK Kill. IM 

HodnoQ, Cm-, 51 
Hnipm Imun-ttJoq. It! 
Hobialo, Cduhi Philip, 
HohnikilH. Prince of. ti 
Hojo RebtObu, Ik 
HolkB, 14S, 14] 
HoUh. D^ui^ 40 

Holilcia, Dnkc of, 61 

Ina A 


— 1>. 



Invasioa of Britain, 47 

Korea. xo8, 257 

the Aiemanni, 189, 194 

the Huns, 35 

the Vandals, 48, 51, 253 

Invasions of the Gauls, ix, axz 

Ionian War, 86, 130 

liberates, 85 

Irish Rebellions, 3X, 8x, 97> x75i 3^3 

" Ironsides," 134 

Irribarreu, Gen., X13 

Isabella, 231 

Isley, Sur Henry, 369 

Isle-aux-Noix, 249 

Isle of Wight, Action off, aoo 

Ismael, Shah^ 229 

Italian Invasion of Abyssinia, 4 

— Risings, 40, 93, X65, x66, x79f 185 » 

2X2, 239, 260 

— Wars, 3x, 91, 94, xoo, X43, X33, X83, 

X89, 226, 244 
Ivan the Terrible, 22 


iaafar, x6o 
ablonowski, 264 
ackson. Gen., 43, 34, 36, 69, xo6, 201, 228, 
235, 239 


facobite Rising, 8x, X24 
affa, 249 
agmal, 60 
Jaipal, Rajah of Lahore, X9X 
James II, 39, 142, 2x3 

— Ill, of Scotland, 223 

— IV, of Scotland, 90 

— VI. 98 

— River, 229 

ian Koch, 37 
anssens, Col., 41 
apanese Revolution, 94, 177, 230, 238, 

Taxartes, The, 126 
Jean, Toel, 62 
Jehandar Shah, 3 
Jellachich, 116, 260 

iellal abaci, X24 
ellaladin, p, 114, 121 

Tennings, Sir John, 10 

fcrvis. Sir John, 49, 103, 154, 2x8 

ferorac de 't Zeraerts, 247 

[erusolem, 249 

fcswunt Rao, 21, 74. 75, 94. '99 

fcwish War, 34, 118, 119 

fhansi, Ranee of, 104 
Joan of Arc, 183, 188 
Joanna, 251 
John I, II 
~ II, 28. 32 

— Archduke, 112, 205, 216 

— Duke of Normandy, 6 

— of Castile, 100 

— of Denmark, 156 

— King of France, 197 

— Regent, zx 

Johnaoii, Gen., X23, 330, 336 

— Sir W., X3X, X73 
Johnston, Gen., 87 
Johnstone, CoL, 4X 

— Comm., 20X 

— Gen., X73 
Jones, CoL, 207 
~ CoL Ifichael, 8x 

onquidre, Adm. de la, 48 
oseph Buonaparte, x8o, x88, 363 
osephus, XZ9 
oubert, 41, 88, X30, X48 

— Marshal, X79 
ourdan. Marshal, 34, 90, 338, 343 
ovian, 1x9 
ovinus, 33 
oyeuse. Due de, 67 
uan d'Aguila, X33 
uan Pizarro, 71 
uarez, 2, 46 
uba, 23, 248 
udacilius I, 2X 
uel, Adm., 123, 3x4 
ugurtha, 169 
ulian, x8, 1x9, 132, X9X, 230 

— Count, 270 
Jimot, 32, 263 

iussuf, 48 
ustinian, x66 
Jutes, 24 
Jutish Invasion, 68 


Kabul, X48 

Kaffir Wars, X3, 32, 43 

Kalkreuth, Marshal, 73 

Kaminiec, X97, 233 

Kambaksh, 98 

Kanhadar, 124. X48 

Kaiuler, Gen., X37 

Kat, 8x 

Katuku, 33 

Keane, Gen., 175 

Keatinge, CoL, 17, 39 

Keith, Lord, 96 

— Marshal, xii 

Kekewich, Col., 124 

KeUy. CoL, 60 

Kemal Reis, 222 

Kenau Hasselaer, 104 

Kenmure, Lord, 269 

Kenneth III, 144 

Kcppel, Adm., 31, 182 

Khakd, 7, 8, 38, 72, 169, 271 

Khalifa, The, i8x 

Khan, Elias, 161 

Khojah Zofar, 77 

Khoord Kabul Pass, 117 

Khyber Pass, 1x7 

Kiburg, Count of, 136 

Kilidj Arslan, 2X 

Kirboga, 16 

Kirby Smith, Gen., 209 

Kirke, CoL, X43 



Kirkjeaa, Modi., 35 

KiSQiegeyer, 305 

Kituhiu, 343 

Kitchener, Lord, 33, 84, 89, 181, 184 

Kiyomasa, 337 

Kkpka, 1x6, 137 

Kleber, 108, 167 

Kkist, 80 

Klingspoor, Gen., 308, 331 

Koowles, Adm., 107 

Knut, 33, XQi, 330 

Kobad, 13 

Kol>aya|;awa Takakage, 108 

Koch, uen., 84 

Kohaodif Khan, X3X 

Kolocz, Bishop of, 161 

Konninneffg, Count, 335 

KoDOihT Yakinaga, xo8 

Kooownitzu, G«l, 184 

Kosciusko, 134 

Kotah, Rajah of, X38 

Kourk>ff, Gen., 343 

Kriidener, Gen., 176, 193, X96 

Kruffe, Adm., 338 

Kublai Khan, 74, X03 

Kumal Khan, 100 

Kuroda, Gen., 129 

Kuroki, Marshal, X33 

Kur Sinsh, 30, 34 

Kusinoki, Matsasura, 330 

Kuttugh Khan, 74 

KutusofI, 33, 38, XI3, 138, 133, 368 

Kuwana, 94, 330 

Kyrielle, 9X 

La BeUe Alliance, 176 
Labienus, ^, 168, 313 
Labomirski, 12S 
Laborde, Gen., 313 
Labourdonnais, Adm., 143, 173 
Laches, 131 
Ladislaus, 239 
Ladysmith, 193 
Lavinus, P. Lavcrius, 109 
La Ferte, 238 

— Harpe, 139 

— Have Sainte, 366 
Lake Ascanius, 176 

— Champlain, 349 

— City, z8o 

— Gen., 3. 10, 34, 73, 133, 363 

— Lord, 74, 94 

— Zug, 98 
Lakhsman Singh, 60 
Laliaji. 244 

Lally Tolleudal, 91, 146, 198, 344, 363 

Lai Singh, 89 

Lamachus, 340 

Lamar, 119 

La Marmora, Gen., 70 

Lambert Simoel, 338 

Lambtoo. Capt Hedirorth, 88 

La MoricMre, Gen., 14, 53 

Lamothe-Houdanoourt, 138 

Lancaster, 38 

Lanrten, Battle of, X73 

\^t\Ai^ Gen., 43 

Landon, Gen., 30, 130. X40, i8x 

Langdale, Sir Mannaduke, 303, S14 

Langy, 333 

Lannes, Marshal, 14, 33, 93, 11 3, 159, 163 

303, 313, 333 
Laimoy, 189 
Lansa, Gen., 183 
La Pefla, Gen., 37 
Laptines, 33 
Lasema, 34 
Latin War, 361 
La Torre, 30 

— TremouiUe, X79, 3x7 
Lauderdale. Lord, 369 
Laurel Hill, 309 
Lavallette. 1^0 
Lavater, Kudi>l(4i, xsz 
Lawrence, Capt. John, 339 

— Btaior, 33, 76, 99, 146, 338, 339 
Layard, Sir Ed., 34 

Lazar, 137 

Lazareff, 133 

Leake, Sir John, 148 

Lee, Gen., 13, 33, 58, 93, 97, 192, «>9» aa«f 

233. '36, 368 
Lecourbe, 166 
Lefebvre, Marshal, 73, 333 
L ega nff . X38 
Lenwaldt, Manhal, xo3 
Leicester, Barl of, 373 
Leo IX, PopcL 63 

— the icoQoclast, 307 
Leopjdas, 348 
Leontini, X04 

Leopold, Archduke, 40, 138, X63 

— Duke, 327 
Leotvchides, 170 
Leptlnus, 341 
Le Quesnay, 337 
Leslie, David, 8z, 193 
Lestocq, 87, 263 
Letxi. The, 171 
Leval, 33 

Leven, 134 

Levenhaupt, Gen., 138 

Lewis, King, i6z 

LexinfftoQ Military School, 173 

Ler, 68 

Liberatioo of Belgium, 16 

Li Chin, zo8 

Lichtenstein, 33X 

Licias, 240 

Udnius, 44, 61, Z04, 108, 109, 133 

— Crassu'i, P., 134 
Ligneriii, 176 

'* Ligue dn bicn public," X64 

Ligonier, Sir John, 136 

Lille, 370 

Lima, 182 

Lincoln, Barl of, 338 

Liniecs, Gen., 43 



Lin Fok Heng, 105 
Linnels, no 
Linois, Adm., 9 
Lin Yung Ku, 335 
Uppe, River, 360 
Livios, Caius, 71, 170 

— Marcus. 138 
Loch LinnM, 1x5 
Lomakine, Gea., 96 
Lombard League, 136 
London Bridae, 233 
Longstreet, Gen., 328, 33s, 268 
" Loose-coat-field," BatUe of, 83 
Lopez, x6, 30, 70, XX3, x88, 220, 263 
Loreocez, 3, X34 

" L'OrienV' The, X77 
Lorraine, Duke of, 232 
Lorrices. 202 
Louis III, 223 

- yi, 40 

— IX, X57, 242, 236 

— XI, X64 

— XII, 38 

— XIII, « 

— Dauphin, X40 

— di Conti, Prince, 143 

— of Nassau, Count, X07, X63 

— Prince of Prussia, 2x3 

— the Bavarian, x68 
Loup II, 2x3 

Low, GexL, X49 

Lowendal, 33 

Lucca, Castmcdo Castracane of, X2 

Lucilianus, 177 

Lucius Muznmius, X38 

Lucknow, 333 

Luculius, 44, 72, 249 

Liiders, Gen., 226 

Lupicinus, 132 

Lupus, 230 

Lusitanian War, X79 

Luton Moor, 237 

Lutter, Castle of, X44 

Luxembourg, Marshal, 90, X73, 237 

Luy de B^m, X83 

Lynch, Eliza, 66 

Lyon, Gen., 368 

Lyons, Sir Bdmund, 333 

Lysander, 4, 105, X79 

Lysimachus, 67 


Macbeth, 83 

Maccarthy, X73 

Macdonald, Gen. Sir, H. 181 

— Marshal, 133, 330, 353, 364 

Macedonia, 153 

Macedonian Wars, 34, 71, X34, 203 

Macgruder, Gen., 368, 371 

Macnanidas, 131 

Mack, Gen., 139 

Mackay, Gen., 124 

Mackinnon, Gen., 63 

Macleod, Col., xq8 

Macmahon, Marahal, X47, 325, 336, 3O7, 369 

Macrinus, 114 

Madhao Rao II, 130 

Magnentius, X67, 169 

Mago, 44, X79, 253 

Maha Bandoola, 78, X37 

BCaha Nemyo, 266 

Mahadaii Sindhia, 270 

Mahmud, 2j, 19 x, 234 

Mahmud*s Invasions of India, 191, 254 

Ifahmud Tughlak, 74 

Mahomed IV, x6x, 233, 273 

Mahomet Koprili, 126 

Mahoo, Col., 146 

Mahratta Wars, 3, 6, to, 32, 38, 34, 36, 74. 

75. 94, 103, X33, X37, X33, 148, X99, 

350, 332, 243, 270 
Mailleoois, Maruial, 2x4, 221 
Main, The, xxx 
MainfroT* 3X 
Makaron, Adm., X99 
Malakof^ X49, 208, 223 
Malatesta, X43 
ICaloolm il, X24, x66 

— Sir John, 3X 

" Male loum^," The, 36. 
Malek-al-Aschrel, 3 
lifalmoe, L44 
Maliute, Battle of, 359 
Malraj, x68, 239 
lifalvem Hill, 330 
Malwar, Rajah of, X38 
Mamilius, 132 
Manchester, X34, X74 
BCancius, X79 
Manoo Capa^ 22 
Manfred of Sicily, xoo, X62 
Manius Manililius, 3X 
Manlius, L., X40 

— Torquatus, 261 
Mannv, Sir Walter, 6 

Mansfeldt, Count von, 76, 90, xxx, 269 

Mansur, X89 

Mantua, X3X, 133 

Manson, Gen, 309 

Manteu£fel, Gen., 14, X03 

Manuel I, 64, 371, 373 

Maori War, 93 

Mar, Barl of, xo6, 339 

Marad, 30 

Maransin, X33 

Marcantonio Bragadino, 88 

Marcellus, M., X38, 34X 

Marcus Livius, X38 

Mardonius, X93 

Margaret of Anjou, X07, 316, 347, 333 

Margueritte, Gen. 333 

Marhof, Gen., x63 

Mariano, Alvarez, 97 

Marines, The, 330 

Marius, 16, 3x6, 26X 

Mark Antony, xq3 

— Antony's Rebellion, 169 
Marlborough, Duke of, 36, 78, 130, 306, 

Marmora, Gen., 243 
Marmont, Marshal, 106, X3X, X33, X37, 188, 




Miuriu. BLKtv o( Saiooy, i 

— Brnpsor, 171 

— Prince of Nuuu, >J6 

— Prince of Onnc 17* 
MflVTooordilot. f6a 
Huentiui, »!. ij6 
MiximiUu I, 17, toj 

— Archduke, tlj 

- NumiiiiciB, i6g 
lethueo. Lord, ]t, ic 

Meiiun UbenI Rliing, 1. 4*. "9- >4> 

Merer. Ccn. Lucu. It) 
Moyerteld, Sen., lio 

Muxfll, U>i, 19 

Mir QMlm, 97, It*. '«* 


Mlnky, Geo.. 114 
Miru KbBi. 6 

McCuthir. Sir Cbarlei, 1 

Ml« <rf L«e.. 139 

McCaU, Gtn.. iiS 

MBchichenko, Ceo.. 61 

M<«.)kill. Gen., l«5 

HcClell.iD. G*B., ij, 87, "9. ">. >13p »». 

"!!llil1i!k W^', «.'s), 7». >». "*■ ''■'■ 

MoClRDHDil. Gen., 161 

MtCulloch. Gen.. 199. la 

McDonntU. Bn«.-Cen.. 166 

Mitmhidt, 170 

VcDonll. G«D., ti 

Mlliuuri. lit 

McNeil, Gen., i]o 

M.UuftiU. iSl 

Moiwiyeb, 64, iji 

Hude, GOL, 97 

Mow, On., 1.4. 160 

HeolD^ Ged.. 50 

Hopnl Bey, 171 

UoKul, The Great. ijB. >B7 

Hedlu-StdsGla, Duke ol, 19 

- II. JO. 6J, 114, »3 

H«l«r. ThTln 

- III. ..J 

- Ali. 1). i<J 


— >l Naiin. I}5 

- Bmin PaJha, «o 

— Ay. RWot, M. 117 

- Ghori. >40 

Mel»>b Kbu. i>] 

— Shih. Emperor, jo 

MeU. g«.'ili, 161 
Mechlce. 14 « 

- ShJ. of Peni* 1-9 

— Sulun of Moroeto, 1411 

Melnrei.\ Col., in 

Ulelikafl. Gen.. Lorn. 7. Bl, 111. iM. 171 

Mcomoo of Rhoda, loi 

IkloaLeDJifri. Lklk^l, 4^ 

Mmda Vunei, 119 

Moocey. !jt 

Uendiatxl. n 

MoDclitcn, Col- la 


— tavuion ol Ihi Decern. «, 9S 

WcrotT, CoL, 184 

d India, lit 

Uvd. Conle da. ij], ft], 147 

of Jvui. IM 



" Monitor/' Tbe, 105 
Monk, 81, 300. 247 
Moamoath, Duke of, 3S 

— Jamet, Duke of, 226 
Blooro^ Gen., 31, 43i 9'* 230 

— Sir Hector, 198 
Ifons, ISO 

Moosoo, CoL, xo, 198 
Montague, Lord, Wf, ito 
Montecucculi, oa, 3x7 
Moate-Ledno, Battle of, 139 
Montcalm, 9X, X64, xSa, X94, M4, 905, 249 
Montferrat, Marq[uis de, 249 
Montgomery, Commodore, 137 
Mootmartre, x88 

MootmorexKd, Constable, 80, 2x7, 8x8 

— Due de, 33 
Montreal, 3x7 
Montresor, CoL, 231 

Montroee, x, 9. 33, 4X> 30, 1x3, X93. ^30 
Moore, Sk John, 66 

— Makjr, 353 ^ 
Moodah Insurrectioa, x63 
Morari Rao, x83, 33X 
Morcar, Barl, 94 

Moreau, 8, 34, 37, 83» xxi, XX3, x66, X67, 

X79, 307, 366 
Morgan, Capt, R.N., x86, 30X 
Mori Hidemoto, 373 
Morillo^ 303 
Moriones. 303 
Morley, Sir Robert, 833 
Moro, Castle, X07 
Morocco Wars, 53, X03, 347 
Morosini, 48 
Moroushi, xm, 37x 
Morrison, CoL, 6x 
Mortemar, 33. aJ 
Mortier, 82, xo6, X3X 
Moscow Campaign. 38, xoo, xaS, 150, 161, 

X98, 239. aWi «^ 
Moshesh, 33 
Moskowa. Battle of, 38 
Moslem 6nquest of Africa, 333, ^58 
_ Empire in Spain, xo, 69, xoo, 1x3, X33, 

137, ax?. *70, «ra 

— Invasion of Asia ICinor, 14 
Bgypt, 9j X37 

Burope, 64 

France, 333 

■ Persia, 44, XX7 

Syria, 7. 8, 38, 7a, xx8, 169, 37x 

Moslemeh, 64 
Mosquera, 69 
Motasaem, Caliph, X4 
Mountjoy, Barl of, X3S 
Mourson C^lou, 43 
Mourzouple, 64 
Mowbray, Sir John, XX3 
Mukhlis Khan, 13 
Mukhtar Pasha, 7, 84, X36, 373 
Mulgrave, Lord, 35 x 
Mummius, Lucius, 138 
Munemori, 73 
Miinnich, Gen., xSo, 337 
MUnzer, Thomas, 93 
Afurad I, 127 

Murad II, 138 

— Bey, 304 

Murat, X4, 80, 89, X84, 350, 367, 369 
Murdach Stewart, xx3 
Murphy, Father, 19, 36, 363 
Murray, Barl, X84 

— Gen., x6o, 305, 3x7 

— Sir John, 5a 

Z ^^5^ '33 

Murviedro, 3x6 

Musa, X57 

Musgrave, John, 334 

Musrud, 372 

MusUpha Pasha, x, 88, 130 

Muzumt Jimg, 13 

Mygdonius, X77 

Myronides, x8o 

Mysore Wars. X9, 30, 26, 46^ i49. X30, X9X, 

X97, 198. 30X, 337. 328, 330, 331, 

246, 833, a54, a«5 


Nabts, X9, 37 

Nadas<ty, Thos., 3x0 

Nadir 9iah, 50 

Na^pur, Rajah of, 36 

Nairn, X34 

Najara, Battle of, X73 

Nana Sahib, 53, X47, X87 

Napier, Sir Charles, 8x, XX3, 136 

Napoleon, x, 3, X7, 33, 37, 28, 33, 58, 4X, 
46. 52, 33. 33. 63, 68, 73, 79. 80, 83, 
87. 93. X06, xx8, X33. X39, X35, X37, 
X40, X43, X45, X50^ X5X, X53, X55, 

X63, X67, 303, 304, 308, 3XO, 3X4, 

^r , *33, a5x, 353, 366 

Napoleon III, 335, 334 

Napoleonic Wars, x, 9, 33, 37, 38, 33, 36, 
37, 42. 46, 49. 32, 65, 96, X08, XX4, 
xx6, X3X, X46, X48, X3X, X33, X63, 

303, 3X0, 3X4, 3x7, 3X8, 337, 339, 

253, 370, 373 

Nappa Sahib, 333 

Narses, 53, X67, 3x3, 243, 371 

Nasmytli, Lieut, 33X 

Nassau, Prince of, 336 

Navarro, x83 

Neapolitan Rising, 310 

— War, 54 
Negreti, GeiL, X34 
Neippog, Count, xo3, 139 
Nelson, Lord, 63, X77, 353 
Nemours, Due die, 34 
Nwo, Claudius, 138 

Netherlands War of Independence, xx, x6. 
4X, 93, X04, X06, X07, X33, X39. X46, 
X39. X63, 181, 3x3, 8x5, 347, 353. 
356, 358, 366, 373 

Neuperg, Biarshal, x63 

Neustrians, 333, 353 

Nevers, Due die, 176 

Neville of Lancaster, 89 

— Ral^, X74 

— Sir Tliomas, 337 
Newcastle, 4, 174 



Ney, ICanhil, a8, 43, 7^ «4. «>3. xa^ 

X33. «59i "84i a04» 259, 265 
Nicej^ionu I, 167 
Nicholas, Grand Duke, 231 
Nicholas, TVevisani, 189 
Nicholsoa, John, 75, 178 
Nicias, 340 
Nicolls, Col., X2 
Nicostratus, 131 
Nidau, Count, 136 
Niel, liarshal, 234 
Nile, The, 157, 204 
Nine Years' War, 137 
Niuchiau Bav, 171 
Nizam-ul-Miuk, 30 
Noailles, Due de, 76 
•• Noche Tristc," 159 
Nodzu, Gen., 194 
No^, Gen., 1x9 
Noircarmes, X33, 238 
Norbanus, 88, 167 
Norfolk. Duke of, 38 
Norigons, XX4 
Noriyori, 73, 228 
Norman Conquest, X07 

— Invasion of Italy, 62, 82 
Norse Invasion, 94 

of France. 223 

of Ireland, 62 

of Scotland, 134 

Northallerton. 237 
Northumberland, 232 

— Barl of, 2x6 

Northimiberland's Rebellion, 39 
Nott, Gen., 97, 124, X48 
Noyau, 9X 

Nudo. Rutilius, 33 
Numidian Revolt, 248 

O'Reilly, Count, xo 
Oreizaga, x8o 
Oribe, 20, 164, x8o 
Orkhan, X90 
Orleans, xxo 

— Bastard of, 1x0 

— Duke of, 3 

Orloff, Count Alexis, 243 
Ormonde, 207 
Orsova, X29 
Ortega, Gen., X34 
Ortiga, Juan de, 10 
Oshikatsa, x6o 
Osman II, X28 

— Digna, 83, xo6, 253 

— Pasha, X34, X93 
Osorio, Gen., 63, xss 
Osterman, Count, X84 
Ostodus Scapula, X83 
Oswald, XS4 

— of Northumbria, X07 
Otho 30, 47 

— 11,69 

— ly, 39 

— of Krumpen, 237 
Otori Keisuke, x77, 238 
Ott, Gen., 96, X63 

Ottoman Conquest of Asia Elinor, X90 

— Invasion of Europe, 64 

— Wars, 8, 26, 30, 31, 42, 44, 46. Co. 77f 

79, 90, X02, xxo, XX6, XX7, 120, X2X, 

X26, X27, X28, X29, X30, x6x, X63, 
X76, x88, X92, 202, so6, 2i7f 2x91 
222, 224. 229, 233. >37. 341, 245» 
253i «6o, 262, 27X, 272, 273 

Ouchterlony, Sir David, x68 

Oudinot, Gen., xo2, 2x2 

Outram, Sir James, X43, X69 

Owen of Cimiberiand, 42 

Oxford, Bail of, 3 

O'Connors, The, 23 
Octavius, 193 

— Marcus, 3, 70, 243 
O'Donnell, Marshal, X03, 247 
Oktai, X84 

Oku. Gen., X7X, 246 

Olaf Trigg vason, 149 

Olaneta, 20X 

Oleardrae, 70 

Olio, w\ 

Olney, race of, xox 

Omar Ononis Pasha, x6o 

— Caliph, 44. xx8, X37, X74 

— Pasha. x8x, X83 

— Tabrija R«Aoabt. X96 

— Vricme Pasha, 260 
O'Neil, Owen Roe, 80 

— Sir Hugh, 31, 36^ X2S 
Onomarchus, X83 
Ono-no-Atsuma, xx7 
Onschakoff. Adm., X2X, 271 
Opdam, Adm., 213 

Orange, Prince off, 139, sz7, 337 
Orcfaonieaai, 346 

Paches. X70 
Pagondas, 75 . ,, 
Pahlen, Count de. x66 
Pakcnham, Sir Ed., X75 
Paloeologus, Coostantine, 65 

— George, 82 

— Michael, 64 
Palafoz. 222, 235 
Pallavicini, 22 
Panim, Count, 31 
Pannooia, 145, xs2 
Pansa, Vibiixs, X69 
P.ipa] Zouaves, X57 
Pappenberg, X45 
Pappenheim, X37, X44 

Paraguavan War, X3. x6, 50, 66^ 70, xis 

x88, 209, 220| 363 
Parana, River, 180 
Parchwitx, X40 
Pareirus, X82 
Park of Uycao^ 343 



Paxker, Adm^ 65 
Parthian War, 51, 333 
Paskiewitach, Geo., 21, 265 
Paulinus Suetooius, 47 
Panaanias, 19s 
Paa, x&i, 233 
PeaaanU' War, 92 
Pedro II, of Aragoo, 169 

— IV, 9 

— Rcfsnt. 100 

•' Peep o' Day Boya," 76 

Peibo. River, 242 

Pelissier, Marshal, 25, 149 

PelopidaA, ^x, 246 

Pelopooneaiaa War, 14, 65, 7i. 72, 74i 

151, 170. 17a, i79i x8x. X95. 204 
Pelooones, 134 
Pembertoo, Gen., 262 
Pembroke, Eari of, 83, 140, x66 

— Regent, 142 
Penda, 107, X54 

Peninsular War, 7, 25, 27, 29, 43> S'. ^i 
79. 86, 93. 95. 97. 135, «62. 178, 
x8o, 182 183, 204, 210, 2x3, 215, 

2x6, 2x9, 22X, 222, 243. 345. 352. 

«55, 263 
Penn, Adm., X17 
Pepe, Gen., 2x0 
Pepin d'Heristal, 247 
Pepperel, X42 
Perche, Count de la, X40 
Percy, Henry, 174 

— Sir Ralvtk, 107 
Percy's Rebellion, 23X 
Perczel, Gen., 323 
Perdiccas, 190, 248 
Perez, Gen., X83 
Pergamus, 59 
Perpignan, 138 
Perry, Conunodore, X3X 
Persano, Adm., X4, X4X 
Perseus, 203 

Persian Conquest of Egypt, X90 

— Invasion of India, 50 

— Invasions, XS3, 170, X95, 248 

— Wars, X3, 83, 87, X52, 157. i77. X9X, 

X02, 233, 3^0 
Perso-Afshan Wars, X3X 
Pertab Smgh, 76 
Pertinaz, x^s 

Peruvio-Chilian War, 6x, x6o, 343, 344 
Peter the Great, 7, 9^ 138, 303 
Peterborough, Eajrl of, 37 
•• Petropavlovsk," The, 199 
Pe3nri, uen., X26 
Peyton, Capt, 173 
Phamabazus, 62 
Phamaces, 176, 273 
Philip I, 96 

— IV, 68, 163 
Philip V. X2, 27 

— Augustus, 93 

— Don, of Spam, X45 

— of Anjou, 363 

— of Macedon, 34, 54, 59. 7x, 185 
PhiUipon, 35 

Philomelus, 75, X74 

PhitopoHnea, 27, xsi 
Phormio, 6s, X72 
Piale, X38, X30 
" Picdotti." X85 
Picoolomini, 40 
Piggott, Maj.-Gen., xjo 
PUoni, X85 
Pinarus, The, xx6 
Pima, X43 
Pirot, X94 
Pisander, 62 
Pisani, 197 

— VittonoL x6, 59, 64 
Ptcala, Pasha, 77 
Piaarro, 22 

Piaarro Francesco, 133 

— Gonxalo, 7x 

— Juan, 7x 
Placentia, 2x4 

" Pobieda," The, X99 
Pococke, Adm., sx, X07, 234 
Poland, King of, 141 
Poliorcertes, Demetrius, 95 
Polish Risings, X02, 154, 2bs 
PoUio, X73 
P<^uz, X32 
Pollock, Gen., 117 
Polyzenides, 7x, 170 
Pcmpeianus, 261 
Pompeias, Oueus, x6S 
Pompey, 25, 83, 176, 192, 239 
Pooiatowski, X37, 207 
Pontius, 62, 63 
PoQtras, 53 
Pope, Gen., 43. 54, ^39 
Popham, Capt., 103 

— Sir Home, 42 
Popilius L«nas, X79 
Poradim, xoo 

Porta san Pancrazio, 2x2 

Porto Alegre, x88 

Porus, XX3 

Postumus, Spurius, 33 

Postumius, Aulus, X32 

Potemkin, x8o 

Pouchot, Capt, X75 

Poyntz, Col., 2x4 

Pretender, The Young, 50, 70, 88 

Priarius, x8 

Price, Gen., 139 

Prideauz, GeiL, 175 

Prieto, GeiL, X34 

Prim, Gen., 33 

Pritzen, Gen., 230 

Probus, x86 

ProctOT, G<m., 45 

Provera, X31 

Prussia, Crown Prince of, 267, 269 

— King of, 188, 225 

— King William of, xox, X45 
Psammeticus, 190 
Ptolemy, Euergetes, X5 

— Logus, X90 

— Philopator, 306 

— Soter, 93, 2x9 
Publius Claxidius, 79 
Pugatchef^ 122 



Punic Wiff, 4. 3*1 4«. 49. 51, 79» «3. 84. 
141, I j8, 170, X87. a4i, 353. 255. ara 
Purdoo, Col., 77 
Pyrrtius. 31, X09 
Pyrrhus Invukm of Italy, 109 

Quadrilateral Alliance, 3 
•^ Q " Battery, iii 
Quetta, 124 
Quintaoella, 39 
Quintilius Varus, a6o 

Raab, The, 217 
Radagaifus, 90 

Radetski, Gen., 99, z66, 179. aai 
Radziwill, Prince Michael, 103 
Raghunath Rao, 17 
Raglan, Lord, ti, 25, 224 
Ra^ottki, II, George, 126 
Ramier, Adm. Peter, 26, 63 
Rajah Ram, 98 

- Sahib. 67 
Ramiro II, zo 
Rammi, Gen., 170 
Rami Khan, 77 
Ramming, Goi., 233 

Raoul, Bishop of Durham, 237 
Rapp, Gen., 73 
Rassingham, Seigneur de, 266 
Rauhberg, The, 171 
Ravenna, 2za 
Raymond of Toulouse, 79 
Rebellion of Aurungsebe, 220 

Brutus, Z93 

Fifteen^ 203, 329 

Forty-nve, 50, 70, 88, 203 

Hideyori, 326 

Rkimer, 310 

Riel, 38, 89 

the Marches, 38 

Reding, 162 

** Red Shirts." 33 

Rc|:ulus, 355, 356 

Remschild, 93 

Renaud de Chatillon, 206 

Repnin. Prince, 153 

Reschid Pasha, 127. 129 

Reuss. Prince of, 273 

Revolt of Mazentius, 333, 236, 261 

the Christians, Z3 

Legions of Aquitaine, 33 

VitelUus, 47, 68 

Rey, Gen., 221 

Reynier, Gen., 43, zoo, Z02, Z48, 2Z3 

Rhacates. Z77 

Rhodes, 39 

RiaU, Gen., 33, 39 

Ribas, 86 

Ribera, 20 

Richard Cosur de Lion, 2, 30, 93 

— Duke of York, 264 
Richelieu, Due de, Z33, z6o 
Richmond, 102, 229 

Rich Bfbuntain, 209 

Ricimer, Count, azo 

Riel, 28 

" Rifle Brigade," Z63 

Rio Grande Rising, 22 x 

Ripperda, Z04 

Rot)«l, Gen., 248 

Robert of Normandy, 96, 247 

Roberts, Gen.. Z28 

— Earl. 56, 7a, 77» 80, 12Z, Z83, Z90 
Roche, Father, Z73 

Roderic, 270 

Rodney, Adm., 78 

Rohan, Due de, 309 

RokebV, Sir Thomas, 39 

Roland, 3x3 

Roman Invasion of Scotland, zoo 

— Occupation of Britain, 37 
RcMnanus, 38 
Romanaoff, Gen., 43, 303 
Romero, Julian, 3Z3 
Roncesvalles, 30a 
Roncray St. Denis, z zo 
Rooke, Sir Geo., 98, Z3Z, Z49, 362 
Rosas, President, X63 

Rose, Sir Hugh, 34, 93, Z04, xz8, Z20 

Rosecrans, Gen., 38, 66, Z69 

Rosetti^ 360 

Roes, GeiL, 36, 36 

Rote Berg, Stonning of the, 333 

Rotterdam, Z39 

Roumiantsoff, z3o 

Rousillon, Z38, Z9X 

Roveredo, X33 

Rowley, Commodore, 39 

Rudolph de Khevenhuller, 362 

— von Briach, X36 
Rundle, Gen., Sir L., 337. a67 
Run^ Ram, Z34 

Runjur Singh, zx, 333 

Rupert, Prince, 40. 35, 84, Z54, z7a, 179 

Russell, Adm., zo8, Z3Z 

— Col., ZZ4 

— Lord, 88, 3z8. 320 
Russia, Bmperor of, Z43 

Russian Conquest of Central Asia, 96 
Russo-Japanew War^38, 6z, X7x, 199» 

— Polish Wars, 38, X97 

— Swedish Wars, 7, 93, 94, xo3, xxx, X38, 

X7X, X05, 303, ao8, 338, 333, 348 

— Turkish Wars, 7, 78, 84, X43, X76, X93, 

«3«» a43, a73 
Rustaxi, 44 
Ruthven, 39 
Ryznzu, The, Z54 

Sabhiius Tituiius, 4 
Sabatxa, 33 



S.i ii'.n. ^h 

Sdcred Wat, 75, I74i 1^*5 

Sadatoki, 127 

Said, 44, 117 

— Othman, zoo 

— UUah, X21 
Saigo, 129 

— Takamori, xao, 177, *3^o, 338 
Saild-Qo-Sanjra, 160 

Sainte Siuaxme, 86 

Saint Priest, 208 

Saladio, 30, xi8, 3o6, 349 

Sale, Sir Robert, Z17, 165 

Salinas, Marquis de, 98 


Salisbury, Barl of, 36, 68, 73, 8z, 263 

Salm, Count de, 363 

Saluzzo, Marquii of, 94 

Samarcand, 98 

Samnite Wars, 39, 47, 53. 62, 136, 167, 327 

Sampioo, Adm., 333 

Sanchez, Vice-President, z6 

Sancho, Count of Castile, 65 

Sandili, 13, 43 

Sandbag Battery, 1x3 

Sankum, 97 

San Lorenio, x86 

— Martin, 54, 63, 155 

— Xavier, Fort of, 134 

Santa Anna, Gen., 2, 7, 15, 43, 330 

Santarem, 304 

sapor I, 83 

-- II, 13, X19, 177, 33a 

Saracens, 30 

Saragossa, Maid of, 333 

Saratoga, 338 

Sardinia, King of, X4S 

Sarmiento, 43 

Sassulitch, Gen., 136 

Satsuma. 94, 350 

— Rebellion^ X3x, X39, 330, S44 
Saumares, Sir James, 9 
Savage's Station, X38 

Savoy, Duke of, 58, 153, 2x8 
Saze, Marshal, 90, X36, 3xx 

— Cobuzv, Prince of, 7, 90 
Saxony, Crown Prince of, 39 
Schakovsky, X96 
Schalemberg, 33 
Schaumberg, 93 
Schleswjg-Holstein War, X3, 82 
Schenck, Martin, xo6 
Schiedam, X39 

Schilder Schiildener, X93 

Schlick. Marshal, X07, xsx 

Schofield, Gen., 93 

Scholick, Gen., 334 

Schomberg, Duke of, 39, 153, 308 

Schomberg the Younger, 39 

Schulemborg, 92 

Schwartz, Martin, 338 

Schwartzemberg, X7, 80, xoo, X39, 137, 

Schwerin, 223 
Schwyz, X65 
Scin<M Campaign, 81, X36 

— Conquest of, X13 

Si-ipio .timlianus, 179 

— Airicanus, 84, I79i 242 

— Lucius, 47 

— Meteilus, 348 

— P. Cornelius, 349, 333 
Scopas, X67 

Scottish Invasion of Ireland, 8x 

— Wars, X3, X5, 36, 8x, 88, 90* 103, xx3, 

X13, X43, X38, X74, X94. ax3, 334i 

Scott, Gen., X3 
Sedashao Rao Bhao, 187 
Seidlitz, X30, 3x3 
Seleucus, 67, 93, xxs 
Selim I. 8, 44, 339 
Semendaia, X39 
Semprooius, 333 
Senlac, Battle of, X07 
Serjabil, 38 
SertoriuSy 330 

Servo*Bul|^inan War X94, 33s 
Seven Pines, Battle of, 88 

— Weeks' War, 70, 98, X36, X33, 141, 170, 

. x?7, a3a. 253 

— Years War, 6, 33, 30, 3x, 40, 47, 51. 5^, 

39, 67, 68, 9X, 99, xox, X03, X07, 
IX X, X37, X30, X3X, 139, X40, 143. 
X46, X54, X55, X59.««o, 164, 168, 
x8i, X94, 195. 198, 30X, 304. 303, 
306, 3x3, 3x7, 338, 339, 344, 849, 
330. 354, 355. 2^5. 273 
Sextus, Pompeius, X70, 173 
Seymour, Adm., Sir Beaucbamp, 9 

— Gen., 37, x8o 
Shafter, Gen., 84 
Shah AUuen, 43 

— Tehan, Z3x, 330 

— Mansor, X89 

— Sujah, xsx 

Shakir Pasha, 193, 343 
" Shannon," The, 339 
Sharf-ud«Din Hussein, X38 
Shelton, Brif .-Gen., 34 
Shems-ud-Dm, 97, X09, X48 
Shere Alsal, 60 
Shere Sin^, 39 
Sheridan, Gen., 34, 89, x88 
Sherman, Gen., X34, X89 
ShiabeddBn Pasha, 360 
Shidaske^ Z33 
Shields, Gen., 69, 30Z 
Siigehira, 337 
Shir^Khaik^ur. 6z 

— Mcdiammea, 8x, xx3 

— Singh, Z03, 306 
Shirogama, X30 
Shitoicu, S43 
Shogun, Hie, 343 
ShoQunn, Bmperor, xx6 
Shoni Kagesuke, 7^^ 343 
Shovel, Sff Cknidesiey, 23 
Shrewsbury, Barl of, 179 

Sigel, 174 
Sigismund I, 38 

— III. X41 

— Bmperor, 33, 76, 243 



Sicisinund Prince of Transylvaoia, 133 
Suh Wan, 11, 59, 89, 103, 124, 163, 168, 

ao6, 316, 333, «39 

Sulaoes. SI 
Silpia, Battle of, 85 
Simoo de Montfort, 139 
Sinclair, Col., Geo., 128 

— Oliver, 334 

— William, Bishop of Dunkeld, Z15 
Sindhia, 18, 33, 135, 199 

Sioux Rising, 141 

Sisto\-a, 331 

Sitting Bull, 14X 

Siward, Earl of Northumberland, 83 

Skobeleff, Gen., 96, 196, 333 

Slade, Z07 

Smith, C^., 354 

— Gen., 3X, X27 

— Gen., Joseph, 344 

— Sir Harry, zx, 37 
- — Sydney, 3 
Snyman, 146 

SobieskL John, X38, X96, 333, 363, 373 

Social War, 59, 83, 330 

Soissons, Count de, X32 

Sollman, X76 

Soltykoff, Z30 

Solyman I, 77 

— Caliph, 64^ 

— Pasha ofBgypt, 77 

— the Magnificent, z6x, 34X, 363 
Som^ Bzpedition, XX9 
Somerset, 04., 13 

— Barl of, xxo, 3i6b 347, 363 

— Protector, X94 
Sophian, 64 
Sophrooius, xx8 
Soubise, Bfarshal, X34, 3x3 

Soudan Campaigns, x, 3, 3, 33, 83, 89, zo6, 
132, 133. 181. 344, *50, 333 

Souham, X33, 167, 236 

Soult, Marshal. 7, 33, 66, 79, 95, «>8. X78, 
X82, Z83, 204, 313. 31^ 223. 333 

South American War of Independence, 
X20, X35, X77, 20X, 303, 339 

Spanish-American War, 84 

Spinola, 89, X83 

Spiritoff, Adm., 323 

S|>ragge, CoL, 14 x 

Spurs. Battle of, 67, 103 

Strachan, Cd., 30 

St. Angelo, Castle of, 3X3 

— Amaud, Bfarshal, ix, 334 

— Augustine, xxx 

— Clair, G«n., 249 

— iCuthbert, 237 

— Cvr, Gen,, 86, 162, X98 

— Rlmo, X50 

— Hclirrs, 118 

— HUaire, Gen., 33 

— Martin, 208 

— Paul, Gate of, 3x3 

— Peter, 337 

— Pierre, 178 

— Privat, xox 

— Ruth, 5 
Stidion, Gen., 163, x86 

Stafford, Sir Humphrev, 329 
Stakelberg, Baron, 346 
Stanhope, Gen., X3, 41, 262 
Stanley, Lord, 38, 90 
Staremberg, 262 
Stark, Adm., X99 

— Gen-, 32 
Staunton, Capt, 127 
Steinbock, Gen., 94, xo8 
Steinmetz, Gen., x 70, 232 
Stephen of Moldavia, X28 
Stewart, Gen., 6, 69, 86, 133 

— Murdach, xx3 

— Sir Herbert, 3 

John, 68 

Stilicho, 90, X97 
Stjemskold, Aom., 73 
Stoessel, Gen., 171 
Stopford, Sir R., 3 
Stone, Gen., 36 
Strabo, 2X 

Strategopulus, Alexius, 64 
Strigan, xia 

Stuart, CoL, 63, 99 

— Gen., 23X 

— Sir John, 148 
Suabian Wars, 47, 93 
Suchet, Gen., 33, 343 
Suchtelen, Gen., 340 
Sucre, 34, XZQ, 120 
Sudah Bahadur, Z09 
Sudermanland, Duke of, xxx, 20S, 228 
Suetonius, 37 

SufEren, Aom., 70, x73, 334 
Sulaiman, 63 
Suleiman Pasha, X28 


Sulla, 3^, X67. Z83, 2x6 

Sultan Scdiman, 79 

Sulpicius Sa\'errio, 2X 

Surabjah Dowlah, 3, 4, 43, X95 

Surrey, Eari of, 90, 238 

Suwarroff, 90, xx6, X34, 179, 2x0, 330, 293 

Sveaborg, xxx 

Swatoslaus, Duke, 80 

Sweden, Crown Prince of, 76, zo3 

Swedish Invasion of Brandenburg, 89 

Swedo-Polish War, 63, 83 

Sweyn, 166 

— II. 178 
~ III. 261 

— of Denmark, X24 
Swiss- Austrian War, 163 
Sydney, Sir Philip, 273 
Symons, Gen., 241 
Syragius, Count of Soissons, 334 
Szabadhegy, 203 

Taborites, 23 
Tacfarinas, 248 
ladamichi, 242 
Tadayothi, 230 
Tagina, SX3 

"--wsr •-- 



T*ir»-i>t>-KiTCOion, 1*5 

Kan, ajtt 

_ War. 71. ««4. «»5. «57. »70 
Taj Sinrik. i«5 
Takaad. 2y> 
Talboc iW 

Earl ot Sairetrstwry, 53 

TalUxd. Manhal. 3^ 7^. xj* 
TasxriaiK, «, «S 73. 74, 9». «3«» «56» ««i» 

1S9. 149 
Tampon. 163 
Tani Tatrki, G«n.. 1^9 
Tancu Topi. 34. 95 
Tank, 2T0 
Tamovsiu. i5o 
TarqamioSi. X3> 
Tartar Im^skn of Qum, 190 

JasMn. 105 

Khxremiaw 35. 37. 114, im. "3. 

126^ i9a, 220. «9 

Kbcnasan, 189, 243 

Russia. 132 

S\-na, 8. 73 

tbe Caocasws 249 

Tarj>uto. Prince, 120, 230, 244 
Ta^tran Tetnpfc, 245 
Taylor, G«n^ 4^, X5". ««3. xW 
Taxiles. 44 

Tcbesme. Bay of, 224 
Tebinuri. 1x3 
Tefctboff. Adm^ 141 
Tctas, 16^ 
Tdha, 2S 
Tcriel. 266 
Tercnnne, 103 
Teotobod. x6 
TetrictB. 55 
Texan Risnc. 7. 220 
THackveH, Sir Joseph, 26 
TlieafeDrs. 54 
TbeDooenc i Jean de» 41 
Theodobert, 79 
TiModonc 55, 264 
TbeodoKiis. 17 
Th<wf^hili9e«a., 59 
Theophflas» 14 
Thieimann 267 
Thierrr. ?x>. 247 

Thirty Years' War, x 2, 4a 73. 76, 89, 
01, 9\, IX X. X36» X44. X46, X53, 
178. 20X, 209, 2x0, 247. a*7, «««, 
Thomas^ Gen., 92, X39. 172 
Thomood. Earl of, 123 
Thomeycroft, CoL, 236 
Tbomton, 36 
llMistetu, 78 

Tbonkrase, Connt of, X49» 169 
" Thoasand \*ahmteas,** 183 
ThrasyDus. x8, 71 
T hr asy m e ii das, 204 
Thurs'tan. Arcfabp^ of York, 337 
Tiberius, X57 
Tiehbome, Sir Henry, 80 
Tiflts. 249 
TVranes, 249 
T!k-H<\ 257 

liDy, Coant, ixx, X36, 137 1381 144. U% 

20X, 237, 267. 268, 269 

TUsit, Treaty of, 6$ 

Tinur Malek, X26 

Timoleoo, 69, X04 

TiQK, Adm.. 267. 270 

TippQ Sahib, X9, 26, 149, 150, 191, 198, 

227, 228, 23X, 253 
Urah Campaign, 74 
Tishe, 174 
Titns, X18 
Tockenbcrg, X7X 
Todleben, Gen., 196, 224 
To«o, Adnu, X99 
Tokatmidi, X32 
Totdoshi, X 29 
Tokngawn Tyej^sa, 226 
Tokyo^ 245 

Toledo. Archbp. of, x8i 
— Don Francesco de, ix 
Tolems, The, 250 
Totanides, 66 
Tolstoy, Count, 72 
Tomore, x6x 
Toockin^ War. 234 
Tooman Be|E. 8, 44 
Tonnaxoll, Gen., 100 
Torrington, 29 
Torstenson, 40 
Tortig, 237 
Totila, 87, 2x2, 242 
Toumay. 150 
ToyoCoiBi Hideaki, 257 

T^i«>. 153 

TVanm, Cooist, 47 

T^vis, CoL. 7 

TInemoat, 69 

T^csfaos. 41 

IVent, 2x4 

TYianus. 272 

Tkivulxio. Marshal, s, 153 

Thxfau, Gen., 43, x88 

IVanjoDy, Monft., 198 

Tnamba Wangyee, uo 

Tncfai Khan, X26 

Tucker, Gen., xai 

TaU Khan, X09, tax, 229 

Tkncnne, M a rs hal, 2<h 81, 9^ 200, 232, 273 

Ttirkish Invasfan of AfghaimtMi, X09, X2X, 

Tkttor, 35 

Twe nty - se cond Regt., X13 


Udai, Singh. 60 

Ulxn, XXX 

Umrar, Khan, 60 

Ung Khan, 97 

Untficatkn of Itrfy, 14, 45, 5a, I59i x^S. 

Urban, Gen., 259 
Urio, Adm., 5^ 




Urquisa's Ki»iog, 163 

Uruguayan War of Independence, 164, ibo 

Vadomair, 55 

Valdeour II, 37 

ValaiM. 30. 47. los 

Valerian, 83 

Valerius Cdrvus, 167 

VaU^, Gen., 64 

Van Arteveldt, Philip, S14 

— Capellan, 10 
Vandaiaune, 33, 199 
Van der Does, Ian, 139 

— Dom, 66, 189 
Van Gelen, Adm., 136 

— Rensselaer, 305 
Vansittart, Capt., 343 

Van Tkxxnp, Adm., 79, 86, 99, 179, aoo, 

Varro, 48, 168 
Varus, 238 

— Quintllius, 260 
Vatinius, Publius, 243 
Vauban, Mons. du Puy, 33 
Vaubois, 259 
Vaudreuil, 164 

Veli Pasha, 237 

Venables, Gen.. 117 

Venddme, I>uc de, 41, 32, 184, 222 

*• Venfeur," The, 258 

Verdngetorix, 8, 24, 96 

Verdier, Gen., 97 

Vernon, Sir Ed., 31, 198, 201 

Vespasian, 119 

Vetsil Pasha, 224 

Victor Amadeus, 237 

— Emanuel, 166, 234 

— Marshal, 68, XI4, 152, 153, 166 
Vid, The, 196 

Villaret, Adm., 237 

Villars, Marshal, 73, 130 

ViUeneuve, Adm., 49, 232 

Villeroy, Marshal, 68, 206 

Vincennes, 188 

Vinoy, Gen., 38 

Viscoati, Goi., 222 

Vitiites, 212 

Vladislas IV, xoa 

Von Alvensleben, Gen., 134, 233 

— Benin, Gen., 233 

— Bredow, Gen., 134 

— der Tann, Gen., 67 

— Francois, Gen., 236 

— Goeben, Gen., 218 

— Meerfeld, 133 

— Moltke, 177, 188 

— Steinmetx, 63 

— Stenau, Martial, 82, 302 

— TUmpUng, 38 
Vortigern, 24, 68 


Wacgon Hill, 130 
Wakamatsu, 177 
Walcberen Expedition, 90 
Waldeck, Prince of, 90 
Waldemar, a6x 
Wallace, CoL, 2x3 

— Sir William, 88, 238 
Wallenstein, X2, 76^ 238 
Waller, X2, 38, 69, 133, 174, 2x4 
Wallis, Count, X29 

Walpole, CoL, 26 

War of Chiofta, x6, 38, 199 

— of Granada, xo, xoo, X42, X43, 149 

— of Kiburg X7x 

— of the Austrian Sucoetsion, 33, 47, 48, 

31, 6r, 72, 76, X09, XX3, X32, X43, 

162,201, 2XX, 2X4, 221, J33, 2SX 

— of the Holy Leme, 4X, 207 

— of the League Above the Lake, 40 

— of the Polish Succession, 33, x88, 

X93, 203. 333 

— of the Quadruple Alliance, 49 

— of the Revcdutioo, 3, 39, X3X, X42» 

I73» 175. 237 . 

— of the Sonderbund, 98 

— of the Spanish Succession, 98, X40, 

145* i49t ISO, 2x3, 222, 236, 23X, 
232, 236, 262 

— of the Two Empires, 44, 6x, X04, xo8, 

Warren, Commodcce, X42 

— Sir Charles, 237 

Wacs of Alexanders Successon, 63, 67, 9Si 

XX3, X87, X90, XOX, 3X0, 223 

— of Charles V, 34, X89, soB, 3X3 

— of Louis XIV, 3X, 8x, X33, X78, 337, 


— of Philip Augustus, 39, 73 

— of the AcluMn League, 133, X38, 322 

— of the Prexxh Revolution, 7, 8,xx, 3X, 33, 

54. 37. 48, 49i 63. 8S> S6, 90. 96. 
X03, XXX, XX2, XX7. X54, X67. X73» 

174. 17?. 2x8f a»o* «3«» a5«f «53. 
«54. as©, 259. a66 

— of the Fronde, 36, 183, soo 

— of the Roses, 37, 36, 38, 83, 89, X07, 

xxo, x66, X78, 3x6, 337. t47, a5».«^ 
Warwick, Barl of, 37, 8x, X78 

— Lord, X53 
Warzburg, 34 

Washington. Geo»e, 3, 9, 97, xo3, 371 

Watson, Aom., 36 

Wauchope, Gen., X47 

Webb, Gen., 370 

Weimar. xx8, X78 

Wellington, Duke of, x8, 32, 33, 43, 63, 79f 

93, 178, X83, 304, 313. ai5. 2«9. 

333. 343. a63, 366 
Wells' Rebellion, 83 
Wens, Sir Robert, 83 
Werdan, 7, 73 
Wemeck, X74 

Weasels, Commandant, X34 
Weser, The, 107 


YMtmu Bi|p, Geo., 74 

Yoiau**! 117 

Yolk, Dttto of. '". 33. 31. '** 

WariDMi. ^7. 1'. ^I'l '"■" — 
WartamMn P™"* <* /3. ">i 
WTait'a Imonwitlin, 169 
WiH Col., 117 
WyldB, CoL. »« 

XboU. w, us 
Xein. 148 
XlmHiet, iSi 

Z»b«rg«i, Prinoe ol Bul«iri^ '5* 
Zwiul, 184 
Zild, ii» 
Zu». 1S4 „ 
ZarKiopi, Cm-. ). ■» 
Zutan, Goi.. lU 

z«ry» -'ni»y™. 'SJ 

ZaubU, IJ. Si. >» 

Zletbm, iji 

^Ks, Jotm, ij, TS. MS 

2oUb, Gen.. HJ 

Zotofl, G«D-, 9« , 

Zontmul, Aflin-. 77. 

Zul&a K 

I, Tbe S«l«od Piinting Wotki, FioiM, »■■ 

Sonnenschein's Standard Books 

of Reference 




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